martes, 19 de abril de 2016

Israelites in Eastern Asia: Japan... 3

The mochi, a traditional Japanese cake, is yeast free, just like the Israelites matzo: Leviticus 7:12 If he offer it for a thanksgiving, then he shall offer with the sacrifice of thanksgiving unleavened cakes mingled with oil, and unleavened wafers anointed with oil, and cakes mingled with oil, of fine flour, fried. Some versions say "cakes" while others say "loaves".

A possibility for the origin of the name "Hata" is its meaning in Japanese, which is "banner". In ancient Israel every tribe had its own banner, as the Lord prescribes ib the Torah. Hata is translated from Japanese as banner. Perhaps the Hata Israelites carried their own tribal, clannic, flag & banners were not as fashionable or extended in Japan, so they received that Japanese name because it drew the local Japanese atention that they took the flag everywhere they went. Perhaps the arrival of these Israelites extended the nowaday's widespread use of tribal flags. As the use of banners was extended in olden Israel, Japan has stood out as a country of great tribal banner culture. And not only tribal banners. Interestingly in the Greater Tibet (not just the current Chinese province of Tibet) area live an ethnicity, the Chiang Ming, whose religious lore is devoted so much to their ancestors that at the time of the sacrifice 12 flags are placed around an altar to remember that they descended from a father who had 12 sons. They are considered to be Lost Israelites & hence related to the Japanese Israelites.

The Ainu and Maori share many similarities in their history and culture, and recently efforts have been made for these peoples to learn from one another. Those motifs are similar also to those found among the fishing communities in Eastern Canada, Labrador and Greenland.

Having tens of thousands of adherents, the Makuya & Beit Shalom are the two most notable Japanese Jewish-leaning sects. Both have prophets that had visions. The Beit Shalom is Christian with a lot of Jewish coloring, but the Makuya is little by little giving up its Christianity & becoming more Jewish. Kampo Harada, the most important Japanese calligrapher feels as a lost triber. His surname Harada might derive from Hara, one of the cities of the Israelite captivity mentioned in the Bible, plus a later suffix "da".

Shinto shrines are often on top of hills to be closer to heaven.

A DNA test was done on Japanese natives (the ones that didn't immigrate from China a thousand years ago) and was found that they have similar proteins that are found in those in Africa and the Middle East.

Many of the descendants of the Hata Clan later spreaded out to all over Japan at the time of persecution, changing their names to Hatanaka, Hatano, Hatada, etc. It is difficult to say the percents of the Japanese that are from the Hata Clan, but there must be about several tens percents of the Japanese. There are many Hata descendants in Kyoto, Nara, Oita, Hyogo, etc. Kawakatsu clan (川勝氏 Kawakatsu-shi) was a Japanese clan that claimed descent from the Hata clan. In the Edo period, several of the clan's branches were hatamoto families.

Emperor Qin Shi Huang with Qin fasymbols. The Hata are said to be descended from Yuzuki no kimi, who was allegedly a descendant of Qin Shi Huang, the first emperor of the Qin Dynasty. This shouldn't be contradictory with an Israelite lineage, the Israelites were forward thinking people, tended to thrive and that's a major to mingling with ruling dynasties.

In Mediterranean & Middle East countries is traditional to dip bread in meals, as it's in Japan...

The Lembas are Israelites claiming to come from a location called Sena, a toponym regarded now to derive from the word Zion or Sion, a mountain that has identified with the Holy Land. The Japanese city's name of Sendai might derive from Sena plus dai added as a suffix.

Japanese Surnames With Hebrew Origin?

It's noteworthy that two of the main Japanese actors of the Fugu plan, Mitsuzo Tamura & Hokoshi Yasue, had Japanese surnames that were very Hebrew sounding.

Tamar/Tamara, meaning palm tree in Hebrew, is very similar to Tamura, one of the mentioned Japanese last names.

The palm tree serves in the Bible as symbol of prosperity (Psalm 92:12), or as signature element of an oasis (Exodus 15:27). In Biblical symbolic jargon, the character of a person is often associated with the tree this person sits under (Abraham under his oaks, Nathanael under his fig tree). The only female judge of Israel, namely Deborah, held seat under a palm tree (Judges 4:5), which seems to suggest that the palm tree symbolized justice, but of a particular feminine kind, if such a thing exists. But it would certainly render additional meaning to the story of Amnon's rape of his sister Tamar (2 Samuel 13:14). The lush town of Jericho was known as Ir-hatamarim, or the City of Palms (Deuteronomy 34:3, Judges 1:16). The feminine noun תמרה (timora), which are images of palm trees. In both the temples of Solomon and the temple of Ezekiel, these images of palm trees appear lavishly (1 Kings 6:29-35, Ezekiel 40:16-26).

As said before, Tamar means palm or palm tree, & palm trees are abundant in Japan. If we apply to Japan the meaning of oasis it also works because Japan was a land of gathering for a part of the Hebrew exiles.

For seafarers islands are like oases, as the seas are deserts for the seafarers as well. There are tens of scriptural passages saying that the islands (like Japan) are selected places for the gathering of the exiled Israelites, for example Isaiah 11:11 says: Then it will happen on that day that the Lord Will again recover the second time with His hand The remnant of His people, who will remain, From Assyria, Egypt, Pathros, Cush, Elam, Shinar, Hamath, And from the ISLANDS OF THE SEA.

The root-verb תמר (tmr) is the origin of Tamar & other words. As seen in the root-verb, consonants were the actual important (& existing) letters, really. When the Israelites spread throughout the earth they took with them Hebrew words. These might have described local plants, objects, situations... They likely remembered & used words of their former lands of sojourn as well. Eventually when they mixed up & immersed into the host culture some of these words & family names would probably stay, even if it was in an altered form or meaning. 

The Japanese surname Yasue happens to be one of the forms of the name Jesus in Arabic. Arabs usually name Jesus as Isa. However if they are Christians they also use the name Yasu & Yasue, which is closer to the original Jeshua/, used in Hebrew & Aramaic. In truth many, if not all of those so called Arab Christians, Assyrians, Chaldeans, Syriacs, Arameans, Mandeans...are in reality Israelites (often from the lost tribes) that converted to Christ, their promised Messiah. Except for the "Arab Christians", the rest speak different dialects of the same Aramaic language: Syriac, Chaldean, Mandaic, Assyrian... The Arab Christians clearly maintain a more conservative, less evolved, term, Yasu & Yasue, because they once had Aramaic as their mother tongue & were of the Lost House of Israel, not of Judah, the Jews. However in many cases, even mostly, in the Promised Land, the so called Arab Palestinians, they probably were of the very House of Judah. Out of the Holy Land many so called Arab Moslems are descendants of forcefully converted Christians (descended from Lost Israelite tribers & sometimes Jews), & in some cases, forcefully converted Jews. In the Holy Land happened the same conversion in mass to Islam, buy the majority of Palestinians would descend from Christian Jews & Jewish Jews.

It is believed that, at least one wave of Israelites were descended from Christian Aramaic speakers, having inhabited the Middle East as Christians (often Nestorians or from the churches of East). They would have travelled throughout the Silk Road, stopping for some centuries & & mixing with their host populations, becoming outstanding people in the countries they dwelled, especially Korea & then Japan. Perhaps this is the origin of the Japanese last name Yasue, even if eventually received a new meaning in the Japanese language & became related with new Japanese autochtonous concepts.

The Eta, the Dark Side of the Japanese Society

The Eta people are regarded as descendants of Israel. Like the Jews in Europe &  the Muslim world, they dwelled in separated villages & urban ghettos in Japan & exerted despised professions. As it's later explained the Eta are just a part of the Burakumin (lit. hamlet people).

Japan is one of the world's most advanced countries in terms of economy, education and technology. Their hard work and unyielding spirit is a hallmark of the Japanese nation. It's worth seeing the condition of the country and the people who developed into the prosperous nation they have now. But do you know if in Japan there is a remaining problem of discrimination ingrained in society, even to this day? 

Although now is not flashy, the distinction, especially in marriages and jobs is still there, especially outside of the Kansai region.

History of the Eta Caste

In Japanese feudal society the Eta were a people who occupied the lowest strata. The work of Eta is everything related to animal slaughter and death matters. Slaughtering of animals, undertaking, executing, leather tanning are public work of the Eta. The point is the work like slaughtering animals, or executing should be avoided. Eta literally means "those dirty / disgusting" (Filthy mass, Abundance of filth). It is associated with their work earlier. Because of that the Eta should not be living together with "normal people" and should stay in the waste areas.

Discrimination Against the Eta

They are not to coexist with other castes, so stay in the area of waste.

The above mentioned professions, including the affairs of death are a monopoly of the Eta. Many became wealthy from it.

They are mot entitled to have fields. It's positive, because the tax based on ownership of agricultural land (rice) makes them a tax-free people.

                                                                           Eta people

They have no right to worship in public temples. Only in temples provided especially for them.

In Japanese Buddhism they are often named with the word beast, humble, servant, and other insulting expressions in kanji.

The front of the caste must be polite and humble. In 1869 was even said that the Eta value was 1/7 worth a normal person in Japan. Caste people were not allowed to marry whoever they chose either.

Other Japanese Low Castes In Addition to the Eta

1.The Hinin (meaning not human) definition, as well as their social status and the typical work varies from time to time, but usually it includes former prisoners and homeless people who worked as town guards, street cleaners or entertainers.

2.The Kawaramono (dry, the river). Some low castes are also called kawaramono (dry, the rivers) because they lived along the banks of the river that could not be converted into rice paddies.

3.The Burakumin (people from small settlements). Burakumin is a Japanese term for people who are descendants of outcasts, especially Eta, Hinin and Kawaramono. Burakumin literally means "people from small settlements" where this refers to the settlement of the Eta separate from other castes in feudal society. Burakumin is a de jure (legal) term until the abolition of the caste system in 1871 that prevailed as part of the spirit of equality during the Meiji Restoration Era (beginning 1869). But until now the de facto discrimination against the Burakumin is still there. Discrimination against the Burakumin is still valid today although is more more carefully used:

It's found in the list of kyu-eta (simply eta formerly) citizens written, that then was replaced for shin-heimin (new residents) and lastly in the 1900-a tokushu-buraku (special residential list). Nowadays it's not used anymore.

Discrimination in Employment

Although the current descendants of burakumin can work anywhere, there are high positions which they can't sit upon.

Discrimination in Marriage 

The most tolerant is the Kansai region, except Osaka, Kyoto, Hyogo and Hiroshima. Conservative families do not allow their children marrying burakumin's descendants. In Japan is common hiring services of investigation origin, although it is illegal now. In the Kansai region currently 60% -80% people of burakumin descent married non-burakumin. In the 1960's only 10%.

But as mentioned before, in Osaka, Kyoto, Hyogo and Hiroshima, the stigma is still there. Burakumin are considered the mother of poverty, unemployment and crime.

Out of Yakuza (Japanese maffia) members, 60% were Burakumin according to a former member of the japanese intelligence's confession, Mitsuhiro Sugnuma. Of the members of the Yamaguchi-gumi (the largest Yakuza) 70% are Burakumin, according to David E. Kaplan and Alec Dubro in his book, Yakuza: The Explosive Account of Japan's Criminal Underworld. Japanese law requires all Japanese households to report the birth, parent's recognition, adoption, disruption of the adoption, death, marriage and divorce of Japanese citizens to their local authority, which compiles these records that include all Japanese citizens in their jurisdiction.

Marriage, adoption and recognition of the father into law was effective only if the event was recorded in the koseki. Birth and death becomes legally effective, but the incident must be filed by family members. In this Koseki is also listed the citizens' origin in  time of the old feudal society, so that everyone can be traced from the lineage of what caste it belonged to. 

Japanese law now prohibits people other than the owner and the government to access this data. In 1975 a list of books Tokushu Buraku Chimei Soukan (Comprehensive List of Buraku Area Names) circulated and were sold for between 5,000 to 50,000 yen. Generally, buyers are conservative families and companies. Reportedly large companies such as Toyota, Nissan, Honda and Daihatsu had this book. It is banned now though.

Because the investigation through the Koseki and Tokushu books had been banned, now families and old-fashioned companies, are still secretly hiring investigation services to know people's origin (although this is also an illegal activity)  in order to avoid choosing a buraku family, but it is too expensive because it's necessary to go under the law or through corporate officers.

Indigenous Japanese Traditions


Identifying early Shinto teachings which are originally Japanese is not easy because of the pervasive influence of Buddhism and Chinese culture. The most obvious 'doctrine' of Shinto is that deities (kami) inhabit particular sacred places in Japan. Some sacred sites are extremely ancient and clearly predate Buddhist influence, though the practice of constructing shrine buildings, many of which are similar to Buddhist temples, on or near the sacred sites may have come later. Founding legends (engi) explaining the origin of sacred places may be of local origin or reflect Chinese Buddhist or other sources. Descriptions of the age of the gods and the divine descent of the imperial clan found in early works such as the Nihongi and Kojiki, though influenced by Chinese ideas may be counted as local Japanese doctrines. Their original purpose was to legitimise imperial rule and they have contributed substantially to modern Shinto thought since their rediscovery by kokugaku scholars in the 18th century. It has been suggested that the Shinto idea of Yomi as the gloomy land of the dead derives from pre-Buddhist Japanese tombs (kofun). On the other hand some apparently indigenous Japanese beliefs (e.g. in the importance of shamanic women) have not prospered in Shinto.


According to kokugaku (National Learning) scholars and 19th century Shinto's own mythology about its origins, Shinto is the pure indigenous religion of the Japanese people who in turn constitute a unique and separate race descended with their emperor from the gods. Modern archaeological evidence however shows the influence of various population movements across Japan and several different layers of culture and civilization out of which Japanese religion and society as we know it emerged. Some ancient artefacts and symbols found in Japan have parallels in China, the Mediterranean and pre-Columbian America. If by Shinto we mean spontaneous reverence for sacred places, then some form of Shinto has probably existed as long as there have been people in Japan. However, by this definition 'Shinto' is a universal phenomenon of nature-worship not confined to Japan.


The shimenawa, a decorative rope of rice straw hung with strips of cloth or paper is often suspended under a torii at the portal of a shrine. It indicates the presence of the kami and probably predates Chinese influence. Shimenawa are found in many styles and sizes, ranging from thin strands of twisted rice straw to huge tapering hawsers. The simple and austere architecture of the Ise shrine, built in the shinmei ('sacred brightness') style also represents a pre-Chinese form of construction used for shrines and other buildings.


No contemporary adherents, although many 'folk' traditions claim ancient origins.

Non-Japanese sources of Shinto


Buddhist, Taoist, Yin-Yang and Confucian teachings all found their way into Japan from about the fifth century CE onwards and recur in various forms of Shinto. The periodic 'renewal' of shrines such as the Ise Daijingu, and even the names of the main parts of this most 'Shinto' of shrines (naiku: inner shrine, geku: outer shrine) have Taoist origins. The New Year visit (Hatsumode) to a Shinto shrine practised by about 80% of the Japanese population enacts the Taoist or Yin-Yang practice of travelling in a 'lucky direction', and the traditional Japanese calendar of auspicious and inauspicious days which is still widely acknowledged derives from Chinese sources. Unsurprisingly, given the pervasiveness of Chinese ideas in Japan, much of Shinto ethical and mystical thought and practice focuses on the stability of the social group and the purification of one's inner nature and is often strongly Confucian or Buddhist in origin or expression.

The most distinctive symbol of Shinto, the sign of the presence of kami, is the torii, an archway of wood, stone or simply poles and rope. The torii, which is found in many different styles (2, 3 or 4-legged, plain wood, red-painted, stone etc.) became part of shrine architecture after the introduction of Buddhism. The word torii is itself derived from a Sanskrit word. With some exceptions (such as the stylised simplicity of Ise) Shinto shrine architecture mainly reflects Chinese Buddhist and Confucian styles of temple building and decoration.


Eighty per cent of Japan's population of 120 million are classed as Buddhist.
Headquarters/Main Center None.

Yata no Kagami

Yata no Kagami (八咫鏡?) is a sacred mirror that is part of the Imperial Regalia of Japan. It is said to be housed in Ise Grand Shrine in Mie Prefecture, Japan, although a lack of public access makes this difficult to verify. The Yata no Kagami represents "wisdom" or "honesty," depending on the source. Its name literally means "The Eight Hand Mirror," a reference to its octagonal shape. Mirrors in ancient Japan represented truth because they merely reflected what was shown, and were a source of much mystique and reverence (being uncommon items). Japanese folklore is rich in stories of life before mirrors were commonplace.

                                     Artist's impression of the Imperial Regalia of Japan

In the Japanese mythology this mirror and the Yasakani no magatama were hung from a tree to lure out Amaterasu from a cave. They were given to Amaterasu's grandson, Ninigi-no-Mikoto, when he went to pacify Japan along with the sword Kusanagi. From there, the treasures passed into the hands of the Imperial House of Japan.

In the year 1040 (Chōkyū 1, 9th month), the compartment which contained the Sacred Mirror was burned in a fire. Whether that mirror was irrevocably lost or not, it is said to be housed today in Ise Grand Shrine, while a replica is enshrined in Three Palace Sanctuaries of the Imperial Palace in Tokyo.


Naoshi Onodera claims he is the legal and rightful emperor of Japan and that Emperor Akihito is descended from a group of illegitimate pretenders who were put up as puppet rulers by foreign cabalists who use the Satanic star as their symbol.

Naoshi Onodera holding what he claims is an 8000 year old Sumerian object, the Japanese imperial “Jewel.”

He says the sitting emperor is using fake replicas of the three ancient imperial treasures used to justify his position on the throne.

These items are known as the jewel, the sword and the mirror and are said to be the oldest inherited items on earth.

The real ones are in his possession and he is willing to have scholars and legal experts verify this and other evidence, Onodera says. This is an extremely important claim because it is intimately connected to the start-up of the new financial system and the possibility of fundamental regime change in Japan.

In recent years Japan has been controlled by a small clique centered around Hiroaki Fushimi, a distant imperial relative who has been trying to seize the throne and thus take control of the Japanese financial system.

As a part of this plot, Fushimi arranged the murder of Princess Masako’s fiancée Katsuhiko Oku in order to force her to marry the crown prince so that he could substitute one of his own children as Masako’s child and heir to the throne, according to several imperial family members. Oku, who worked for the North America Number 2 Division at the Japanese foreign ministry was sent to Iraq where he was murdered, they claim.

Fushimi has been an agent for Senior and has provided the Bushes with fraudulent financial documents, they say.

Emperor Akihito has been a powerless puppet manipulated by this clique which includes the Prince Hitachi, the imperial family sources say. Fushimi refused to confirm or deny these claims when reached through his secretary. This clique is now isolated and hiding in the Imperial Palace behind 6,000 uniformed guards.

However, since White Dragon Society members are part of the inner staff of the Imperial palace, they must surrender and allow Eijiro Katsu, the senior Ministry of Finance Bureaucrat and Bank of Japan Governor Masaaki Shirakawa to open up the Bank of Japan Black Screens and release the funding for the new financial system.

Japan’s Ministry of Finance will then receive an initial payment of $10 trillion to be used fort post-earthquake rebuilding and to set up a new International Economic Planning Agency. The issue of who has the ultimate legal claim to ownership of the vast hoards of Japanese Imperial Treasure that helps back up the new financial system will have to be decided by scholars and jurists at a later date because the new financial system needs to be started up ASAP.

The man on the spot with the actual legal signing rights is Eijiro Katsu so for now the sword of global destiny is hanging over his head.

In any case, Onodera is undeniably in possession of some extremely unique and historically valuable artifacts. The “Jewel” he holds above has an eight petalled flower carved on it. Onodera says this object has been in his family for 8,000 years and has its origins in ancient Sumer. The flower is the oldest known example of the eight pointed star or the seal of the prophets, he says. The other object he showed was the “sword.”

                                 The sword has an inscription on it saying it belongs to a king.

Onodera says it dates back to his Zhou dynasty royal ancestor from 1000 BCE. The sword is the oldest known Chinese sword, he says, and it is badly eroded. The third treasure, the “mirror,” dates back 2100 years and is originally from Korea, he says.

Apart from holding what he claims are three treasures of the Japanese Imperial throne, Onodera had many other interesting items such as this item:

Tibetan Kings used this to sacrifice virgins until Tibet was conquered by China a thousand years ago and the Chinese emperors put an end to the practice, he says.

The other point to be made about Onodera’s claims is that many of Japan’s Yakuza gangs and right wing organizations support him. Onodera has been under the protection of the Nichiren Buddhist sect and has kept his identity, he claims, secret until now.

According to Onodera, when foreign armies invaded Japan in the 1850’s and 1860’s, they found the Japanese government owned 3/4ths of the world’s known supply of silver. In order to get their hands on it, they supplied an impoverished Northern lineage with rifles that could shoot 400 meters while they sold the richer Southern “legitimate” lineage rifles that could only shoot 100 meters.

The symbol of the Northern Army’s flag was a 5-pointed star, the symbol of Lucifer, also known as Satan.

The Southerners were massacred and foreign banking families got their hands on some of the treasure. Ever since then, he claims, Japan has been run by these puppets of foreign financiers.

Onodera also makes a more startling claim. He says his family is directly descended from the biblical Abraham. His claims are backed up by the fact that the family tree of Abraham corresponds exactly with the family tree in the Japanese foundation myths.

To confirm this Onodera he has what he claims is the original stone tablet of the 10 commandments seen in the pictures below.

He says it was given to his ancestor by “celestial beings.”

Onodera says all of the items in his possession are available for expert scrutiny so long as he and his staff are able to monitor the objects at all times.

Needless to say, Onodera also has complex genealogical tables, documents and other evidence to back his claim to being the heir of the oldest known, still extant, royal lineage on earth.

Hebrew-Japan Connection

Some were dispersed and lost, but by no means were ALL the people of the northern tribes lost. Part of the tribe of Issachar returned to Israel from Bukhara. Many were dispersed by the Assyrians in the areas outside of Israel, but not very distant, and there remained contact between Israelites in Israel, and those not so far away.

The archaeological record shows dramatic increase in terracing of the Judean hills after the Assyrian invasion of the north, as refugees flooded into southern Israel (aka Kingdom of Yehudah), and room for settlement and growing food had to be found.

Could some Israelites have made it to Japan?

The children of Israel have made it to just about everywhere else, so why not. But the northern tribes are not exactly lost to us, and we always had some connection to them over the last 2600 years. It is right there in 2 Chronicles that many northerners fled into southern Israel (Yehuda), yet the mysterious Lost Tribe idea persists. No mystery, and not exactly lost. Some were dispersed, almost to all corners. The Israel stories of the Ireland and the British Isles are legion. Halls of Tara/Halls of Torah, Jacob's Pillow and the Stone of Destiny in Ireland, and the Stone of Scone in Scotland. Etc.

As numerous as mankind is today, numbers were very small if we go back, say, to the days of the Patriarchs Abraham, Isaac and Jacob. Estimates range from 20-25 million people of all description for the entire planet.

Simply put, the rich diversity of culture, language, religion, mythology and ethnicity was not nearly what it was to become later. The underlying memories and histories of mankind were all very similar sets of knowlege and belief of a few wandering groups of human beings with a single original starting-point.

Obviously, those of a Biblical faith, and those who are secular, can and do differ on many points. However both sides acknowlege that man had a very small number of core areas out of which ancient civilizations and cultures developed.

The Middle East, and the Fertile Crescent.

Anatolia being one of the most famous areas of first agriculture, first cities, pictographic and later alphabetic writing, record-keeping, regional government and organized states.

It is absolutely no surprise that a small number of people starting out from one area would share a lot of history and culture. As they spread out, their collective story goes with them. It might undergo change and transformation, and be added-to in new surroundings, but the ideational germ of the original narratives would not likely dissappear altogether.

Thus many solid bits & pieces of what the secularist might call myth and legend, and Biblically-minded folk collective history, do repeat in cultures around the small planet we all live on. For all cultures and ethnicities and nationalities to be unique in origin and development would be freakish--and is not the case in fact.

LANGUAGE is a key tool, and unfortunately modern linguistics had a start in a very anti-Semitic academic environment that was obsessed with Greece, Rome, Egypt & Persia. These western scholars jumped over the Semites, and the Semitic languages, in order to remove western civilization from the possibility of any Semitic cultural or lingustic roots (note the distain of the Nazi elite for both Torah Judaism AND Biblical Christianity!).

Israel and Hebrew were insignificant, tiny, and of no great importance to the great sweep of Westerndom for many academics pioneering the study of proto-Indo-European language. Europe -> Indus Valley region. A giant leap geographical, and a leap in faith as well, right over the entire Semitic world.

DEMOGRAPHICS: 2000 years ago the total world-wide Jewish population was around 10 million, while the entire population of the world was around 200 million. That is about 5% of the world--much, much higher than the portion of Jews today. We are around 14 millions out of a world population of over 7 billion.

What is important to note is that Jews were 25% of the population of the Roman empire in the eastern Mediterranean region, and about 10% of the entire empire. The role of ancient "Jews" or "Judeans", as the Graeco-Roman world ended up calling anciently, was much greater.

If we go back in time before the rise of the Graeco-Roman classical world, the proportion of Jews in the world may--I stress only the possibility--have been even greater than in the Roman period. In the Egyptian period, the Pharoahs worried about being overtaken by the Israelites then living in their Goshen provence.

Now we can go back to the largely unrecorded misty, mystical days of prehistory and see why far-flung peoples and cultures and ethnicities and nationalities have similar stories, all with an apparent middle eastern, or near by, origin.

It is still a bit taboo to suggest Semitic-Israelite linguistic and cultural elements spread around the world in other peoples and languages, but a small number of serious scholars, both Jewish and western, have looked seriously at what they perceive to be remnants of proto-Hebrew language in world languages, and of religious practices.

The children of Manasseh are coming home! Jewish 'Bnei Menashe' children ready to 'come home' from northern India as promised in Scripture: "I will bring your descendants from the East..." Isaiah 43:5-7
Typical Israelite home

We are witnessing a miraculous moment of history. The descendents of one of Israel's ten lost tribes are coming home according to the promise of Isaiah 43!

Here are the FACTS:

The 'Bnei Menashe' are an ancient Jewish community of 7,000 in northern India. After extensive investigation Israeli authorities have identified the Bnei Menashe as the direct descendants of the northern tribe of Manasseh, exiled by the Assyrians in 722 BC. Despite more than 2,700 years of exile, they've preserved their Israelite heritage...And for the past 5 years they have been waiting for approval to return 'home' to Israel!


The Christian Embassy has been given the privilege of sponsoring the first flight of Bnei Menashe families, expected to arrive in September. Each seat costs $1,200 and by the grace of God the ICEJ intends to sponsor all 270 new immigrants onboard! We are asking ALL of our Christian friends to be part of this history-making event!

Great civilizations, an alliance based on common American allies perhaps in future and an axis with India to counter China.

At that time, I will search out and destroy all of the nations who have come against Jerusalem - Zechariah 12:9

Seems to me like an exciting story. One (at least a portion) of the (Lost) Ten Tribes of the Northern Kingdom has officially returned! It is exciting. ICEJ is well-known in Israel as a strongly supportive Christian group. They are just reporting other peoples' work. As for the Israeli government, there is not exactly much published by them on this topic, and almost nothing in Hebrew (which is the language of our government documents). It is academic scholars who do most of the research, in fact almost all of it.

                 Symbol of Zion

Jews and non-Jews have been talking about this topic in its many forms for hundreds of years--it is not a new field of study. It does intrigue people. I live in the middle of the miracle of the Return of Israel from around the world to its own land. I've always been interested in where all of my people got too, even if the "Lost Tribe" idea is a bit confused. Internally, we have always known that many of our people are only half-hidden in various pockets.

What do you want to say about this Japan connection? I'd be interested to know. After all, this field has many theories and opinions, and claims to specific knowledge. Are there ideas that you support more than others? Many believe "white" or European peoples to be of ancient Israeli descent. Others look mostly to various Asian and African ethnic groups. You have brought up a Japanese connection.

What is clear is that anywhere up to several hundred million people around the world may have a significant direct blood/genetic relationship to Israel.

The part of all this that is connected to the future for us, is that we are bringing various survival communities of Israel home, if quietly. Many do feel that neither the Askenazim nor the Sefardim have any right to monopolize the name "Israelite" at the expense of Israelites isolated as long as 2700 years ago from the main stream.

When I was a child, we used to think that God would sort out the "lost" ones, because we could only identify some of these disattached tribes. People sometimes forget that we are tribal in origin, much like the Iroquois of the American northeast, and less like a modern nation-state like Denmark or Ireland. We could go back to tribalism in a heart-beat!

Menashei/Manasseh was the Big Res, and was all on the east side of the Jordan. If too many come home, we'll have to move back across the Jordan to find space for them! Efra'im, too was east. We must look to the future. THIS IS THE FUTURE!, especially for Israel.

What do you want to say about this Japan connection? After all, this field has many theories and opinions, and claims to specific knowledge." There's a Hebrew identifier in the Japanese DNA that the Koreans and Chinese do NOT have. Both Japanese and Chinese history have mentions of a large migration to Japan in the ancient times.

We have all kinds of detailed discussions on the genetic models used to determine Jewishness, and even what defines being a Jew from a spiritual standpoint, and how this all relates to us in Israel, now and in the future. No one is surprised or shocked to fined elements of ancient Israelite populations around the world. As we say in Hebrew, that is YADU'AH KVAR, well-known and common knowledge.

We've long ago determined with genetic studies that Ashkenazim and Sefardim in all their geographical locations, far from each other and far from Israel, were still a middle-eastern people. Not Slavic, not Germanic, not Turkic, etc. Maybe this is a surprise, and therefore astounding new information to people who believe themselves now to be Israelite. Many people in Israel every year are certain that they are Israelites. Maybe they are!

                                                 Hilltop fortress of Masada in the Holy Land

So, down to the Japanese and Y-Chromosomes! This topic is huge, and how anyone interested in it handles the genetic and historical and ethno-cultural literature is critical. And of course is difficult to avoid diving deep into the chromosome pool, since this is a genetic matter, after all. Any Hebrew words found in Japanese suggest the wide-spread migration of ancient Israelites, but not necessarily the Jewishness of the Japanese. It should show up in the genetics. All the supporting ethnic and linguistic evidence needs to rooted, eventually, in the chromosomes.

The genetic research in Israel is real. What people do with it may be the problem. As is often the case, scientists do research and give results. Lay people who do not understand the science then draw more and different conclusions. Apparently, they know more about the science than the scientists. But the actual genetics is not in question--it is sober science.

Get the Free DVD at the end of the main article. It is very informative. In North East India, in the land mass that lies between Myanmar (formerly Burma) and Bangladesh, there lives a small group of people who have been practicing Judaism for more than 27 years. They have not taken on a "new" religion. These people, in fact, have returned to the religion of their ancestors. They call themselves Bnei Menashe, descendants of the Tribe of Menashe, one of the ten lost tribes. Also known as the Shinlung, the Bnei Menashe relate their history of exile from the Northern Kingdom of Israel in 721 B.C. across the silk route finally ending up in India and Myanmar (Burma). The story of these people is an amazing one. After thousands of years of exile they have rediscovered their roots and are returning to Judaism.

It is in Israel that the vast majority of work is being done and collated. This is not a new or an obscure subject. There's all kinds of research material and commentary on these outlying communities. This is already a well-know, well-developed, even popular area of interest in Israel. let's be careful to say "10 lost tribes" which were not lost, but only partially so. Remnants went down into Judea, and settled.

The following is from after the so-called dispersion of the northern 10 tribes. Yet remnants remained, and participated in a delayed Passover Seder with the southern tribes. Thus, all 12 tribes are linked to Judea. 2 Chronicles 30 New American Standard Bible (NASB) All Israel Invited to the Passover:

30 Now Hezekiah sent to all Israel and Judah and wrote letters also to Ephraim and Manasseh, that they should come to the house of the Lord at Jerusalem to [a]celebrate the Passover to the Lord God of Israel. 2 For the king and his princes and all the assembly in Jerusalem had decided to celebrate the Passover in the second month, 3 since they could not celebrate it at that time, because the priests had not consecrated themselves in sufficient numbers, nor had the people been gathered to Jerusalem. 4 Thus the thing was right in the sight of the king and [b]all the assembly. 5 So they established a decree to circulate a [c]proclamation throughout all Israel from Beersheba even to Dan, that they should come to celebrate the Passover to the Lord God of Israel at Jerusalem. For they had not celebrated it in great numbers as it was [d]prescribed. 6 The [e]couriers went throughout all Israel and Judah with the letters from the hand of the king and his princes, even according to the command of the king, saying, “O sons of Israel, return to the Lord God of Abraham, Isaac and Israel, that He may return to those of you who escaped and are left from the [f]hand of the kings of Assyria. 7 Do not be like your fathers and your brothers, who were unfaithful to the Lord God of their fathers, so that He made them a horror, as you see. 8 Now do not stiffen your neck like your fathers, but [g]yield to the Lord and enter His sanctuary which He has consecrated forever, and serve the Lord your God, that His burning anger may turn away from you. 9 For if you return to the Lord, your brothers and your sons will find compassion before those who led them captive and will return to this land. For the Lord your God is gracious and compassionate, and will not turn His face away from you if you return to Him.” 10 So the [h]couriers passed from city to city through the country of Ephraim and Manasseh, and as far as Zebulun, but they laughed them to scorn and mocked them. 11 Nevertheless some men ofAsher, Manasseh and Zebulun humbled themselves and came to Jerusalem. 12 The hand of God was also on Judah to give them one heart to do what the king and the princes commanded by the word of the Lord.

                                                    Israel's camp with all the tribes of Israel

Israelis know of the Jews in N.E. India, they are in process of making Aliyah though they don't face any problems in India. N.E. India is a rather disturbed region, our soldiers there don't get much gallantry awards or recognition, harsh but the government does not wish to highlight the issue leading to some of our helpful neighbors adding in. PRC already lends their "helping" hand by tying to take areas off our hand.

1. The "Lost 10 Tribes" is a term used by historians, even Jews themselves. 2. Yes, remnants of the Northern Kingdom escaped to the Southern Kingdom during the invasions. They were absorbed into the Tribes of Judah and Benjamin. Yes, some of them (a very small amount) will claim that they are descendants of one of the Northern Kingdom tribes. The key word is "remnants", this is not most or whole. That is why the term "Lost 10 Tribes" is used, because the majority of them is un-known to as where they were sent to. Even the Jews of today will say this. They use the same term. 3. Even today, most of the Jews don't know what tribe they are from! 4. Jew's have lost contact with their Northern Kingdom brothers since the Assyrians conquered the Northern Kingdom. Even when the Jews where exiled into Babylon (modern day Iraq), and then some transferred to Persia (modern day Iran), there is no historical documentation of them meeting up with the Northern Tribes. The Northern Tribes did NOT return with the Jews to Israel, when Ezra and Nehemiah lead them back. Supposedly, Ezra wrote about them being taken to the land of ARZARETH (Hebrew means 'another land' or 'land far away'), that was a year and half journey. 5. This is just information I have come across. 6. The websites are the same as finding a book, thesis, report ,etc. This ishow research is done nowadays. 7. How did Israel keep contact with them for a thousand years? There was no type of mass communications then as now. The Jews have mostly been "bottled-up" in the areas that they where exiled to! That's what started the distinction of Ashkenazi and Sephardic Jews. They had also lost the Hebrew language during the time of exile. 8. Yes, 2 Chronicles 30, King Hezekiah called all the Israelite's to the Passover. There was a remnant of the Northern Tribe left. It had to be those that somehow and somewhere were left behind. How could slaves so far away have the freedom to make a Passover visit to Jerusalem?

The Kagome Crest at Ise Grand Shrine While, you can see the same design as the Shield of David (Star of David), the symbol of the Jews, in various places in Japan. In Mie prefecture, Japan, is located Ise grand shrine which was built for the Imperial House of Japan, and a symbol which looks very much like the Shield of David is carved on all the lamps along the approaches to the shrine.

Two representations of the Kagome crest, Japanese Star of David on ancient Japan sites. They are NOT commentaries! Facts!

The Japanese call it Kagome crest, which means basket reticulation in Japanese. This was named because the crest looks like the reticulation of Japanese traditional bamboo basket. The lamps at Ise grand shrine were built and offered from the donators to the shrine after the World War 2. The Kagome crest is also carved at a monument of Manai shrine, the former (original) Ise grand shrine located in Kyoto. This monument is also offered to the shrine.

In Japan, people have been using crests which look like the Shield of David since very old days. For instance, Asa-no-ha crest, which also resembles the Shield of David, has been used widely as symbols for clothes since about Kamakura-era (the 12-14th century C.E.). And Kagome crest was used by Komiya clan and Magaribuchi clan, etc., who are descendants of emperor Seiwa (the 9th century C.E.). We can also see the symbols which resemble the Shield of David as regalias of several cities of Japan.

Magaribuchi is a Japanese place name & surname. A water dam is named Magaribuchi. As a surname is not very widespread. Komiya is a relatively numerous Japanese surname. It's so spread out that 20% of people with this surname are in the USA.

The Asanoha crest is quite extended in Japan. It's in napkins, rice bowls, dresses. It supposedly represents a stylised hemp leaf. Up until World War 2, when it was made illegal without a special licence, hemp was widely grown and used as a fibre in Japan and the asanoha pattern has been a popular design for hundreds of years.

Because hemp was known for its rapid growth, initially it was often used for the clothes of newborn babies. Now the pattern is seen in many guises. It appears, though, that the memories of hemp culture, which endured in Japan for several thousand years, may have largely been lost.

                            ‘Six pointed star’ pattern on an enmusubi from Kifune Shrine, Japan

Depending on the orientation of the asanoha pattern the symbol looks more, or less, like a traditional six pointed star. While the pattern is based on overlapping hemp leaves, given its symmetry (lacking in a hemp leaf), there may be some association with stars and/or the elements that has been lost over time.

There is also a stand-alone version of the six pointed star in Japan which may have a connection to the asanoha pattern. This version of the six pointed star, known as the kagome crest in Japan, can be found in some of the oldest Shinto shrines. For example, at the Ise Grand Shrine that was built for the Imperial House of Japan, a symbol resembling the six pointed star is carved on the lamps along the approaches to the shrine. There are various theories about the origin of the single six pointed star in Japan.

                         Seimei Shrine Kyoto where the five pointed star is the dominant symbol

We can also see symbols which resemble the Shield of David as regalias of several cities of Japan. The regalias of Nishi-no-miya city (Hyogo prefecture), Oomuta city (Fukuoka), Otaru city (Hokkaido), Wakkanai city (Hokkaido), and Fukuchiyama city (Kyoto) are all in the shape of 6 pointed star, and resemble the Shield of David very much.

Ancient Japanese Possibly Had a Belief in Yah-weh

A major difference between the Shinto religion and Judaism is the Shinto believe in many gods and the Judaic believe in one true God. However, unlike modern Judaism, the ancient religion of Israel, especially of the Ten Northern Tribes, inclined to idol worship and polytheistic belief (belief in many gods). They not only believed in G-d Yah-weh, they also believed in other gods such as Baal, Asytaroth, Molech. Shinto's polytheistic belief system appears to have been derived from the polytheistic inclination of ancient Northern Israel. Shinto scholars state that the Shinto god, "Susanoh," resembles Baal in several aspects, and the Shinto female god, "Amaterasu," resembles Asytaroth.

Until 40 decades ago, at Mt. Inomure in Ooita prefecture, Japan, people had a ceremony to beg for rainfall. They put wood together in the shape of a Star of David for making the foundation. On it, they constructed a tower made of tree branches, and on its top, they put a bamboo pole tangled with a slough of snake. They burned the tower and prayed for rainfall. This is reminiscent of the story of the ancient Israelites burning incense to the bronze serpent (made by Moses) on the pole until the reign of the King Hezekiah (Melachim II 18:4).

Although Shinto is a polytheistic religion, there is the possibility that ancient Shinto had once believed in Yahweh as well.

The first born among the Shinto gods is called "Amenominakanushi-no-kami." This god is said to have appeared first, live in the midst of the universe, had no shape, did not die, was the invisible master of the universe, and was the absolute god. He resembles the Biblical God as the Master of the Universe.

Archaeologists state that the religions of Babylon and Egypt had originally believed in one god called "the god of sky," who seemed to have a connection to the Biblical "God of heaven." Later, their religions degraded to the polytheism. We can safely say the same thing happened to the Shinto religion. I suppose that the ancient Shinto religion had the belief in G-d Yahweh, but later degenerated into polytheism. The Japanese people should come back to believe in one true God whom the Bible teaches.

Mr. Tsujii, told the following incident. A friend of Mr. Tsujii, who was a passionate Shinto believer, came to him. The Shinto believer had read the Torah and said excitingly: "I read the Torah. I was very surprised to learn about the religious ceremonies of ancient Israel. They are the same as Shinto's. The festivals, the Temple, the value of cleanness, all of those are the same as Shinto's!" Then, Mr. Tsujii said to him: "Yes, that is what I have also noticed. If you have discovered it, why don't you believe in the God whom the Bible teaches? I believe that is the way to establish and recover the true Shinto religion in which you believe." Hearing this, the Shinto believer was too surprised to say anything else for a while. Mr. Tsujii's words echo my own belief. I pray that all Japanese people may return to the belief in the God of the Bible, because He is also the Father of the Japanese nation. Festivals of Japan Resemble those of Ancient Israel.

Currently the Japanese celebrate the new year on January 1st, but historically the lunar calendar was used, when January 15th was the official date for the new year's celebration. It is a Japanese custom during the celebration to eat "mochi" (rice cakes) throughout the seven days. This is similar to Judaism, for the Bible states: "And on the fifteenth day of the same month (first month) is the Feast of Unleavened Bread to the Lord; seven days you must eat unleavened bread." (Leviticus 23:6) The recipe for "unleavened bread" is the same for Japanese "mochi," because if you use rice as the ingredient instead of wheat flour, it would become Japanese "mochi." The Hebrew word for unleavened bread" is "matzah."

Most likely it is not accidental that these two words sound alike. Furthermore, the Japanese people eat porridge with seven kinds of bitter herbs during celebration. In historical times people ate the herbs on January 15th. The ancient Israelites also ate "with bitter herbs" on the 15th of the first month (Shmos 12:8). In Japan, the "Gion" festivals take place at many locations during the summer. The most important is the one held at the "Yasaka-jinja" Shinto shrine in Kyoto. The festival in Kyoto continues throughout July each year. However, the most important part of the festival is held from July 17th to 25th (We Japanese call it "the seventh month"). July 1st and 10th are also important. This has been a tradition since ancient times. But the 17th of the seventh month is the day that Noah's ark drifted to Ararat: "Then the ark rested in the seventh month, the seventeenth day of the month, on the mountains of Ararat." (Breishis 8:4)

It is likely that the ancient Israelites had a thanksgiving feast on this day. However after Moses, it was replaced by the Feast of Booths (harvest festival), which is held on the 1st, 10th day of the seventh month, and during 8 days from the 15th of the seventh month (Bamidbar 29:1, 7, 12, 35). The "Gion" festival in Kyoto started with the wish that no pestilence would occur among people. This is similar to what King Solomon stated, in the wish that no pestilence would occur in the country. The Israeli feast continued for 8 days (including the last meeting day) from the 15th of the seventh month (Divrei Hayamim II 7:8-10).

Over 120 years ago, a business man from Scotland, N. Mcleod, came to Japan to investigate the customs. He wrote a book entitled "Epitome of Japanese Ancient History." In the book, he wrote that the "Gion" festival in Kyoto greatly resembled Jewish festivals. Rabbi Tokayer made a similar comment. He said that the name "Gion" reminds him of "Zion" which is another name for Jerusalem. In fact, Kyoto used to be called "Heian-kyo," which means "city of peace." Jerusalem in Hebrew also means "city of peace". "Heian-kyo" might be Japanese for "Jerusalem." At the "Gion" festival in Kyoto, the people start the festival with a shout of "en-yara-yah." Japanese do not understand the meaning of this word.

But, Eiji Kawamorita, a Japanese scholar who mastered Hebrew, wrote in his book that the word seemed to be a Hebrew expression "eni ahalel yah" which means "I praise Yah-weh (the Lord)." Similarity Between the Biblical Genealogy and Japanese Mythology There is a remarkable similarity between the Biblical article and Japanese mythology. A Japanese scholar points out that the stories around Ninigi in the Japanese mythology greatly resemble the stories around Jacob in the Bible. In the Japanese mythology, the Imperial family of Japan and the nation of Yamato (the Japanese) are descendants of Ninigi, who came from heaven. Ninigi is the anscestor of the tribe of Yamato, or Japanese nation.

While Jacob is the anscestor of the Israelites. In the Japanese mythology, it was not Ninigi who was to come down from heaven, but the other. But when the other was preparing, Ninigi was born and in a result, instead of him, Ninigi came down from heaven and became the anscestor of the Japanese nation. In the same way, according to the Bible, it was Esau, Jacob's elder brother, who was to become G-d's nation but in a result, instead of Esau, G-d's blessing for the nation was given to Jacob, and Jacob became the anscestor of the Israelites. And in the Japanese mythology, after Ninigi came from heaven, he fell in love with a beautiful woman named Konohana-sakuya-hime and tried to marry her. But her father asked him to marry not only her but also her elder sister.

However the elder sister was ugly and Ninigi gave her back to her father. In the same way, according to the Bible, Jacob fell in love with beautiful Rachal and tried to marry her (Breishis chapter 29). But her father says to Jacob that he cannot give the younger sister before the elder, so he asked Jacob to marry the elder sister (Leah) also. However the elder sister was not so beautiful, Jacob disliked her. Thus, there is a parallelism between Ninigi and Jacob. And in the Japanese mythology, Ninigi and his wife Konohana-sakuya-hime bear a child named Yamasachihiko. But Yamasachi-hiko is bullied by his elder brother and has to go to the country of a sea god. There Yamasachi-hiko gets a mystic power and troubles the elder brother by giving him famine, but later forgives his sin. In the same way, according to the Bible, Jacob and his wife Rachal bear a child named Joseph. But Joseph is bullied by his elder brothers and had to go to Egypt. There Joseph became the prime minister of Egypt and gets power, and when the elder brothers came to Egypt because of famine, Joseph helped them and forgives their sin. Thus, there is a parallelism between Yamasachi-hiko and Joseph.

Similarity between the biblical genealogy and Japanese mythology And in the Japanese mythology, Yamasachi-hiko married a daughter of the sea god, and bore a child named Ugaya-fukiaezu. Ugaya-fukiaezu had 4 sons. But his second and third sons were gone to other places. The forth son is emperor Jinmu who conquers the land of Yamato. On this line is the Imperial House of Japan. While, what is it in the Bible? Joseph married a daughter of a priest in Egypt, and bore Manasseh and Ephraim. Ephraim resembles Ugaya-fukiaezu in the sense that Ephraim had 4 sons, but his second and third sons were killed and died early (Divrei Hayamim II 7:20-27), and a descendant of the forth son was Joshua who conquered the land of Canaan (the land of Israel). On the line of Ephraim is the Royal House of the Ten Tribes of Israel.

Thus we find a remarkable similarity between the biblical genealogy and Japanese mythology - between Ninigi and Jacob, Yamasachi-hiko and Joseph, and the Imperial family of Japan and the tribe of Ephraim. Furthermore, in the Japanese mythology, the heaven is called Hara of Takama (Takama-ga-hara or Takamano-hara). Ninigi came from there and founded the Japanese nation. Concerning this Hara of Takama, Zen'ichirou Oyabe, a Japanase researcher, thought that this is the city Haran in the region of Togarmah where Jacob and his anscestors once lived; Jacob lived in Haran of Togarmah for a while, then came to Canaan and founded the Israeli nation. Jacob once saw in a dream the angels of God ascending and descending between the heaven and the earth (breishis 28:12), when Jacob was given a promise of God that his descendants would inherit the land of Canaan. This was different from Ninigi's descending from heaven, but resembles it in image. Thus, except for details, the outline of the Japanese mythology greatly resembles the records of the Bible.

It is possible to think that the myths of Kojiki and Nihon-shoki, the Japanese chronicles written in the 8th century, were originally based on Biblical stories but later added with various pagan elements. Even it might be possible to think that the Japanese mythology was originally a kind of genealogy which showed that the Japanese are descendants of Jacob, Joseph, and Ephraim. Impurity During Menstruation and Bearing Child The concept of uncleanness during menstruation and bearing child have existed in Japan since ancient times. It has been a custom in Japan since old days that woman during menstruation should not attend holy events at shrine.

She could not have sex with her husband and had to shut herself up in a shed (called Gekkei-goya in Japanese), which is built for collaboration use in village, during her menstruation and several days or about 7 days after the menstruation. This custom had been widely seen in Japan until Meiji era (about 100 years ago). After the period of shutting herself up ends, she had to clean herself by natural water as river, spring, or sea. It there is no natural water, it can be done in bathtub. This resembles ancient Israeli custom very much. In ancient Israel, woman during menstruation could not attend holy events at the temple, had to be apart from her husband, and it was custom to shut herself up in a shed during her menstruation and 7 days after the menstruation (Vayikra 15:19, 28). This shutting herself up was said "to continue in the blood of her purification", and this was for purification and to make impurity apart from the house or the village. This remains true even today.

There are no marital relations, for the days of menstruation and an additional 7 days. Then the woman goes to the Mikveh, ritual bath. The water of the Mikveh must be natural water. There are cases of gathering rainwater and putting it to the Mikveh bathtub. In case of not having enough natural water, water from faucet is added.

Modern people may feel irrational about this concept but women during menstruation or bearing child need rest physically and mentally. A woman herself says that she feels impure in her blood in the period. "To continue in the blood of her purification" refers to this need of rest of her blood. Not only concerning menstruation, but also the concept concerning bearing child in Japanese Shinto resembles the one of ancient Israel. A mother who bore a child is regarded unclean in a certain period. This concept is weak among the Japanese today, but was very common in old days. The old Shinto book, Engishiki (the 10th century C.E.), set 7 days as a period that she cannot participate holy events after she bore a child.

This resembles an ancient custom of Israel, for the Bible says that when a woman has conceived, and borne a male child, then she shall be "unclean 7 days". She shall then "continue in the blood of her purification 33 days". In the case that she bears a female child, then she shall be "unclean two weeks", and she shall "continue in the blood of her purification 66 days'" (Vayikra 12:2-5). In Japan it had been widely seen until Meiji era that woman during pregnancy and after bearing child shut herself up in a shed (called Ubu-goya in Japanese) and lived there. The period was usually during the pregnancy and 30 days or so after she bore a child (The longest case was nearly 100 days). This resembles the custom of ancient Israel. In ancient Israel, after this period of purification the mother could come to the temple with her child for the first time. Also in the custom of Japanese Shinto, after this period of purification the mother can come to the shrine with her baby. In modern Japan it is generally 32 days (or 31 days) after she bore the baby in case of a male, and 33 days in case of a female. But when they come to the shrine, it is not the mother who carries the baby.

It is a traditional custom that the baby should be carried not by the mother, but usually by the husband's mother (mother-in-law). This is a remarkable similarity of purity and impurity of the mother, after childbirth, with ancient Israelite custom.

A Possible Remnant of the Celebration of Circumcision

If the ancient Israelites came to Japan, do the Japanese have the custom of circumcision? According to a rumor circumcision had been performed within the Imperial family of Japan.

Currently, we cannot see the custom of circumcision among Japanese citizens, but a traditional Japanese custom exists known as "O-shichi-ya," which means 7th night. On the 7th night from the day a baby was born, the Japanese parents have a celebration to introduce the baby to relatives and friends and let them know the name of the baby. The 7th night is, according to the Jewish way of counting days, the 8th day from the day the baby was born, because it is from the sunset that the next day starts in the Jewish calendar. This is reminiscent of the Jewish custom of circumcision on the 8th day.

The Israelites gathered on the 8th day, that was usually the 7th night from the day a boy was born. The parents introduced the baby to relatives and friends, circumcised him, introduced his name and rejoiced his birth together. During the 7 days he has no name, just like in the Japanese custom.

From the Study of Blood Types Professor Tanemoto Furuhata, who is the authority on forensic medicine at Tokyo University wrote in his book that surprisingly, the blood types of the Japanese and the Jews are very similar. Apparently a professor at Paris University had discovered that the "Y" chromosome of the Japanese is the same size as that of the Jews. I expect that further research will be done by many individuals.

To Shinto shrine Japanese people bring rice, Mochi (Japanese Matzah), Japanese liquor (Sake), cereals, vegetables, fruits, confectioneries, salt, water, fish (sea bream, etc.), and bird (pheasant meat, etc.) as their offerings to G-d and place them in the Holy Place of the Shrine. These must be the best ones, and the fire for cooking them must be a holy one lit by flint or heat of rubbing. The offerings are displayed beautifully on a table of wood and the priest prays to G-d in front of it.

After the ceremony the priest and participants are to eat the offerings. In that, modern Shintoists find significance that man eats with G-d or dines with G-d. In the Holy Place of the Israelite tabernacle or temple, there was also a table of wood on which the bread made of cereals of the land, liquor (wine), and incense were offered (Shmos 25:29-30). These offerings to G-d had to be the best ones. The priest prayed to G-d and after the ceremony the offerings, which had been offered to G-d, were eaten by the priest and his family (Devorim 18:11). And in the Bible there is an article that Moses and the leaders of Israel "ate and drank" in front of G-d on Mt. Sinai (Shmos 24:11).

The Bible does not mention the concept of "dining with G-d" though, later, Jews in Talmudic times find significance of dining with G-d. With a few exceptions, meat of four legged animals is generally not offered in Shinto religion. The most common offerings are firstfruits, salt, fish as bonito, Mochi (Japanese Matzah), rice, liquor (Sake), seaweeds, etc. Usually most of them are Kosher, or permitted foods in the Jewish dietary laws. But in modern Shinto, shellfish is sometimes offerred (Abalone is offered at Ise grand shrine).

This is non-Kosher and the Jews not only never eat it, but also never offer it to G-d. How was it in the start of Japanese Shinto? In the Holy Place of the Israelite tabernacle or temple, there were also lamps which were never extinguished (Shmos 27:20-21), since they were holy fire. There is also an eternal light burning in every synagogue to this very day. In the same way, in the Holy Place of Japanese shrine, there is holy fire as lamps lit by divine means. Placing fire as lamps and the table with offerings on it in the Holy Place of the Shinto shrine resemble the Holy Place of ancient Israelite tabernacle. Thus the functions of the Holy Place and the Holy of Holies of the Japanese shrine are very similar to the ones of ancient Israel.

It is noteworthy that the liquor is indispensable for both Israelite and Japanese shrines. Like the liquor was offered in the Israelite temple, the liquor is offered in the Japanese shrine. The Bible says that the drink offering shall be of "wine, one-fourth of a hin" (Leviticus 23:13). "A hin" is about 6 liters, and apparently its one-fourth is about the quantity of the liquor which is offered in grand shrines of Shinto.

The Land of Far End

There is a book called the Forth Book of Ezra, which was written in the end of the first century C.E.. Although this is not the Bible but just one of the ancient Hebrew documents, an interesting thing is written: "They are the Ten Tribes which were off into exile in the time of King Hosea, whom Shalmaneser king of Assyria took prisoner. He deported them beyond the River and they were taken away into a strange country. But then they resolved to leave the country populated by Gentiles and go to a distant land never yet inhabited by man, and there at last to be obedient to their laws, which in their own country they had failed to keep. As they passed through the narrow passages of the Euphrates, the Most High performed miracles for them, stopping up the channels of the river until they had crossed over. Their journey through that region, which is called ARZARETH, was long, and took a year and a half. They have lived there ever since, until this final age. Now they are on their way back, and once more the Most High will stop the channels of the river to let them cross." (13:39-47)

This article was mentioned in the form of a vision and we cannot immediately think that this is a historical fact. But it is possible to think that there was some fact which became the background for this article. There might be the news or oral tradition that the Ten Tribe of Israel started their journey to the east and settled to a land of a year and a half distance away. Where is ARZARETH which the Ten Tribes are said to have gone to? We cannot find the same name in the world by looking at the map. Dr. Schiller Szinessy suggests that this is nothing else but the Hebrew words "eretz ahereth" (ARZ AHRTh) which means the otherland.

Or, if we interpret this as the Hebrew words "eretz aherith" (ARZ AHRITh), they mean the end of land, or most far away land. Not a few people thought that Japan might be the land. Using Water and Salt for Sanctification In Japanese Shinto they have a custom to use water or salt for sanctification. Most of the Japanese shrines are built near clean river, pond, lake, or the sea. This is to do sanctification there. In Shinto, water is to purify man. In ancient Israel they had this custom, for the Bible says that before priest serves at holy events or at the temple, he has to "wash his clothes" and "bathe in water" (Numbers 19:7). So, it was also an ideal in ancient Israel that they have clean water near a worship place.

Japanese Shinto priests also wash their clothes and bathe in water before they serve at the shrine. Buddhist priests generally do not have this custom. In the Shinto religion they also use salt for purification. Japanese Sumo wreslers sow the Sumo ring with salt several times before they fight.

Western people wonder why they sow salt, but the Jews get the meaning immediately that it is to purify the ring. In Japan, salt is used to purify the holy place of shrine, or to purify Omikoshi. And when you go to a Japanese-style restaurant, you will sometimes find some salt put near the entrance. The Western people wonder why, but the Jews get the meaning immediately that this is for purification. Even today, the Jews have a tradition of welcoming a new neighbor or distinguished guest with salt. If a world leader were to visit Jerusalem, the chief rabbi would welcome him at the entrance to the city with Hallah (Jewish bread) and salt.

Jews start each meal by salting bread, this makes every meal table an altar. Meat is "Koshered" by putting salt on the meat to remove all the blood. In Japan they offer salt every time they perform a religious offering. So is the offering at Japanese feasts. Salt is not offered in Buddhism. Offering salt is again the same custom used by the Israelites, for it is written in the Bible that one has to offer salt with all his offerings (Leviticus 2:13). In Judaism, salt is very essential. Talmud (the wisdom of Judaism) confirms that all sacrifices must have salt. Salt is preservative. While, honey and leaven were prohibited with sacrifices since they symbolize fermentation, decay and decomposition, the opposite of salt. There is the words "the everlasting covenant of salt" in the Bible (Numbers 18:19). Salt has meaning of anti-decay and permanence, and symbolizes the everlasting holy covenant of G-d.

The Temple of Jerusalem had a special salt chamber, and Joshephus, a Jewish historian in the first century C.E., records a Greek king making a donation of 375 baskets of salt to the temple. According to Zen'ichiro Oyabe, Japanese people before Meiji-era had the custom to put some salt into baby's bath. The ancient people of Israel washed a new born baby with water after rubbing the baby softly with salt; there is a description about "rubbing baby with salt" in the Bible (Ezekiel 16:4). Salt has cleansing and hygienic power and newborn babies were rubbed with salt. Thus, there was the common custom of sanctification in both ancient Israel and Japan, and for this sanctification water and salt were used in both countries.

Uncleanness of the Dead

In Japan, salt in a pouch is distributed to participants of a funeral. After the funeral, when the participants come back and enter their houses, they have to be sprinkled on themselves with the salt for purification. Ancient Israelites who touched a dead body or went to a funeral also had to be purified in a specific way; the Bible says that a clean person shall take hyssop and dip it in the water, sprinkle it on the persons who were at funeral , or on the one who touched a bone, the slain, the dead, or a grave (Numbers 19:18). Thus in Israel the person who touched the dead had to be purified himself.

Even today, you find water outside a Jewish cemetery and outside the home, so people who are returning from a cemetery or funeral can wash their hands before entering the house. Before one goes to a funeral, one prepares water outside the home, so you can wash before reentering your home.

Also in Japanese mythology, it is written that deity Izanagi went to the world of the dead (called Yomi in Japanese) to take his dead wife back, and when he came back from Yomi, he bathed in water of a river and purified himself from the impurity of the dead. In addition this Yomi, Japanese Shinto's world of the dead, is very much like Sheol which is the world of the dead mentioned in the Bible. The very important feature of Japanese Shinto is that it has the concept of uncleanness or impurity of the dead. A house which has the dead, or a person who went to a funeral is said to have touched the uncleanness.

Western people do not have this concept. This uncleanness is not material but religious or ritual. This Shinto concept is the same as was in ancient Israel, for the Bible says that the one who touches the dead body of anyone shall be "unclean seven days" (Numbers 19:11). In Shinto religion, a person with his/her family dead or relative dead is regarded unclean for a certain period. In the period, the person cannot come to a shrine, which was also a custom of ancient Israel.

Buddhist funeral is held inside the temple, but Shinto funeral is held always outside shrine not to bring impurity into it. And the Shinto priest who participated the funeral does not bring things he used at the funeral into the shrine. Even when he has to bring in, he purifies them and then brings them. He has to purify himself, too.

Also in ancient Israel, funeral was never held at the temple. The Bible records that the Israelites wept and mourned for "30 days" at the death of Moses and at the death of Aaron (Deuteronomy 34:8, Numbers 20:29). While a Japanese ancient Shinto book called Engishiki, which was written in 10th century C.E., set a period of 30 days for the uncleanness that a person cannot participate holy events, and set a period of 7 days for uncleanness of death of a fetus of within three months and death of a person lacking a part of the body.

Thus, the Shinto concept of uncleanness of the dead resembles the custom of ancient Israel. Impurity During Menstruation and Bearing Child Not only the uncleanness of the dead, but also the the concept of uncleanness during menstruation and bearing child have existed in Japan since ancient times. It has been a custom in Japan since old days that women during menstruation should not attend holy events at shrine. She could not have relations with her husband and had to shut herself up in a shed (called Gekkei-goya in Japanese), which is built for collaboration use in village, during her menstruation and several days or about 7 days after the menstruation.

This custom had been widely seen in Japan until Meiji era. After the period of shutting herself up ends, she had to clean herself by natural water as river, spring, or sea. If there is no natural water, it can be done in a bathtub. This resembles the ancient Israelite custom very much.

In ancient Israel, women during menstruation could not attend holy events at the temple, had to be apart from her husbands, and it was custom to shut herself up in a shed during her menstruation and 7 days after the menstruation (Leviticus 15:19, 28). This shutting herself up was said "to continue in the blood of her purification", and this was for purification and to make impurity apart from the house or the village. This remains true even today. There are no sexual relations, for the days of menstruation and an additional 7 clean days.

Then the woman goes to the Mikveh, ritual bath. The water of the Mikveh must be natural water. There are cases of gathering rainwater and putting it to the Mikveh bathtub. In case of not having enough natural water, water from faucet is added. It may very well be that Jews and Japanese are the only ones to observe certain period of separation during and after the menstruation, and to have similar concept of uncleanness and purification.

If so, it is a very interesting and ignored proof of ancient contact of the two peoples. Modern people may feel irrational about this concept but women during menstruation or bearing child need rest physically and mentally. Woman herself says that she feels impure in her blood in the period. "To continue in the blood of her purification" refers to this need of rest of her blood. Not only concerning menstruation, but also the concept concerning bearing child in Japanese Shinto resembles the one of ancient Israel. A mother who bore a child is regarded unclean in a certain period. This concept is weak among the Japanese today, but was very common in old days.

The old Shinto book, Engishiki (the 10th century C.E.), set 7 days as a period that she cannot participate holy events after she bore a child. This resembles an ancient custom of Israel, for the Bible says that when a woman has conceived, and borne a male child, then she shall be "unclean 7 days".

She shall then "continue in the blood of her purification 33 days". In the case that she bears a female child, then she shall be "unclean two weeks", and she shall "continue in the blood of her purification 66 days'" (Leviticus 12:2-5). In Japan it had been widely seen until Meiji era that woman during pregnancy and after bearing child shut herself up in a shed (called Ubu-goya in Japanese) and lived there.

The period was usually during the pregnancy and 30 days or so after she bore a child (The longest case was nearly 100 days). This resembles the custom of ancient Israel. In ancient Israel, after this period of purification the mother could come to the temple with her child for the first time. Also in the custom of Japanese Shinto, after this period of purification the mother can come to the shrine with her baby.

In modern Japan it is generally 32 days (or 31 days) after she bore the baby in case of a male, and 33 days in case of a female. But when they come to the shrine, it is not the mother who carries the baby. It is a traditinal custom that the baby should be carried not by the mother, but usually by the husband's mother (mother-in-law). This is a remarkable similarity of purity and impurity of the mother, after childbirth, with the ancient Israelite custom.

Altar of Earth While

Instead of stone, earth is sometimes used for religious worship. Nihon-shoki records that the first Japanese emperor Jinmu took earth from Mt. Ameno-kagu-yama, made many bricks from it and made an altar for worshiping G-ds. It seems that ancient Israelites also made altars from earth, for the Bible says, "An altar of earth you shall make for me (G-d)" (Shmos 20:24) Altar could also be made of earth. In case of the altar made of earth, it meant that it was made of bricks. The history of brick is very old; in the Near East many bricks were already used even in the time of the Tower of Babel, about 4000 and several hundred years ago (Genesis 11:3). It seems that the Israelites sometimes made bricks from earth and made altars of bricks. But compared with stone, brick is weak and easily decomposed by time, so archaeologists have not yet found any altar of bricks in Israel, but were found in other Near East countries.

Bronze Serpent

When the Israelites were wandering the desert after their Shmos from Egypt, they met a flock of serpents and many people were bit and died. The poison was very strong like a fire. To save the people, Moses made a bronze statue of a serpent according to the commandment of G-d and set it on a pole so that the people could look at it, and when one who had been bitten by serpent looked at the bronze serpent, he lived (Bamidbar 21:9). After this incident ended, this bronze serpent had been in the safekeeping among the Israelites.

                                                                           Bronze Serpent

The exsistence of this statue was never bad as long as the faith of the Israelites were sound. But when the Israelites degraded later, they began to worship the bronze serpent as their idol rather than to worship the true G-d. As a result Hezekiah, a king of the southern kingdom of Judah in the 8th century B.C.E., broke the statue to stop the idolworship. The Bible records that he broke in pieces the bronze serpent that Moses had made; for until those days the Israelites "burned incense to it" (Melachim II 18:4).

                                                          Ancient Israelite men travelling

It was before this when the Ten Tribes of Israel were exiled to Assyria (722 B.C.E.). So it seems that the Ten Tribes had the custom of worshiping the bronze serpent when exiled. At a Shinto shrine on Mt. Inomure, Ooita prefecture, until about 40 years ago, there had been a unique feast for begging rainfall, in which they firstly make a foundation by constructing 6 trunks of tree into the shape of the Shield of David, then on it they pile up a lot of branches and make it a tower, and on top of it they put a vertical pole with a slough of snake twining round it. People burn the branches and the tower and pray for rainfall. They burn incense to the snake expecting a supernatural power from it. I saw the scene on a video and this reminds us of the custom of ancient Israel to worship the bronze serpent.

Besides, G-ds which are worshiped in Japanese Shinto shrines are sometimes snakes. This might have some connection to ancient Israel.

Customs of the First Month

The Japanese traditionally celebrate a new year magnificently. They also do Obon feast on July 15 or August 15 every year as a national event. They have a saying, "It is as if Obon and a new year came together" which means very very busy.

These two events are the most magnificent ones throughout a year in Japan. Looking at the new year first, on January 1st many Japanese people begin to gather together at shrines even before dawn. And on January 1st they sit a happy circle with family and eat Mochi (Japanese Matzah).

They eat Mochi for 7 days and on the 7th day they eat porridge with 7 kinds of bitter herbs. Today, the Japanese use the solar calendar; the New Year's Day is January 1st and the day of eating porridge with 7 herbs is January 7th. But historically the Japanese used the lunar calendar, when the New Year's day was the 15th of the first month because on that day was the first full moon. It is a remnant of this that today January 15th is called Small New Year's Day (Koshougatsu in Japanese). This day was also called "New Year's Day of Mochi". New Year's celebration was a feast of Mochi.

And the night of January 14 is called New Year's Eve of the 14th Day. In the time of the lunar calendar, the 15th day of the first month was a national holiday. According to Zen'ichiro Oyabe, before the 12th century C.E., the Japanese had eaten porridge with 7 bitter herbs on the 15th day of the first month, and on the following days they performed events to pray for good harvest of the new year.

This is similar to the custom in ancient Israel. They celebrated the Feast of Unleavened Bread throughout the "7 days" "from the 15th day of the first month", when they ate the unleavened bread (Vayikra 23:6). The unleavened bread, which is "matzah" in Hebrew, is a very thin bread prepared by kneading and baking without using yeast or leaven. The way of preparing Japanese Mochi is similar to this except for using rice instead of flour. Israelite "matzah" and Japanese Mochi are very similar each other in pronunciation as well as in meaning, recipe and purpose. And the Israelites ate with "bitter herbs" on the 15th day of the first month (Shmos 12:8). Thus, just as the ancient Japanese ate with 7 bitter herbs on the 15th of the first month, the Israelites ate with bitter herbs on the 15th of the first month. In the Jewish calendar, the 15th day of the first month, that is the first day of the feast, is full moon and the Sabbath (Leviticus 23:7).

On the next day of this Sabbath, the Israelites offered firstfruits and prayed for a good harvest of the year (Leviticus 23:11).

The Japanese clean their houses thoroughly before the coming of New Year's Day. When the Jews look at it, they think, "This is the same custom as ours!" for they also had to clean their houses thoroughly before the Feast of Unleavened Bread, for the Bible says, "you shall remove leaven from your houses" (Shmos 12:15). So they had to purge all the houses and remove leaven from them. Passover among the Jews in India is called Holiday of Cleaning the House and they remove all leaven and clean the house.

Obon Feast

Next, let us look at the Obon feast. In Japan they have an event called Obon on July 15 or August 15. In the time they used the lunar calendar it was held on the 15th day of the 7th month. Today Obon is regarded as one of the events of Buddhism, but since time long before Buddhism was imported to Japan, there had been a feast called Tama-matsuri which was the original of Obon.

When Buddhism was imported to Japan, this Tama-matsuri was took in the events of Buddhism and became Obon. In ancient Israel on the 15th day of the 7th month was a big feast called the Feast of Booths (harvest feast, Vayikra 23:39). Today the Japanese use the solar calendar and in many cases they now hold the Obon feast on the 15th day of the 8th month.

Strangely this was the day when the harvest feast was held in the northern kingdom of Israel of the Ten Tribes. The Bible records that Jeroboam, the king of the northern kingdom, ordained a feast "on the 15th day of the 8th month" like the feast which was in the southern kingdom of Judah (Melachim I 12:32). It was an Israelite tradition since ancient times to have the harvest feast on the 15th day of the 7th month, but King Jeroboam rejected this tradition and ordained a new day for the harvest feast on the 15th day of the 8th month.

                                                                  Obon festival lanterns

In Israel, the Feast of Unleavened Bread (New Year) and the Feast of Booths (harvest feast) on the 15th day of the 7th month (or 8th month) were the most magnificent events throughout a year. Similar to this, the Japanese have been performing magnificent feasts at the same times as these. In Japan today, the 15th day of the 8th month is also the memorial day of the end of the last war. Full Moon On the 15th Day In Japan there is also a custom called Juugo-ya, which means 15th night, on the 15th day of the 8th month in the Japanese old lunar calendar. This is during September-October in today's solar calendar. This corresponds to the 15th day of the 7th month (Tishri) in the Jewish calendar, which is the day of the Feast of Booths.

When the Japanese are celebrating Juugo-ya, the Jews are celebrating the Feast of Booths. On this day, the Japanese often build a booth, gather together there with family, put Japanese pampas grass to a vase, offer harvest of the season like dumpling, taro, pear, etc., and enjoy the beauty of the full moon in Autumn. In Israel, on the 15th day of the 8th month in the northern kingdom of Israel, or on the 15th day of the 7th month in the southern kingdom of Judah, they built a booth, gathered together there with family, offered harvest of the season, rejoiced the harvest looking the beauty of the full moon in Autumn (Vayikra 23:39-42).

Offering Harvest

In Japan they have an elegant custom to offer firstfruits of harvest to G-d. They offer the firstfruits of cereals and fruits or a part of what they first get from their production. Kanname-sai is a feast in October at Ise grand shrine to offer firstfruits to G-d. The ancient Israelites also had the custom of offering first fruits, for the Bible says that the first of the firstfruits of the land shall be brought to the temple (Shmos 34:26). It is interesting to note that in Ise grand shrine in the time of Kanname-sai feast, the clothes, tables, and tools which are used in the service are all renewed. They do this in the sense of coming into a new year. In Judaism also, the month of the harvest feast (Tishri, September-October) is the time of a new year. About a month after the Kanname-sai feast of Ise grand shrine, a feast called Niiname-sai is held at the Imperial House of Japan. Although the name is different, this is also the feast of offering a part of harvest.

Niiname-sai feast is held as follows; the feast begins at 6 p.m. and ends at around 1 a.m.. It is held at night. The emperor offers the harvest to G-d and after that, he eats them in front of G-d. By this ceremony the emperor is given from G-d the role as the leader of the nation.

                                                                Japan Rice Harvest Ritual

In ancient Israel, the leaders of Israel - Moses, Aaron, 70 elders, etc. - also ate in front of G-d (Shmos 24:11). And the Niiname-sai feast which the emperor performs for the first time after he ascended to the throne is especially called Daijou-sai feast which is a larger Niiname-sai feast, when special booths are built for offering harvest.

In the Daijou-sai feast of today's emperor Akihito, there were also simple but large booths built, and after the ceremony they broke the booths and burned them. Daijou-sai feast is also held at night. Akihito's Daijou-si was held from 6:30 p.m. to the next morning. The emperor offered the harvest and ate in front of G-d. In ancient Israel and also today, the Jewish Feast of Booths begins at sunset. The Israelites came into the booths, decorated with harvest products, ate in front of G-d and rejoiced together.


There are several similarities between the Japanese Shinto way of wedding and the Jewish way of wedding. In Shinto wedding, the bridegroom and bride drink from the same cup of liquor (Japanese Sake). In the same way in the Jewish wedding the bridegroom and bride drink from the same cup of wine, although this is not Biblical but Talmudic (the 3-6th century C.E.). In the Jewish wedding today, after drinking wine, the bridegroom breaks a wine glass. This is to remember that the Temple of Jerusalem is destroyed. This custom started after the Temple of Jerusalem was destroyed in 70 C.E., and the Israelites before that did not have this custom of breaking the glass. In Shinto wedding the bride has a shawl on her head and hides half of her face. The shawl is to the hight of her eyes today, but in old days, this was to hide all of her face (called Kazuki in Japanese). In old days, this shawl was also put when a Japanese woman attended a shrine.This custom of shawl was also seen among the ancient Israelites.

In the Bible, Jacob, the ancestor of the Israelites, thought that he had married Rachel, though the bride was in fact not Rachel, but her sister Leah. It was due to darkness and the shawl on her face that he could not distinguish her. Even today, the Jewish bride puts a veil on her face in wedding . The Ancient Israelite woman had the custom to put a shawl and hide her face when she comes out. Every time she came to a synagogue, she had to put a shawl on her head.

                                                                  Ancient Israelite woman

It is also an important feature of Shinto that every Shinto priest is married. There is no rule in Shinto to make priests single. In modern Japan, most of Buddhist monks are married but this is a custom since Meiji-era. Before then, it was the custom of Buddhist monks to be single. Every Buddhist monk outside Japan is single. Catholic father is single. But Shinto priest is married. This is a tradition from time immemorial. So was the ancient priest of Israel. So is the rabbi of modern Judaism.

Concerning Japanese marriage, a Japanese woman told her memory. One day, her mother told her about the marriage of her aunt. After the aunt's husband was killed in a war, the aunt, who did not have any children then, married her husband's brother who had been at that time unmarried. About this marriage, the mother told her, "This is a traditional custom of Japan," but then she thought that today is the age of free love and it is consequential to marry whom one loves, and she could not understand what the mother said. However she said that later she was surprised knowing that this is the same as a Jewish custom. It is true that this is the same as a Jewish custom, for the Bible says that if brothers dwell together, and one of them dies and has no son, the wife of the dead shall not be married outside the family to a stranger; her husband's brother shall go to her, and take her as his wife, and perform the duty of a husband's brother to her (Deuteronomy 25:5). In Japan today, we don't see this custom usually anymore, but it seems that this custom had been performed widely in Japan until recent time.


In Japan they have a traditional thought of atonement similar to the one of ancient Israel. In Old Shintoism, there is a ceremony of atonement called Ooharai, which is a ritual to expel all the sins and impurity of the nation. In the ceremony of Ooharai, the emperor comes there wearing a white linen clothes, which means a shabby figure. After the ritual, the clothes are placed on a small boat and let flow the river. People look at it flowing and vanishing from their sight, when a prayer is chanted that the Imperial Family of Japan came from heaven (Takama-no-hara or Takama-ga-hara) and started to reign the country of abundant nature, the archipelago of Japan, but there are many sins raise up among the nation and we have to dispose them, however these sins are strong and it is hard to dispose, so we have to have specific days for atonement and the emperor do a ritual of atonement and purification for the nation. That is why the emperor performs a ritual of letting his white linen clothes bear all the sins of the nation and letting them flow the river to abandon.

And among the citizens, priests of shrines give all the people's sins to white papers which are cut in the shape of a man and let them flow the river. Ancient Japanese people thought that they could not come into a new year without the atonement of their sins. Ooharai atonement is held twice a year on June 30th and December 31st every year at shrines and the Imperial House of Japan.

                                                                    Ooharai Atonement

The Jews have actually two New Year's Days in their Jewish calendar: One is the first day of the seventh month, and another the first day of the first month (the former is based on the creation of the world, and the latter on the Shmos). The thought of Ooharai is similar to the thought of the Hebrew Scriptures. This Japanese custom resembles the Israelite custom of the scapegoat, which was a ritual held by the high priest of Israel at the temple of Jerusalem. The high priest prayed laying his hands on the head of the goat, let the goat bear all the sins of the people of Israel, took the goat to a solitary land, and looked at the goat vanish beyond the horizon, when the people were grateful for that, their sins were taken away with the scapegoat to a land which cannot be seen and that G-d would not also look at their sins anymore. This ceremony was held every year (Leviticus chapter 16).

In Japan they also have a custom called Nagashi-bina, which is an atonement ceremony to let dolls with sins attached flow the river. Basically the concept of Japanese Ooharai and Nagashi-bina seem to be similar to the concept of Israelite scapegoat. Furthermore, a Japanese Shintoist points out that the kinds of sin mentioned in the prayer of Ooharai atonement are very similar to the kinds of sin mentioned in the book of Leviticus.

In the prayer of Ooharai, the kinds of sin mentioned are, "injuring a living person, injuring a dead body, leprosy, hunchback, fornication with mother, rape of one's own child, rape of mother and child, fornication with animal, magic, etc.." These are very similar to the kinds of sin mentioned in Leviticus, which forbids the sins of injuring other person's body or one's own body (19:28), and profaning the dead body. The persons with leprosy (13:10-11), hunchback (21:20), or other deformity could not serve at the temple of G-d (21:17-23). Rape or fornication with mother, with one's own daughter, or with animal are of course forbidden (18:6-23). So is the sin of magic (Deuteronomy 18:11). Thus, the sins mentioned in the prayer of Japanese Ooharai are very similar to the ones mentioned in the Hebrew Scriptures.

Custom of Kanka and Jewish Passover

Jews have a holiday called Passover. This originates from the Book of Shmos in the Bible, and reminds that more than 3000 years ago, the Israelites, who had been slaves in Egypt, went out of Egypt under the leadership of Moses. There was an incident called Passover at the night just before they went out from Egypt. When occurred a disaster of death upon the first son of every house in Egypt, the disaster passed over all the houses of the Israelites. The Israelites killed lamb under the commandment of G-d and put the blood to their gates. They soaked a bunch of hyssop with the blood and applied it to the gates. The houses with the blood were passed over by the angel of death. The Israelites grilled and ate the lamb at the night.

The similar custom is seen in the area of Ryuukyuu, Japan. A Christian leader, Juuji Nakada, wrote about 70 years ago that in Ryuukyuu, there was a custom to drive all bad things away by killing cattle and putting the blood to the gates of houses. This custom is called Kanka. Nakada thought that the reason why they used not sheep but cattle in Kanka custom was that there were no sheep in Japan. According to the school board of Okinawa they have in fact this custom & it's called Kanka or Shimakusarashi (meaning driving away). They kill cattle, soak the blood with a plant as Japanese pampas grass or leaves of mulberry, and apply the blood to their gates, four corners of their houses, and the entrance of the village not to let bad things come in.

                                                       Israelite making copies of the Torah

They grilled and ate the cattle on the day. This reminds us of the custom of Passover in ancient Israel. And apparently the Japanese word Kanka means passover. We can see the Kanka custom even today, but today in many towns the cattle is replaced by a pig.

Why a pig? The answer is that in the past, they were prohibited to kill cattle, so they changed to pig (There is an article in Okinawa Daihyakka Jiten (Okinawa encyclopedia) published by Okinawa Times). Kanka custom is held mainly in the second month and eighth month in the Japanese old lunar calendar (2-3 times a year). The second month in the Japanese lunar calendar corresponds with Spring - March or April in the solar calendar, and it's interesting that this is about the same season as Jewish Passover feast. According to the Bible, the lamb for the Passover was killed on the 14th day of Nisan (Abib) in the Jewish calendar, and this corresponds with March or April in the solar calendar.

Putting off Shoes and Washing Feet

The Japanese emperor performs the Daijou-sai (the big harvest feast) after his accession to the throne, when he changes his clothes to white ones and comes forward to G-d with his feet naked. There he receives an oracle of G-d and becomes a true emperor and leader of the nation. This is similar to an event in the Bible. When Moses came forward to G-d, he put off his shoes and became barefoot (Shmos 3:5). So did Joshua (Joshua 5:15). There they received the oracle of G-d and became true leaders of the nation. When the Japanese come into their house, they put off their shoes, too. Islam is an Abrahamic religion like Christianity & Judaism. In Islam they also take their shoes off before entering a mosque. Western and the Chinese come into their home with their shoes on, but the Japanese do not.

                                        Indoor shoes & outdoor shoes in Japanese building

According to Zen'ichiro Oyabe, until the beginning of Meiji-era (about 100 years ago), there was a custom in Japan to prepare a washtub with water or hot water for a person who walked outside to wash his/her feet before entering the house. Oyabe says that this is a traditional custom peculiar to Japan and not the one they learned from other Asian countries. The ancient Israelites had the custom of washing their feet; there are several descriptions about washing feet in the Bible (Judges 19:21, etc.). Washing feet before entering a house was a daily custom of the ancient Israelites. In the New Testament Jesus washes His apostles' feet as well.

Horses Dedicated to the Sun

In Japanese Shinto religion, the sun Goddess Amaterasu is worshiped as the ancestor deity of the Imperial House of Japan and as the supreme deity for the nation of Japan. Ise grand shrine is built for Amaterasu. If you look at the inside of Ise grand shrine, near the entrance you will find horses dedicated to the sun Goddess Amaterasu. These horses are not just ordinary ones but are the horses which the Imperial House of Japan dedicated to the sun Goddess.

The horses are to be put beautiful clothes on, brought to a holy place of the shrine three times a month and bow their heads to the sun Goddess. This is a tradition since ancient times in Japan, and also in Israel, for the Bible records that King Josiah, of the southern kingdom of Judah, removed the "horses" that the kings of Judah had "dedicated to the sun" "at the entrance to the house of the Lord", and he also burned "the chariots of the sun with fire" (2 Kings 23:11).

This horse dedication is mentioned only once in the Bible, and it is amazing that this ceremony also existed in Israel. King Josiah, who reigned 639-608 B.C.E., did a religious reformation and removed the custom to dedicate horses to the sun.

Until that time, such a pagan custom had been performed throughout generations by kings. This was after the Ten Tribes of Israel were exiled to Assyria. It seems that this custom to dedicate horses to the sun had also been performed in the northern kingdom of Israel, because pagan customs in the southern kingdom were almost without exceptions performed also in the northern kingdom. The custom of dedicating the horses to the sun in Ise grand shrine might originate from this. And in many other shrines in Japan, you will find a place where many plates of wood are hung, on which horses are painted. Words of people's prayer are also written on them and these plates are called Ema in Japanese meaning horse painting.

A priest of a shrine taught that in old days people dedicated a living horse but later it became difficult to keep and was substituted by the custom to dedicate the plates of horse painting.

Dedicating of horses was very common in Mesopotamia and this could show a connection to Israel or its neighbors.

The Renewal of Taika

In ancient Japan there was an awful conflict concerning the reign of Japan between the Shintoists and Buddhists; so called the conflict between Mononobe clan (Shintoists) and Soga clan (Buddhists). Once the Buddhists had the power to reign but later in the time of the Renewal of Taika (645 C.E.), the Shintoists recovered the power to reign. In the Renewal of Taika we find appearance and disappearance of the relation with ancient Israel because it was the time of recovery of the Shintoists.

For instance, the declaration of the start of a new age of the Renewal of Taika by the new government was in the beginning of the 7th month. The Japanese ancient chronicles, Nihon-shoki, records that on the second day of the 7th month they set a new princess and it seems that the first day of the 7th month was actually the beginning of the Taika era.
                                                           The origins of the Taika Era

The first day of the 7th month is the New Year's Day for the Jews. They celebrate it (the first day of Tishri) as the New Year's Day but it is the Sabbath, so they cannot work except for religious things. It was the first day of the 7th month that the priest Ezra let people listen to the Torah and started his religious reformation among them in the 5th century B.C.E. (Nechemiah 8:2).

But except for this kind of religious events, the official events must be from the second of the 7th month. And Nihon-shoki records that the new government sent messengers "on the 14th day of the 7th month" to offer their traditional religious offerings for Shinto G-ds. This is the day, in the Jewish custom, to prepare for G-d the religious offerings for a Jewish big feast, the Feast of Booths. This coincidence is amazing.

This is not everything. In the Renewal of Taika, a new law started for distributing lands to people. This law, which continued until about 900 C.E., was that the government were to redistribute lands to citizens every 6 years. The model for this was a Chinese law but in the Chinese law the redistribution was when a farmer became 60 years old or when he died, and was not every 6 years. Then, why did the Japanese government redistributed the lands every 6 years? In ancient Israel, there was a law to use lands 6 years and during the 7th year the lands had a rest (Vayikra 25:3-4).

This was to avoid continual farming and weakening of the lands and it seems that this Hebrew law became a model for the law of redistributing at the Renewal of Taika. Someone guesses that the Japanese might have used the 7th year for the redistribution of the lands. And in this redistributing, the size of the land was determined according to the number of people of the family.

This was the same in ancient Israel, where the size of the land of inheritance was determined according to the size of the number of people of the tribe (Bamidbar 26:54).

The Imperial Edict of the Renewal of Taika Resembled the Laws of Moses

Besides, among the laws which started at the Renewal of Taika there are many which make us feel an association with the laws of the Torah. For instance, in the Laws of Men and Women of the Renewal of Taika, it is written that: "Give the child who was born between a male slave and a female slave to the mother, female slave." This was the same in ancient Israel. The master gave the child who was born between a male slave and a female slave to the mother, female slave, and the male slave had to go out alone (Shmos 21:4). And in the page of the Messenger at the Renewal of Taika, it is written: "Collect double from the one who got unjustly."

This means to collect double of the amount of money from the one if he got something which is not his by lying that it is his unjustly. This is the same as a law of the Torah, for the Torah says that penalty for stealing is to pay double (Shmos 22:9). In the page of the Abolition of Old Customs at the Renewal of Taika, it is written: "Abolish the custom that a living person cuts his hair or spears his thigh for the dead."

Among many nations are the custom that a living person injures himself for the dead. In Taiwan, they have a festival in which people injure themselves and shed blood. It was true also in Japan but the Renewal of Taika forbade it. This was the same as a law of the Torah, for the Torah says that one shall not make "any cuttings in his flesh for the dead", nor "tattoo" any marks on him (Vayikra 19:28). Jews are forbidden by the Bible to cut the body and to tatoo.

                                                                  High Israelite priest

Shinto priests do not tatoo nor cut the body. Also in the laws of the Torah it was forbidden that a priest or a citizen shaved the hair of the head (Vayikra 21:5, 19:27). Buddhist monks shave their heads, but Shinto priests do not. It is interesting to note that in the same page of the Abolition of Old Customs, it is written about justice: "Even if there are three definite witnesses, all should state facts and then bring the case to the officer. Do not sue recklessly." Here why does it say "three definite witnesses"?

It seems that in this background is a thought that there should be at least two or three witnesses, but even if in the case there are three witnesses they should not sue recklessly; they should state detailed facts before suing. This is associated with a law of Moses, for the Bible says that one witness shall not rise against a man concerning any iniquity or any sin that he commits; by the mouth of "two or three witnesses" the matter shall be established (Deuteronomy 19:15).

This is because the word of one witness could be a lie to entrap the suspect. Also in the page of Abolition of Old Customs, it is written: "Until now there has been a trend that, for instance, during a man entrusts a horse to a person, the horse dies accidentally because of the person's fault, the man requires too much compensation from him." And the law of the Renewal of Taika forbade this kind of requirement for compensation.

This is the same spirit as mentioned in a law of Moses, for the Bible says that if a man delivers to his neighbor a donkey, an ox, a sheep, or any animal to keep, and it dies, is hurt, or driven away, no one seeing it, then an oath of the Lord shall be between them both, that he has not put his hand into his neighbor's goods; and the owner of it shall accept that, and "he shall not make it good" (Shmos 22:10-11). Thus the laws promulgated at the Renewal of Taika are very similar to the laws of Moses.

Did the Ancient Japanese Speak Hebrew?

In Kojiki, Nihon-shoki and other ancient documents, we find many words similar to Hebrew in both meaning and pronunciation. For instance, the first Japanese emperor Jinmu gave leaders of area the title "Agata-nushi"; "Agata" means area and "nushi" means leader. Also in Hebrew "agudah" means group and "nasi" means leader (In modern Hebrew it is nasi-agudah). In Japanese an emperor is called with a title "mikado", which sounds like Hebrew words "migadol" meaning the noble. Every Japanese emperor is called with a title "mikoto", which sounds close to a Hebrew word "malhuto" meaning kingdom or king. Every Japanese emperor is also called with a title "sumera mikoto", which has no specific meaning as a Japanese word, but if we interpret it as a Hebrew phrase "shomron malhuto", it means Samaria his kingdom or king of Samaria.

The ancient name for a Japanese Shinto priest is "negi", while a Hebrew word "nagid" means leader. The ancient Japanese name for a tomb of emperor or empress is "misasagi", while a Hebrew word "mut sagar" means to close the dead. A researcher interpreted the Hebrew word for Canaan (ancient word for the land of Israel) as a combination of "qanah nah" which means field of reed, while the ancient Japanese called their country "Ashihara" which means field of reed in Japanese.

Similarity Between the Stories of the Bible and the Old Japanese Documents

There are several similarities between the stories of the Bible and the stories of the old Japanese documents. For instance, there is a similarity between Israelite King David (the second king of Israel) and Japanese Emperor Sujin (the 10th emperor, 148-30 B.C.E.). The Bible mentions that in the reign of King David, there was a famine for three years (2 Samuel 21:1) and in the following pestilence about seventy thousand people died (24:15). While according to Nihon-shoki, in the reign of Emperor Sujin there was a pestilence for three years and about half of the people died. Both kings felt responsible for these terrible sights, and required punishment from G-d. David asked it through a prophet and Sujin asked through divining. Kojiki also records that Emperor Sujin did his fight in the land of "Idomi", while the Bible records that King David did his fight in the land of "Edom" (2 Samuel 8:14). Here we find not only the similarity of pronunciations but also the similarity of stories. David's son was King Solomon, who built the first temple for the heavenly G-d. While Sujin's son, Emperor Suinin, built the first Shinto shrine named Ise grand shrine.

There are also some other similarities between the two kings. Another interesting similarity exists between the King Saul (the first king of Israel), and Japanese Emperor Chuuai (the 14th emperor). The Bible records that King Saul was "a handsome man... and taller than any of the people" (1 Samuel 9:2). While Nihon-shoki records that Emperor Chuuai was "a handsome man and about three meters tall." Both men were very tall and handsome. King Saul came from the tribe of Benjamin. In the land of Benjamin there is a famous town called "Anathoth". While according to Kojiki, Emperor Chuuai reigned the country at "Anato", which sounds close to Anathoth. King Saul fought Moab, whose other name was Chemosh, in Hebrew "kemosh". This sounds close to "Kumaso" tribe which Emperor Chuuai fought.

Saul died early because he committed a sin of disobeying the word of G-d, while it is written that Emperor Chuuai also died early because he disobeyed the word of G-d. In addition, concerning the similarity between tribal names in the Bible and Japanese mythology, one of the tribes which ancient Japanese Yamato tribe fought is called the tribe of "Emisi" or "Ebusu", which sounds close to the tribe name of Jebusites, in Hebrew "yebus" (Joshua 15:63).

                      Where the 5 Great Israelite Warriors of king David the samurai's precursors?

Are Nestorians the Ten Lost Tribes of Israel?

In 1841 a book appeared, The Nestorians, or the Lost Tribes - Evidence of their Identity, published in New York, by Asahel Grant, who was a medical missionary. This is a very interesting book, for many Nestorian Christians also came to Japan. Nestorian Christianity was born in the Middle East, spread to the east, had much power in the Tang dynasty of China (the 7-10th century C.E.), and had much influence on the people of Asia also in the following ages. Today, there are but a few Nestorians. Grant lived in the 19th century and spent abundance of time with the Nestorians.

He claims that everyone in the areas of Persia (Iran), Iraq, Armenia, and Kurdistan believes that the Nestorians are the descendants of the Lost Tribes and they indeed behave in manners very close to the Tribes of Israel. Their language is Aramaic which was the ancient Israelite and Middle Eastern language. They do not eat the forbidden foods of the Bible, they have Hebrew and Israelite-sounding names like Abraham, Joshua, Benjamin, Dan, Joseph, etc...

And they have other ceremonies as the tithe, sacrifices, first fruits, Sabbath observance like the Jews, as they do not cook or use fire for cooking on the Sabbath, and have fast days similar to the Jews and a Holy of Holies similar to the Jews, observe Passover, circumcision and baptism on the 8th day, and live in the manner of the ancient tribes, and have cities of refuge should anyone have committed an accidental murder would have a place to escape in safety (Numbers chapter 35), all of which is found in the ancient Israeli tradition.

Concerning the Nestorians, Ikuro Teshima (the founder of the Makuya sect, mentioned later) has a similar testimony. In 1939, Teshima was in the outback of China, where he was using a servant who came from a Muslim village for miscellaneous duties under the order of his commander. According to what the servant talked to him, the people of his village now live as Muslims but do not eat pork nor sinew of hip which is on the socket of thigh (Genesis 32:32), their ancestors are Israelites and they escaped to the land because their houses were burnt in the war of one hundred years ago. Hearing this, Teshima started to check it.

He heard from Swedish missionaries Rev. & Mrs. Brom who were working for evangelism there since 50 years ago, "In the outback of China live the descendants of ancient Nestorian Christians. Many of them are now under the influence of superstition of Dao jiao or became Muslims or Catholics.... The Nestorians came to China passing the Silk Road. It is important to note that the Nestorians are actually Jewish Christians. They are Israelites."

Study by Yoshiro Saeki

Next, let us look at the Nestorians who came to Japan. In 1908, the president of Tokyo Literature and Science University, Yoshiro Saeki, published a valuable book about the Nestorians who came to Japan. Saeki insisted that the Hata (or Hada) clan who came to Japan passing via the Korean Peninsula in the 3rd or 4th century C.E. were "Jewish Nestorians." In fact, at Oosake shrine in Sagoshi, Hyougo prefecture, there is a foreign mask which a typical person of the Hata clan named Kawakatsu Hata brought from Kugyueh in Central Asia to Japan.

                                                                   Hata no Kawakatsu

On the mask is carved a cherub which is an angel in the Bible. The mask has Semitic features having a long nose and somewhat looks like the Tengu, which might originate from the mask. It is written in Nihon-shoki that in the reign of Emperor Kougyoku (641-643 C.E.) the topic of the Hata clan spread among people and a song started to be sung by the people: "Uzu-masa is the G-d of G-ds; he conquered the G-ds."

In Uzumasa, Kyoto, there is a shrine called Oosake shrine which the Hata clan founded. At the entrance pillar is carved that it is for deity Uzu-masa. According to the board which explains the history of Oosake shrine there, Oosake came from the Chinese word for David. So it was thought that this shrine was founded in the memorial of David, a king of ancient Israel which was the original land of Hata clan.

David is known as a master of harp. At the entrance pillar of Oosake shrine is also carved that it is for the ancestor of orchestral music and dance, which seems to refer to David.

And near the shrine there is a house of a descendant of the Hata clan and in the site of it, there is a well called Isarai even today. In old days there were 12 wells similar to this in the region, and Saeki thought that this Isarai came from the word Israel. Also near Oosake shrine, there is a temple called Kouryuu-ji which was again founded by the Hata clan.

A Japanese classical scholar, Kinjou Oota (1765-1825), left a word about the temple, "This has a title of temple but it is not a temple of Buddhism, but of Nestorian Christianity." Oota also thought that Nestorian Christianity came in to Japan in very early times. In Kouryuu-ji temple they have a traditional unique festival called Ushi-matsuri (meaning cattle festival), in which a man with a mask, which looks not like Japanese, comes in riding on a cattle, reads the prayer of driving all bad things away, and after that, he runs away to a house.

Some researchers say that this may be a Jewish ritual added with some pagan elements. Saeki published an article headlined "Japanese Jews." on Nov. 27, 1908, issue of the Jewish weekly newspaper in Shanghai, Israel's Messenger. According to him, in Japan there are people called Eta, who are forced to live in corners of town and forced to engage in hard work. They belonged to the lowest social class and were under hard discrimination. Eta was the unfair name in despise. But Saeki claimed that among the people called Eta there were people like Jews.

They engaged in various industries, especially shoemaking. As Jews in Europe, they lived in ghettos and preferred to be isolated from the rest of the population. His article drew them as able laborers and stated, "Some of them engaged in commerce and became successful businessmen." According to Saeki, they did not look like the Japanese and the women among them looked rather Semitic than Mongolian. The most remarkable thing in the article was that the people called Eta observed Jewish customs. He says that in Nagasaki, their ghetto observes the Sabbath very religiously. They do not smoke or kindle fires or work on that day, just like observant Jews. But I have to mention that as far as I know, no one else but Saeki found these Jewish ceremonies with the Eta. I personally searched about the Eta and did not find any Jewish traces with them. In Japan there are no people called Eta today (officially) and it is difficult to confirm what Saeki mentioned.

However, it is interesting to think of this Saeki's research with the above mentioned insistence by Asahel Grant that the Nestorians were the Lost Tribes of Israel. Concerning that many Nestorians came to Japan, it is also known by remains of all over Japan.

In Gunma prefecture, Japan, there is a place called Tako which means many foreigners. Japanese scholars say that it was named so because there were many foreigners there. Hitsuji of the name of the monument means sheep, and Japanese scholars say that there were people who bred sheep there.

Belshazzar king of Babylon seeth an handwriting on the wall. The soothsayers called of the king, cannot expound the writing. Daniel readeth it, and interpreteth it also. The Babylonians took the Israelites out of their lands.

The author of The Secret History of the Japanese Nation (Nihon minzoku hi-shi), Isamu Kawase, had a research in China and stated that a kind of sheep called Kanyan bred in northern China was the same as Awashi sheep which is bred in Israel. He thought that the sheep which had been bred till the Nara-era (the 8th century C.E.) in Gunma prefecture, Japan, were also Kanyan sheep. Japan did not have sheep originally. The sheep in Gunma might have come to Japan with the Nestorians, who might be the Israelites.

Study by Ikuro Teshima

There is a group called Makuya in Japan. The founder of Makuya, Ikuro Teshima, was a great researcher about the Ten Lost Tribes of Israel, the Jews, the Hata clan and others. According to Teshima, among all the Shinto shrines in Japan, the most numerous are Yahata (or Hachiman) shrines, which used to be called Yahada shrines in old days. The G-d of Yahada was the one which Hata clan believed in. Teshima thought as did Saeki that Hata clan were Jewish Nestorians, and Yahada was originally a Hebrew word "yehudah" (yhwdh) meaning Judea. That is, the G-d of Yahada is to be the G-d of Judea.

The Japanese ancient book of history, Kojiki, clearly says that the G-d of Yahada is a foreign G-d. Teshima also claims: "The Japanese ancient book of history, Zoku-nihon-gi (Nihon-shoki part 2), records that in 736 C.E. Emperor Shoumu gave a rank to a Nestorian, Kouho, and to a Persian, Mitsui Lee.

This was the first formal record of the arrival of the Nestorians, but it is obvious that even before that, the Nestorians had already engaged in evangelism from Kouryuuji temple as their hub of their activity." "It is said that the principal image of Hansoubou temple of a mountain on the back of Hamana lake, Shizuoka prefecture, is a Jewish Nestorian monk named Akiba."

"Until World War 2, it was customary in Japan that, when a baby was born, neighbors and friends of the family celebrated the birth by presenting to the family a White Kimono for a boy, or a Red Kimono if the baby was a girl. On the back of these new garments, the well-wishers sewed the symbol of the Shield of David. After the war the custom is gradually dying out, as more and more Western clothes tend to be used instead of the traditional Kimono. However, since time immemorial, the Shield of David has been sewn on the back of the new born baby's kimono, as a time honored symbol of blessing for the infant. This custom of wishing good fortune prevailed through most of Japan, and most people over forty still remember this custom of their youth. It was traditional that the Shield of David be sewn with twelve stitches, symbolizing the twelve tribes of Israel."

"In Japan we have a fairy tale that when Momotarou went to conquer Onigashima island, he reanimated his vassal singing "En yalah yah!" But if we parents are asked by a child what this means, we cannot answer because we do not know the meaning. "En yalah yah" sounds like a Hebrew expression "eni ahalel yah" which means "I praise Yahweh." In the festival of Myomi shrine of Yashiro city in Kumamoto prefecture before they sing "Hallelujah, harliyah, harliyah, tohse, yahweh, yahweh, yoiton nah..." which also sounds like Hebrew."

All of these are interesting descriptions. Teshima also claims concerning the tombs of the people of the Hata clan, in Kyoto, that these tombs are similar to the Jewish ones in the way of building.

Ancient Jews made a cave by digging a tunnel or piling up rocks and made it a tomb; the tombs of the Hata clan have the same build. And it is interesting to note that oil lamps from 2500 years ago are discovered at Mt. Yuzuki near Oomiwa shrine of Nara prefecture. These oil lamps are, as Teshima states, similar to the ones used in ancient Israel.

The Hata Clan and the Gion Festival

In 794 C.E., the government of Japan moved from Nara to Kyoto. It was the Hata clan who played an active part to build the City of Heian in Kyoto to make it the capital of Japan. The chief of the Hata clan, Kawakatsu Hata, built the City of Heian mobilizing all his sites, wealth, and technology.
The Hata clan, who had come in early ages of Japan with a multitude of people and lived in various places of Japan, already had a potency over Japan in the 8th century C.E...

Let's remember that Asahel Grant stated the Nestorians were the Lost Tribes of Israel, and that Yoshiro Saeki and Ikuro Teshima also believed the Hata clan were Jewish Nestorians. In fact, the name of the City of Heian reminds us of the name of Jerusalem, which means the City of Peace in Hebrew and Japanese Heian also means peace. If we translate Jerusalem into Japanese, it would be the City of Heian (Heian-kyo).

It seems there is a Jewish admiration to Jerusalem in this name. Just after the move of the government to the City of Heian, a festival called Gion festival (Gion-matsuri) began to be performed in Kyoto. Even today the Japanese perform Gion festivals in various places of Japan on July 17 or around that time. 

The center of the festivals is the Gion festival of Yasaka shrine in Kyoto. The central event of the Gion festival of Kyoto has been performed always on July 17, or the 17th day of the 7th month, since old days. The important part of the festival is during 8 days from July 17, and they also have important events on July 1 and 10.

The 17th day of the 7th month mysteriously matches the day when Noah's ark drifted ashore mountains of Ararat; the Bible records, "the ark rested in the seventh month, the seventeenth day of the month, on the mountains of Ararat" (Genesis 8:4). Since then, ancient Israelites might have had a thanksgiving feast on this day every year, although there is no Biblical record.

Since Moses, it was replaced by the Feast of Booths (Sukkot) which is performed on the 1st day, 10th day and during 8 days from the 15th day of the 7th month. Nevertheless, the Israelites knew well of the 17th day of the 7th month to be the day when Noah's ark rested, because it is written in the Bible. We know that the Bene Israel of India, whom are mentioned in chapter 3, still obeserved some lost ancient Jewish festivals.

Could it be that a lost Jewish festival is still surviving in Japan? The Gion festival in Kyoto began in the wish that no pestilence might occur among the people. This resembles the circumstances that when the temple of Jerusalem was established by King Solomon, he had a festival in the wish that no pestilence might occur among the people. Solomon had the festival during 8 days (including the last day of solemn assembly) since the 15th day of the 7th month (2 Chronicles 7:8-10).

There is a difference of two days between Solomon's festival and Gion festival but both were performed during 8 days in almost same time of the year and in the same wish. A Scottish businessman, N. McLeod, came to Japan in the Meiji era and saw the Gion festival in Kyoto. He wrote that various things in the Gion festival reminded him of Jewish festivals. At Gion festival, carpets, which were imported from Persia and India via the Silk Road in the 16th century, are used as the decoration for the festival cars even today. And Japanese historians say that even in the times before it, and since very early times, many naturalized foreigners lived in Kyoto, which was indeed a big international city of the world. 

Not a few Jews, who came via the Silk Road, seem to have participated or enjoyed looking at the Gion festival. The Gion festival always starts with a voice of "En yalah yah". Even when we ask a Japanese person, "What does it mean?" he only says, "I don't know." But as mentioned above, to Jews this sounds like a Hebrew expression "eni ahalel yah" meaning "I praise Yahweh."

Is Hata Clan Ancient Jewish Diaspora?

The people of the Hata clan were the most numerous among the foreigners who came to Japan in the time of C.E., According to an ancient Japanese book, Shinsen-shouji-roku, a multitude of the Hata clan led by Sukune, king of Uzumasa came to Japan in the reign of Emperor Chuuai (according to a theory, in 356 C.E.). And in the reign of Emperor Oujin, another multitude of the Hata clan led by King Yuzu came with 18670 people and naturalized into the Japanese (according to a theory, in 372 C.E.).

This was an immense multitude. The king offered much gold, silver, silk, and other treasures, to the Imperial House, which was brought via the Silk Road. The Hata clan came to Japan in the 5th century, too. Even after that, many other people of the Hata clan came to Japan and naturalized into the Japanese. But it is written that they were tall and different from the Japanese in their figure, language, and customs. The Hata clan were very good at techniques for sericulture and silk fabric. One of their shrines, Kaiko-no-yashiro shrine in Uzumasa, Kyoto, which means shrine of silkworm, was named for this. 

                                                                   Kaiko-no-yashiro shrine

This reminds us of the Jews on the Silk Road was very good at techniques for sericulture and silk fabric. Many of the descendants of the Hata clan used the symbols of sailboat as their family crests. Is it related to the crest of the tribe of Zevulun (one of the Ten Lost Tribes of Israel's crests was sailboat)? The Hata clan is said to have come from Kungyueh which was located in the Central Asia and was a big base of the Nestorians.

According to the study by Ikurou Teshima, when Shi huang di began to construct Wanli Changcheng, the Hata clan was ordered to engage in the construction, but they could not bear the work and escaped via Manchuria to the Korean peninsula, where they again experienced predicament, but they were finally helped by the Japanese emperor who wanted to learn excellent civilization from the Hata clan.

The Hata clan appreciated the grace of the emperor and they became the people who served Japanese emperors faithfully. It seems that the religion of the Hata clan began to change gradually in that process. Inside Kouryuu-ji temple, which was a base of the Hata clan in Kyoto, is placed an image of Miroku bodhisattva. Why does it have an image of Buddhism although it was the temple of Hata clan? The belief in Miroku bodhisattva was, as stated by Mrs. E. A. Gordon, born due to the belief in Messiah of Judaism or Christianity which entered in India. She says that the belief in Messiah entered India and became Maitreya, which later entered China and became Miref, which later entered Japan and became Miroku bodhisattva.

The belief in Miroku (Messiah) was also popular in Kungyueh, their homeland. That was why Hata clan compromised with Miroku bodhisattva which was thought to be the Buddhist Messiah in Japan. They saw their own Messiah through Miroku. Thus, they started to lose their identity as Nestorian Christians.

The Hata Clan and the Imperial House of Japan 

Concerning the deep relationship between the Hata clan and the Imperial House of Japan, Abraham Kotsuji who was a professor from Monmouth College in New Jersey, USA, states an interesting thing. He came from Kyoto and his ancestors were priests of Shimogamo shrine in Kyoto since the time of the first priest of the shrine. Kotsuji himself was to be the priest. Shimogamo shrine was built in the 8th century C.E. in the memory of a patriarch of the Hata clan. 

Prof. Kotuji thinks that his ancestors also came from the Hata clan. In old days, the imperial palace was in Kyoto and Shimogamo shrine had the deepest relationship with the Imperial House. Over 70 rituals which related to the Imperial House were performed there a year. This teaches us that the Hata clan and the Imperial House were in a deep relationship. 

                                                               Flag of the Japanese emperor

Professor Kotsuji was a scholar of Semitic languages and Hebrew scriptures. In 1939, he became the advisor on Jewish affairs for Mantetsu (railroad company of Manchuria by the Japanese government) on the request of Yosuke Matshoka (president of Mantetsu). Kotsuji thought that the Hata clan were Jews. Later he moved back to Japan, and he was one of the famous people who helped the Jews that escaped from Nazi Germany to Kobe, at the beginning of World War 2.

In 1959 he converted to Judaism. He went to Jerusalem, was circumcised and given the name Abraham. He died in Kamakura, Japan, in 1973, and his dying wish was conveyed to Rabbi Marvin Tokayer to be buried in his ancestral homeland -Israel. It was during the Yom Kippur War and no planes flew to Israel, but the rabbi arranged for him to be on the first flight to Israel, where he was met by thousands at the airport who remembered his kindness to Jewish refuges in Kobe, and they buried him with honor in Jerusalem. 

                                                                       Shinto symbol

Kotsuji called the religion of the Bible "Shinto of Israel" or "higher Shinto" (Shinto means G-d's way in Japanese). He was a bridge between Japan and Israel, or I would rather say that Japan and Israel were one in him.

The Existence of an Emperor

To think about the relation between Japan & the Ten Tribes of Israel, it is important to consider of the existence of a Japanese emperor. The Japanese emperor is not just a king, but he is also a high priest. He is a priestly king. The emperor is in a deep relation with Shinto and sits on the central position of Shinto. During the chapter 1-4, we saw about the Ten Tribes of Israel in Afghanistan, India, Kashmir, Myanmar, and China, but they did not have such a priestly king as the Japanese emperor.

How did Japan begin to have such emperor system of single family line from generation to generation? A researcher thought that it was due to that the royal line of Israelites came to Japan. The ancient king of Israel was not just a king but also a priestly king. Although there was a person called a high priest as well as him, but the king of Israel often participated in religious affairs. He was not just a political king, but he often played a central role of religious rituals. The king of Israel was, in a sense, similar to the emperor of Japan.

After King Solomon died, in ancient Israel the royal line was divided into two; one is taken over by the southern kingdom of Judah, and another by the northern kingdom of Israel. In the southern kingdom, the royal line reigned the country but lost its power after the Babylonian exile. Then, how was it in the northern kingdom?

The first king of the northern kingdom was Jeroboam who was from the tribe of Ephraim, and the last king of the northern kingdom just before the Assyrian exile was Hoshea. According to the Bible, all the kings of the northern kingdom disobeyed the teachings of G-d, but among them Hoshea was a better one, for the Bible records that he did evil but not as the kings of Israel who were before him (2 Kings 17:2).

Hoshea and his staff members were exiled to Assyria in 722 B.C.E.. The royal line of the northern kingdom of Israel was originally born in the rebellion against the royal line of Judah. So it was very possible that after the exile they thought to go to a distant land, rather than to go back to Israel, and planned to make a country there and redo what they could not do.

Then, when did the Japanese emperor start to exist? It is generally said that it was 660 B.C.E when the first Japanese emperor Jinmu ascended the throne. The Imperial House of Japan had already existed even before Hata clan first came to Japan. Is the Imperial House of Japan in the lineage of the Ten Lost Tribes of Israel, especially of its royal line?

The Formal Name for Emperor Jinmu

Concerning this, interesting is the similarity between Ninigi and Jacob, between Yamasachi-hiko and Joseph, and between Ugaya-hukiaezu and Ephraim as mentioned earlier (chapter 8). This is a remarkable similarity in mythology between the Imperial House of Japan and the royal line of the Ten Tribes of Israel. It is also interesting to note that the formal name for the Japanese first Emperor Jinmu is called in Kojiki or in Nihon-shoki: "Kamu-yamato-iware-biko-sumera-mikoto" Kanji letters are adopted in Kojiki and Nihon-shoki to this, but this pronunciation had existed even before Kanji letters were imported from China. So the Kanji letters have no connection with the meaning. 

                                                                     Emperor Jinmu

This "kamu-yamato-. ..." has no satisfactory meaning if we interpret it as Japanese, but Joseph Eidelberg interpreted it as Hebrew. If we think of slight corruption and interpret it as Hebrew, it would be: "The founder of the Hebrew nation of Yahweh, the noble (first born) of Samaria his kingdom." This is not necessarily to mean that Jinmu himself was really the founder of the Hebrew nation, but rather, it may mean that the memory of the royal line of the Hebrew nation coming to Japan was included in the legend of the Japanese first Emperor Jinmu. Did the royal line of the Ten Lost Tribes of Israel came to Japan? It is a grand mystery. 

The Imperial Library Burnt Down

In Japan in 645 C.E., there was a very regrettable thing that the Imperial library, which had kept very important old documents and books, was all burnt down.

The lantern at "Ise-Jingu" Shinto shrine

There was a fight between the pro-Shinto and the pro-Buddhism and as the result, the pro-Buddhism, Soga clan, set fire to the library, and all the important records and books in it were burnt down. 
The oldest book existing now among all the Japanese books is Kojiki, but even this Kojiki was written in 712 C.E. which was 67 years after the burning of the Imperial library. That is, before Kojiki there had existed many ancient books, records, and documents in Japan. In that library there was a mountain of books older than Kojiki.

Someone guesses that there was also the Torah Scroll there. We cannot deny the possibility if we think, as we saw above, it seems that the laws of the Renewal of Taika had an inspiration from the knowledge of the teachings of the Torah. If the ancient Japanese had the Torah, it must have been no doubt kept in the Imperial library, which was unfortunately burnt down.
                         Ise-Jingu shrine and priests in white. Just like the ancient Israelite priests.

There must have been many other important materials concerning the origin of the Japanese in the library. The genealogy from their anscestors might also be there. When the library was burnt down, the Japanese lost their past. In the 7th century B.C.E. in the southern kingdom of Judah, a Torah Scroll was accidentally found in the temple when an officer was searching gold in the temple (Divrei Hayamim II 34:15). King Josiah at that time let a priest read the Torah, when the king wailed and tore his clothes, for he clearly understood that the people in the country were not obeying the teachings of G-d. We can know from this that the ancient people did not read the Torah usually; the Torah Scroll was often kept in an important place and no one looked at it.

If the Torah Scroll was in Japan, I wish it were found before it was burnt. But even if the Japanese lost their past, we do not need to say that now there is no way to know the past or origin of the Japanese. Apparently the insides of many of the tombs of the Japanese emperors are not yet researched or exhibited. When they are researched, I believe we can know more about the roots of the Japanese. The insides of tombs of Egyptian kings are well researched and exhibited. If the tombs of the Japanese emperors are researched scholarly, it may be possible that the Japanese take their past back. Even the day may come when a definite evidence would be found in a tomb. Someone guesses the Israelite Menorah would be found. Other person guesses the emblems of the Lost Tribes of Israel would be found. Would such a day come?

Hebrew Origin of Korean Place names?

The Israelites that went to Japan went through Korea. It's noteworthy that next to the very tip of the most southern part of South Korea there's an island called Sinui (also known as Sinuido), which is basicly the same as Shinui. Shinui in Hebrew means change. There's a political party (liberal centrist) in the knesset with that name. The truth is the Koreas have many place names starting with sin, wether they're related to Sinai, shinui or even Sinim, which is the biblical name sometimes applied to neighboring China. Nevertheless Sinim is also applied to  Australia.

In Halakha, a shinuy (Hebrew שינוי, with variant English spellings) is an unconventional method of performing an act that is normally forbidden when there may be justification for performing such an act, for example, when there is a medical need.

A shinuy is generally performed when there is not complete danger to life, but a lesser danger, such as to limb,

A shinuy transforms an act from one that is biblically forbidden to one that is rabbinically prohibited, thereby making it less of an offense. This can be done by performing the act in a manner that makes it more difficult or less practical.

There's barely any phonetic difference between sinui & shinui. In fact the very Bible shows one Israelite tribe pronouncing the sound sh with no difficulty while another Israelite tribe, in its struggle to pronounce the same sound, only gets the simple s sound. It's interesting to see how since those early days there were different forms of Hebrew according to what tribe they belong.

Judges 12:6 they said, "All right, say 'Shibboleth.'" If he said, "Sibboleth," because he could not pronounce the word correctly, they seized him and killed him at the fords of the Jordan. Forty-two thousand Ephraimites were killed at that time.

Another possible origin is that Sinui could be related to the word Sinai, name of the Israelite sacred mountain. In the same archipelago there are other toponyms with the same root: Sinan & Sindo. There's a Sinuijo in the other Korea to the north, next to the Chinese border. It's noteworthy that it's right next to the Chinese city of Dandong, Liaoning. Dandong sounds very Danite. There are many DN of Dan as a Daneman has hypothesized. In fact he considers Liaoning as a remarkable place in his research.

Yeosu or Yehoshua?

Yeosu or Yosu is the name of one peninsula in the southwestern tip of South Korea. In the middle of the 20th century a city in the area was named after this peninsula. According to historians, the Hata clan came through Korea before they arrived in Japan. Yeosu (with its variant Yosu) is very similar to the Hebrew name Yehoshua (with its variant Joshua), Moses successor, that lead the Israelites to the Promised Land. This area, being the most southern Korean area is one of the most logical places (if not the most) to sail to Japan.

Interestingly these two place names are found in the very area belonging to the kingdom of Baekje were most scholars say the Hata clan came from, after crossing the sea for Japan. Some scholars say they did not come from Baekje, but from the Silla or Gaya area. Different groups (& smaller ones) from the Hata clan could have left the main group in the Baekje kingdom & sojourn & stay in other areas of the Korean peninsula. This would compatiblize the scholars' disagreement regarding the Korean area were the Hada clan dwelled before moving to Japan.

The list below adds more Korean place names to previous. It's not a very exhaustive list. Some of them sound very Hebrew.

Kangsŏ, Kangnam & Kanggye have the prefix Kan of Kanaan.

Samsu & Samjiyon start with Sam,  which is a form of Shem, the patriarch from which the Arabs & Israelites come.

Asan derives from asan,  a Hebrew word meaning burnt.

Sakchu might be a form of Saka (a group of Israelites whose name derives from Isaac their forefather) plus the suffix chu.

Danqjin, like many other bearby place names in nearby China, could derive from the Hebrew tribe of Dan. Yodok & Yudam have the Hebrew root Yud/Yod as Yahuda.

Anak is the very name of a Biblical male personage. Anak (spelt as both ענק and as הענק depending upon the reference) is a figure in the Hebrew Bible in the conquest of Canaan by the Israelites who, according to the Book of Numbers, was a forefather of the Anakim  (Heb. Anakim) who have been considered "strong and tall," they were also said to have been a mixed race of giant people. Perhaps the Israelites in Korea felt like giants as compared to the locals & remembering the Anakim giants named this place of their encounter with the locals Anak.

Usi could be a local variant of the Hebrew male name Uzi meaning power, strength...

Surprise of Chief Rabbi of Israel About Shinto

Rabbi Marvin Tokayer, who used to live in Japan, tells a story about when the chief rabbi of Israel, Shlomo Goren, once visited Japan.

Chief rabbi Goren was very curious and fascinated with Japan and enjoyed his stay very much. He said that he wanted to learn the essence of Japanese Shinto religion, and he attended for a while a lecture at Kokugakuin University which is a Shinto university in Tokyo.

At the lecture, the chief rabbi asked the lecturer a question about how to guard Shinto grand shrine, that is, where the guards stand, how they patrol, in what turn they patrol the places, and how to shift the guards. Hearing the answer, Rabbi Goren was very surprised and said, "Unbelievable." Turning his face pale, he said to Rabbi Tokayer who was young in those days, "Do you understand the importance of what the Shinto lecturer said?" Then he added, "Read the Mishnah, and you will know why I was so surprised to hear it." 

                                                      Kyoto Gyoen shrine Munakata

The Mishnah, the teachings of ancient Jewish scholars, has an explanation on how the ancient temple of Jerusalem had been guarded. As a matter of fact, Shinto's way of guarding, patrolling, and shifting guards at shrine is just the same as the one which had been done at the ancient temple of Jerusalem. The temple of Jerusalem was destroyed in 70 C.E. and not yet rebuilt. How could the way of guarding at Japanese Shinto shrine be the same as the one at the temple of ancient Israel? Chief rabbi's word "Unbelievable" is a natural response.

The Israelite Hata Clan

The Hata clan had dresswear and customs that were unlike any to Japan and Korea of the time.
They were the fabled "People of Silk" who came from the Silk Road. The Hata clan are generations of descendants of the Silk Road traders who intermingled and crossbred with various peoples along the trade routes. Japanese history records them to have had a presence in Japan since B.C.E in regions of Shikoku. Some koreans claim that the Hata originates from Korea, but this is not likely so. The closest word to hata in korean is hat, which means 'cloth'. So even in Ancient Korea, the Hat people are known as the People of Cloth (presumably silk).

The japanese character for the Hata clan is the chinese character for Qin, the Emperor. This does not mean that the Hata clan were ONLY chinese and not descendants of Ancient Israelites, either. The evidence of the Yayoi period is internationally accepted evidence of ancient jewish influence. The dresswear, ornaments, rituals, Katakana alphabet and thousands of borrowed words from ancient hebrew are undisputed evidence of the Hata clan and the cultural significance it had on Japan. The Hata clan has been proven to not be of Korean origin (they only came from Korea, but before from the Middle East; long distance traveling is not impossiblen Silk Road and pre-Silk Road routes were traveled even before Shang.) but of a even greater number of generations prior of travelers that mingled with the peoples along the southern trade routes of the Silk Road. What is important to Japan is that the Hata clan eventually settled and rooted itself there to start a new clan of descendants who upheld the traditions and customs of the ancient israelites for hundreds of years to follow, lending to much of the beliefs of Shinto and japanese culture.

Japanese map of the long trek that the Hata Israelites took until they arrived in Japan

From a Japanese perspective, the Yayoi period 300BC marks a significant change in Japanese culture. Curiously, Yayoi pronounced with a phonetic slur sounds much like Ya-Yi. In hebrew, the word for Japan is Yapan. In hebrew, the word for Jewish is Yi. Is it merely a coincidence that the region which sparked the beginning of the Yayoi period coincides with the beliefs and customs of the ancient Israelites? Could the japanese girl name Yayoi have been an homage to her two nations?

The Hata are said to have been adept at financial matters, and to have introduced silk raising and weaving to Japan. For this reason, they may have been associated with the kagome crest, a lattice shape found in basket-weaving which, by chance, bears strong resemblance to the Star of David.
The study denying the Hebrew origin of the Hata in 2005 is OLD for genetic study. Plus, haplogroup study is pretty much useless in minority blood mixing with huge majority, since it only represents pure male or pure female ancestors. In other words, after 10 generation (or about 200 years) it only represents 0.2% of potential ancestors & misses 99.8%.

That the Hata clan have a Jewish origin doesn't imply that they have pure Jewish origin or that they came from Israel without having some generations born, for example, in Bukhara, then others in Tarim Basin, then in Kaifeng, then in Korea & finally in Japan. It’s not incompatible either with leaving some Israelites behind, some to stay & some to move to another direction & so on.

Who are the Japanese?

"Last century in the Crimea many Hebrew epitaphs were found in the cemeteries north of the Black Sea, south of Russia, which was ancient Scythia. Israel, in their exile, in part, lived in the Crimea, occupied the whole of it under three different names, held it, lived and died there, were buried, and had epitaphs on their tombs.

It tells how many years had passed after they had gone into Assyrian captivity. It shows that this man belonged to the Tribe of Reuben; that that territory had been occupied by Gad, Reuben and the half Tribe of Manasseh.

"This is told on his tombstane in the Hebrew language, and has been translated into English by a converted Jew. That epitaph states that a portion of Gad, Reuben and half Tribe of Manasseh had MOVED AWAY EASTWARD "AS FAR EAST AS CHINA." GOD SAID THAT HE WOULD MOVE THEM EASTWARD AS WELL AS WESTWARD, and Japan is eastward from Palestine."

He brings many pieces of evidence to bear. Very convincing. And then at the end he opens up many areas of study by saying, " God said He would send Israel to all nations of the earth. They are out in the eastern part of Asia, as well as in all lands. If I had time I would show you that they are in Afghanistan, in the north mountainous regions of the Himalayas, in the far eastern region of the Altai Mountains, Manchuria and Korea, and then I could take you elsewhere and show you Israel in the other parts of the world." Korea! ! ! Does the fact that Korea became so Christian that one church over there has a million members, tie in to them being of Israel?

Prof. Odlum is sure that we understand and remember that Manasseh, in the absense of Ephraim, was the ruling Tribe of any group (with a Judahite king, if that was possible). When these three tribes (not ALL of the three tribes, of course) migrated east to Japan, etc. they were ruled by Manasseh-ites. The second thing to remember and understand is that Ephraim and Manasseh were half Egyptian. This explains why the Japanese eyes AND skin tone is so different than their close neighbors, the Chinese.

The capital city of Israel was Samaria. Samaria is located in the territory of Manasseh. Undoubtedly warriors of Manasseh were heavily involved in the three year siege of Samaria before it fell in 712 BC. I'm sure that these Samarian warriors of Manasseh were haughty and proud of their performance even in defeat.

They held out for three years!!! I bet they even had a cry like the Texans have for their Alamo. Those warriors probably went around shouting, "Samaria, Samaria," as a rallying cry in their battle against the Medes, Urartians, and Assyrians during their stay by the Black and Caspian Seas (depending on who they were fighting against at the moment).

Well, when some of these ruling, half-Egyptian, Manasseh-ites got over there to Japan, the warriors of Samaria became the Samurai. Isn't that just the neatest connection? And the common Japanese name, Sakai, is very close to what the Persians called the Israelites; Sakka, for the sons of Isaac. What about Saki? Prof. Odlum brings out many more parallels between the Israelites and the Japanese.

I even had one person theorize that the Samurai were the reason why the Chinese built the Great Wall. It was to keep those pesky sons of Manasseh out of their country.

The Ainu & the Samurai

The eye of the predicted storm will be the Ainu, a "racially different" group of some 18,000 people now living on the northern island of Hokkaido. Pure-blooded Ainu are easy to spot: they have lighter skin, more body hair, and higher-bridged noses than most Japanese. Most Japanese tend to look down on the Ainu.

Brace has studied the skeletons of about 1,100 Japanese, Ainu, and other Asian ethnic groups and has concluded that the revered samurai of Japan are actually descendants of the Ainu, not of the Yayoi from whom most modern Japanese are descended. In fact, Brace threw more fuel on the fire with: This interpretation also explains why the facial features of the Japanese ruling class are so often unlike those of typical modern Japanese. The Ainu-related Samurai achieved such power and prestige in medieval Japan that they intermarried with royalty and nobility, passing on Jomon-Ainu blood in the upper classes, while other Japanese were primarily descended from the Yoyoi. Dr. Brace's most startling conclusion, and the one likely to upset traditionalists, was that most of the samurai were not really ethnic Japanese but descendants of the Ainu.

Like the Ainu, the samurai had more body hair, lighter skin and higher-bridged, Europeanlike noses than most Japanese. Indeed, nearly all of the physical characteristics of the samurai, celebrated in art and held high in social esteem, are those that closely resemble the facial features of the 18,000 Ainu who live on the northern island of Hokkaido.

The Samurai were descended from the Ainu and were tall and somewhat Caucasian looking, tall, light-skinned and hairy (even today the Ainu are the hairest people). The Samurai were once the ruling class in Japan and some anthropologists suspect the Japanese practice of 'white-face' originates from that period as a way of emulating the 'royals'.

Kennewick Man's DNA, although ruled 'inconclusive', showed a high relationship to the Ainu.
Further, the Jomon culture (which precedes the Ainu in Japan) is identified with a specific type of pottery labeled 'Cord Pottery'. This 'Cord Pottery' has been found in Olmec (1400BC-300BC) ruins in Mexico.

Because of the course of history and the regional shifts of power that occurred as the feudal system emerged in medieval Japan,'' Dr. Brace wrote, ''the genetic characteristics derived from the Jomon-Ainu continuum came to constitute a significant part of the biological makeup of the dominant military class.''

The Origins of Japanese Populations

Were the Native Jomon of Japan Edomites?

The Japanese are considered to be a combination of Jomon and Yayoi (the Yamato dynasty) races. The Jomon were in Japan first and then followed the Yayoi who arrived from Asia via Korea. The Jomon may have given rise to the Izumo or Idumo dynasty. The Jomon were related to the Ainu in the north and to elements in the south such as the inhabitants of Okinawa. It seems like the IZUMO (originally written IDUMO) may equal the tribe of EDOM. The natives of Okinawa and the Ainu are considered to be from this same Jomon (original Japanese) stock. These people are more hairy and their faces are more chiseled than the average Japanese. The IZUMO were famous for iron manufacture. The northern island of Japan used to be called EZO, which is similar to Esau.

Was the Real Emperor of Japan Switched by Another?

From 1603 to 1863 Japan had been ruled by the Tokugawa shogunate who were a group of Samurai centered on Tokyo. The Emperor had been merely a figurehead but in 1863 his supremacy was re-asserted. Henceforth Japan was ruled by an oligarchy from the south-west. The aim was to modernize and aggrandize Japan and to counter Western (especially American) interference and influence.

The IDUMO peoples had formerly been conquered by the Yayoi but it has been claimed they won back their position at the MEIJI-ISHIN (restoration of Imperial power in 1868) some say secretly replacing the emperor with one of their own.

Guido Herman Fridolin Verbeck (born Verbeek, 1830 - 1898) was a Dutch political advisor, educator, and missionary active in Bakumatsu and Meiji period Japan. He was one of the most important foreign advisors serving the Meiji government and contributed to many major government decisions during the early years of the reign of Emperor Meiji.

The Meiji Emperor was a member of the restoration party and he is said to have been from the southern dynasty which was associated with the Izumo. According to a self-proclaimed grandson of the Meiji Emperor, the missionary Guido Verbeck and the Meiji Emperor both believed in Japanese-Israelism. Some Japanese priests at that time also believed in Japanese-Israelism.

The Racial Structure of the Japanese.

                            The Japanese on the left could almost pass for Caucasian.

The majority of the Japanese might have eastern Asian genes, but that doesn't contradict having Japanese with Israelite genes. There are Caucasian looking Japanese. The look of one person is not the major factor to determine its roots. The Lembas black African features like their African neighbors, nevertheless their paternal genes are Semitic. The Nestorians were Christian Israelites that reached eastern Asian. The Israelites were taken captive & ended up in Central Asia. People departed from the very region of Central Asia to end up in Japan.

Then who were the original dynasty, of the Yamato in the north and center, who created Japan as we know it? The Yamato are associated with the so-called HATA family. The Hata were descendants of the Chinese Han dynasty who found refuge in Japan and served the ruling Yamato clan. The Yayoi (Yamato) were originally a group amongst the northerners but in modern terminology the name is applied to the dominant Japanese element in general as distinct from the Jomon. The Yayoi are described as "elements of the Northeast Asian, Chinese and Korean civilizations introduced to the Japanese Archipelago in waves of migration." According to Craig White (who refers to them as Okayama) they are taller, whiter, and more European-looking than the rest. They came from Korea and Manchuria and were "Bronze Age conquerors from Central Asia". They include elements of Malayo-Polynesian origin.

DNA studies indicate that ca. 36% of Japanese are on the male side D2 which is associated with the Ainu of the north and Ryukyans (Okinawa type) of the south. It is only found in Japan. Its closest relatives are scattered around very specific regions of Asia : the Andaman Islands (between India and Myanmar), Indonesia (only a small minority), Southwest China (mostly among the Qiang ethnic group), Mongolia (also a small minority) and Tibet. About 54% of paternal lineages and 66% the maternal lineages have been identified as being of Sino-Korean (Yayoi) origin.

Roughly speaking, the more indigenous Jomon element are D2 whereas the dominant Yayoi are O3 and O2. The higher percentage of Yayoi females to males suggests a perponderance of Jomon male unions with Yayoi females in the past. Many of the Jomon must have taken Yayoi women indicating that at some stage they must also have dominated though later were displaced. The Jomon are closer to the Tibetans and neighboring peoples of southwest China, Andamans (i.e. Negritos off the coast of India and Burma). The Jomon include the Ainu. The Ainu are also called Ezo in historical texts. References to the Ezo-Ainu in the past may have referred to the Jomon in general. The Yayoi originally came from Central Asia but passed through China, Manuchuria, and Korea. Even though the Jomon are associated with the original natives of Japan we cannot exclude the possibility that some of them arrived from Asia at a later date.

Dan, Phoenicia, and Nestorian Christians.

As stated the Hata were advisors to the Yayoi who came from Asia and ruled Japan at the beginning. The Hata may be descendants of the Korean Dan-gun, of the first Korean kingdom. The Dan-gun are said to have had connections to the Phoenicians. The HATA family's most important shrine is called HUSHIMI like Hushim, a son of Dan. They had previously been in China. Later in japan they built a Buddhist temple which could be associated with KEIKYO i.e. Nestorian Christianity.

Nestorianism believed in two separate natures (human and divine) in the one person of their Messiah. It was named after Nestorius, Patriarch of Constantinople from 428-431 CE. Nestorians for a while were centered in Syria and Mesopotamia then moved to Iran, Central Asia, and China.

There are lots of evidence that the HATA family believed in KEIKYO. Some descendants of the HATA lived in the Kochi-prefecture which was on Shikoku Island located south of Honshu (the mainland) and east of the island of Kyushu. Some Kochi people look like Caucasians. On the other hand, others of the Kochi people look like Tibetans so it may be confusing.

                                                     Caucasian looking Japanese woman

Interestingly there are Pashtun Kochis (or Kuchis). They are nomads & considered the Pashtun equivalent of the Arab Bedouins. There is also a Serb clan called Kochi in the Serb-Montebegrin border. They live close to Kelmand. There is Helmand in Pashtun areas. Kelmand & Helmand (or Hillmand) are virtually the same words because h & k are related sounds. Kh would the intermedian sound. In Semitic languages k & kh are represented with the same symbol. Helmond is the name of a Dutch city, so it's western Lost Israelite. It's really similar to the Pashtun area called Helmand

It is not by chance that Hata people live in Kochi prefecture, the area were more people with white features live in Japan.

Kochi (or Cochin) is also an Indian city. Cochin was the name of an area in the most southern region of Vietnam. The ancient kingdom of Champa was also around that area. Does the name Kachin have any relation with these names?

Israelite Japanese & Edomite Japanese

Are the Ainus from the tribes of Gad & Dan as it it said?

Different sources indicate an Israelite origin to the Ainu people, an aborigin people of Hokkaido, Japan.

The general conduct code of the Ainus resembles that of the Israelites. The Ainu men grow great long beards, just like the Israelites of old. The word Ainu is strikingly similar to the Hebrew word "avinu", meaning father. The Israelites, like the Japanese, were very attached to their fathers-ancestors.

The Ainus were scattered all over the Japanese islands, Sakhalin & Kamchatka. Interestingly the name Isaac, ancestor of the Israelites, is found in the name Sakhalin.

Further north in Russia, we find the Republic of Sakha. SaKHa is another form of SaKa or iSaaK because in olden Hebrew vowels were missing. The sounds K & KH, in Hebrew, are two sounds for the same symbol. "Lin" might be a local suffix added.

Saka is a variant of the name Isaac, the name from which the Israelites would be called according to scripture. They would be called after Isaac because he was an important ancestor.

A considerable number of Japanese have Ainu ancestors & you can tell by the Caucasian features many of them have: face shape, abundant facial hair, round/almond like eyes...

Those features are typically Caucasian, not Mongoloid. In fact in the Far East Asian countries only Japan has a high proportion of people with these features. That doesn't mean for example that there are no full bearded Chinese men, but they are far less common than the full bearded Japanese. We can include the other physical features proper of the white pwople found more often among the Japanese than among the other eastern Asians.

                                           Japanese girl with some Caucasian features

Not all the Japanese might have Ainu ancestry. Nor Israelite ancestry. But seems like a large number of Nipponese can claim Hebrew ancestry.

The Hatas, or Hata clan have Hebrew roots for sure. So does the royalty & many other Japanese commoners. Several people also suggest the Hebrew origin of the Ainus (& their non-Ainu descendents).

Koshi is a Japanese province that was before called Esshū. Perhaps in this province there were Essauites (& that’s the origin of the name Esshū, very similar to Essau) with some Israelite descendants of Kish that named it Koshi later.

The Israelite tribes attributed to the Japanese with Hebrew Japanese are Zebulon & Gad. Zebulun is more usually heard of though. Manassah & Naftali are other tribes heard of among the Nipponese Israelites, while Dan is found among the Ainus or among Japanese with Ainu ancestry.

The Ainu or the Aynu were also known as Ezo. The name Ezo is strikingly similar to Esau, ancestor of the Edomites. The Edomites were neighbors & also related to their Israelite cousins. This indicates there was an Edomite element among the Ainus.

Edom is phonetically similar to Adam, both meaning "red". Adam also means man in Hebrew. Interestingly "Ainu" means "human" in Ainu language. Human & man are virtually the same.
The island of Hokkaido was the main island of the Ainus in the 19th century & still is. Hokkaido is a Japanese name, but the Ainu name was Ezo.

Ezo was divided into several districts. The first was the Wajinchi, or Japanese Lands, which covered the Japanese settlements on and around the Oshima peninsula. The rest of Ezo was called the Ezochi, or Ainu Lands. Ezochi was in turn divided into three sections: North Ezochi covered southern Sakhalin; West Ezochi included the northern half of Hokkaido; and East Ezochi included the populous southern Hokkaido and the Kuril Islands.

It's easily deducible that the suffix "chi" is "land" in Ainu. "Chi" could also derive from the Hebrew suffix "achi" meaning "my brother". In this way Ezochi would mean "Esauachi" or "Esau, my brother". And who is Esau's brother? Israel, of course. In Aramean ti as a suffix, indicates country. In many languages  ti & chi are very similar sounds. Chi can be a local deformation of ti. Interestingly country & land are very often synonyms & that's what means in Ainu.

"Edo" is a Japanese last name. There's also a historical period in Japan called "Edo", so it seems like Esau/Edom is present among the Japanese as well.

In the Promised Land several peoples, including the Idumeans, converted to the Israelite religion & became part of the People of the Covenant. So we could conclude that wherever the Edomites are found we are finding Israelites as well.

In southern Nigeria there are Israelites, the Ibos.  There are Edomites as well, the Edos & the Idomas. They are not far apart from one another.

Contrary to European swords, katanas are curved just like the swords in the Middle East: Egyptians, Israelites, Arabs... 

Many Ainus are genetically related to native Americans. Many Ainus & native Americans are Caucasian looking instead of Mongoloid looking. The Ainus have much facial & body hair though. There are many Ainu looking Japanese still.

Are the Ainus from the tribes of Gad & Dan as it it said?

Different sources indicate an Israelite origin to the Ainu people, an aborigin people of Hokkaido, Japan. The general conduct code of the Ainus resembles that of the Israelites. The Ainu men grow great long beards, just like the Israelites of old. The word Ainu is strikingly similar to the Hebrew word "avinu", meaning father. The Israelites, like the Japanese, were very attached to their fathers-ancestors.

The Ainus were scattered all over the Japanese islands, Sakhalin & Kamchatka. Interestingly the name Isaac, ancestor of the Israelites, is found in the name Sakhalin.

Further north in Russia, we find the Republic of Sakha. SaKHa is another form of SaKa or iSaaK because in olden Hebrew vowels were missing. The sounds K & KH, in Hebrew, are two sounds for the same symbol. "Lin" might be a local suffix added.

Saka is a variant of the name Isaac, the name from which the Israelites would be called according to scripture. They would be called after Isaac because he was an important ancestor.

A considerable number of Japanese have Ainu ancestors & you can tell by the Caucasian features many of them have: face shape, abundant facial hair, round eyes...

Those features are typically Caucasian, not Mongoloid. In fact in the Far East Asian countries only Japan has a high proportion of people with these features. That doesn't mean for example that there are no full bearded Chinese men, but they are far less common than the full bearded Japanese. We can include the other physical features proper of the white pwople found more often among the Japanese than among the other eastern Asians.

Not all the Japanese might have Ainu ancestry. Nor Israelite ancestry. But seems like a large number of Nipponese can claim Hebrew ancestry.

The Hatas, or Hata clan have Hebrew roots for sure. So does the royalty & many other Japanese commoners. Several people also suggest the Hebrew origin of the Ainus (& their non-Ainu descendents). The Israelite tribes attributed to the Japanese with Hebrew Japanese are Zebulon & Gad. Zebulun is more usually heard of though. Manassah & Naftali are other tribes heard of among the Nipponese Israelites, while Dan is found among the Ainus or among Japanese with Ainu ancestry.

The Ainu or the Aynu were also known as Ezo. The name Ezo is strikingly similar to Esau, ancestor of the Edomites. The Edomites were neighbors & also related to their Israelite cousins. This indicates there was an Edomite element among the Ainus.

Edom is phonetically similar to Adam, both meaning "red". Adam also means man in Hebrew. Interestingly "Ainu" means "human" in Ainu language. Human & man are virtually the same.
The island of Hokkaido was the main island of the Ainus in the 19th century & still is. Hokkaido is a Japanese name, but the Ainu name was Ezo.

Ezo was divided into several districts. The first was the Wajinchi, or Japanese Lands, which covered the Japanese settlements on and around the Oshima peninsula. The rest of Ezo was called the Ezochi, or Ainu Lands. Ezochi was in turn divided into three sections: North Ezochi covered southern Sakhalin; West Ezochi included the northern half of Hokkaido; and East Ezochi included the populous southern Hokkaido and the Kuril Islands.

It's easily deducible that the suffix "chi" is "land" in Ainu. "Chi" could also derive from the Hebrew suffix "achi" meaning "my brother". In this way Ezochi would mean "Esauachi" or "Esau, my brother". And who is Esau's brother? Israel, of course.

"Edo" is a Japanese last name. There's also a historical period in Japan called "Edo", so it seems like Esau/Edom is present among the Japanese as well.

In the Promised Land several peoples, including the Idumeans, converted to the Israelite religion & became part of the People of the Covenant. So we could conclude that wherever the Edomites are found we are finding Israelites as well.

In southern Nigeria there are Israelites, the Ibos. There are Edomites as well, the Edos & the Idomas. They are not far apart from one another.

Blood of Israel in Japan

The Nakatomi clan was the Japanese priestly clan. Should scientists analyze their offspring's DNA to see if they are Cohenic?

Was Sapporo the biblical Ophir (maybe there were several & Sapporo was one)? Sofala (Mozambique), Nala Sopara (India), Uvira (R.D. of Congo), Ubar (Oman)... are other of the multiple locations regarded as being Ophir & their names are similar to Sapporo, especially the first two.

It's interesting that as in Judaism & in Christianity, but unlike Budhism, the white color of Shinto priests symbolizes purity. In other Asian religions like Budhism or Hinduism, white symbolizes mourning, a complete different meaning. Shintoism should be considered a monotheistic religion & non-pagan for sure.

The ones of the 'Secret Tribe of Zebulun' are modern Japanese who are looking for spirituality based on the Old Testament and are more like Christians with hebraic tendencies accepting Jesus. Some Makuyas believe to be Zebulun's offspring from where the name Secret tribe of Zebulun would come I guess.

"I have an interest in the connection between the Japanese word 'heburai' - Hebrew in Japanese, and the name 'herai', from the early Edo period untill 1955 the name of Shingo village in northeast Honshu. I am aware that foreign-borrowed words in Japanese tend to drop letters; so it is not impossible that 'bu' dropped out of 'heburai', resulting in 'herai'. However, I need to establish a scholarly link that is acceptable to empirical linguistics. This requires the experise of a linguist who is willing to spend some time investigating this possibility.

A short way for CaNaan or KaNaan would be KaN or CaN. This is a prefix scattered all over the world, but in specific areas. There are some remarkable toponyms with this prefix in Japan. KaNazawa in Ishikawa, southern Japan is one of them. Ishikawa might be a corrupted way for Isaac, one forefather of the Israelites. KaNagawa is the other topnym & name of a Japanese Prefecture of the KaNto Region. As you notice KaNto also has KN of Kanaan. KaNsai is another Japanese region with the KN root. And KaNsai happens to be the region next to the area were it's believed to have many Israelite legends.

The Hata (or Hada) clan or tribe, like the other Japanese Israelites are regarded as Zebulonites (not by chance they're in the coastlands) so we could call them Bene Zebulon. Their family crests depict sailboats similar to the ones found in argaelogical sites in Israel which are characteristic of this tribe.

The Yamato people, clan or tribe is attributed to have lead Japan in several historical events. The leadership among them is regarded as having an Israelite origin. One remarkable area of the Yamatos is Nara prefecture. Nara means oak in Japanese & the area is abundant in oak trees, but nara is also a Hebrew word meaning "only hope". The majority of the Japanese, 120 millions, belong to the Yamato people. Let's say that their leadership & offspring with Israelite origin total a 10% of the Yamatos. The total number would be 12 million people. That's a great number. Some toponyms of Nara, the Japanese cradle of the Yamatos, with possible Israelite origin are: Uda (Judah), Asuka (sukka), Sakurai (Isakkari), Gose (Goshen), Kashiba (Kish), Katsuragi (Kish), Katsuragi (Kish), Kashihara (Kish). Yamato is believed to come from the Hebrew Ya (God) & umato (people. The U is not pronounced), meaning God's People, another name for the Israelites found in the scriptures.

The Hata clan, an Israelite Japanese clan, gave birth or is related to other clans there. Interestingly one of these clans is the Sakanoue. The Sakas are said to give birth to the Pashtun (Israelites), western Europeans (Israelites)... & thaat their name comes from iSaaK, father of Israel.

The Japanese SaKai clan has the very name of the SaKa or SaKai ancestors of the Pashtuns & regarded as Israelites carrying the Consonants SK of IsaaC by Brit-Am & the rest of Two-Housers.

Does the Japanese city of Isehara have origin in the Israelite tribe of Isakhar? This city happens to be in KaNagawa, a toponym that has the first syllable of KaNaan. KaNazawa is the capital of Ishikawa. The Ishikawa Prefecture bears the consonants of Isaac.

                                                        The Magen David is above

It's interesting that Teshima, the Japanese, founder of the pro-Israeli Christian church Makuya, went to receive inspiration to Mount Aso, a Mount related to ancient Israelites living in Japan. It's also interesting the fact that the samurais wore wide pants like the ancient Israelite peasants. It's noteworthy that wrestling is a tradition in old Israel, Canary Islands (Spain), Igboland (interestingly Ibo's neighbors don't practise it) & Japan (sumo), being all of them, at least partly, of Israelite origin. Igbo palm wine tappers are ruthless against evil as ancient Levites in Moses's times.

It's interesting that as Edom/Esau was neighboring Israel in old times, the Edo Tribe is neighboring the Igbos (Israelites) in Nigeria & as there are Israelites in Japan (Hatas...), there might be Edomites (Edo dynasty named after Edo city, which could have taken its name from these Edomites). Edom was absorved, at least in part, by Israel, according to Tsvi Misinai.

A festival called “Ontohsai” is held on April 15 every year and illustrates the story of the sacrifice of Isaac in Chapter 22 of Genesis. At the festival, a boy is tied up by a rope to a wooden pillar, and placed on a bamboo carpet. A Shinto priest comes to him preparing a knife, and he cuts a part of the top of the wooden pillar, but then a messenger (another priest) comes, and the boy is released. Animal sacrifices are then offered (75 deer with their ear split – the author speculates that this has a connection with the ram that God prepared and was sacrificed after Isaac was released. Since the ram was caught in the thicket by the horns, the ear might have been split).

The custom of the boy was maintained until the beginning of Meiji era. Masumi Sugae, who was a Japanese scholar and a travel writer in the Edo era (about 200 years ago), wrote a record of his travels and noted what he saw at Suwa. The record shows the details of “Ontohsai.” His records are kept at the museum near Suwa-Taisha.

At the back of the shrine “Suwa-Taisha,” there is a mountain called Mt. Moriya (“Moriya-san” in Japanese). The people from the Suwa area call the god of Mt. Moriya “Moriya no kami,” which means, the “god of Moriya.” This shrine is built to worship the “god of Moriya.” It is said that the God of Moriya has existed among the people for 78 generations. Moriah in ancient Israel is the location where Abraham went to sacrifice Isaac.

A “Yamabushi” – a certain type of religious man in Japan – ties a black small box called a “tokin” with a black cord to his forehead. This is similar to the Jewish tefillin (phylacteries). However, the “tokin” is round and flower-like.

Here’s a video that tries to show the connection between the Jews and the Japanese. Note at about 3:25 in the video you can see Japanese men wearing “tefillin.”

The yamabushi also used a large seashell as a horn, which the article claims is reminiscent of a shofar. There is also a legend where a yamabushi-like character receives a “tora-no-maki” – derived from “Torah?” (No real Torah scrolls have ever been found in Japan.)

According to Arimasa Kubo, the Yamabushi is not a clan or a tribe like the Hata tribe. A group of people who trained themselves religiously at mountain were called Yamabushi.

Talking of yamabushi, there's a demon of the Japanese mythology with a long nose that is called Yamabushi Tengu which could resemble a person from western Asia (the Middle East).

                                                                   Yamabushi Tengu

The Japanese carry an ark called “omikoshi” or Mikoshi during festivals. There is some resemblance to the Israelites’ ark of the covenant. The Japanese sing and dance in front of it with song to the sounds of musical instruments. The Japanese carry the “omikoshi” on their shoulders with poles – usually two poles, which also has similarities to the Israelites carrying the ark.

The similarities continue: the Israelite ark had two statues of gold kruvim (a type of angel) on its top. Japanese “omikoshi” also have on its top a gold bird (called a “Ho-oh”). The “omikoshi” are often overlaid partly and sometimes entirely with gold. At the Shinto shrine festival of “Gion-jinja” in Kyoto, men carry “omikoshi,” then enter a river, and cross it – a connection with the Israelites exodus from Egypt? (Although the ark was not fashioned until after the crossing of the Red Sea.)

                    Japanese omikoshis like this one resemble the Hebrew Ark of the Covenant

Similarity to the fringes of the Jewish tallit?

The Japanese Shinto priest robe has cords of 20-30 centimeters long (about 10 inches) hung from the corners of the robe. These fringes are similar to those of the ancient Israelites and on today’s tallit.

Shinto priests also wear a rectangle of cloth on their robes that the author says have similarities to the ephod of the Jewish priest (the Kohen).

A bit more of a tenuous connection: Japanese priests often wave a tree branch, which could be similar to the waving of the lulav during the Jewish festival of Sukkot.

The structure of the Japanese temple has certain similarities to the Jewish Holy of Holies. Both are divided into two parts. Ordinary Japanese can only pray in front of the holy place and cannot enter inside. The Shinto priest enters his Holy of Holies only at special times during the year.

The “temizuya” at the entrance to a Japanese shrine allows worshippers to wash their hands and feet, a custom also practiced in ancient Israelite times.

Moving past the shrine, there is a custom in Japan to eat a porridge with bitter herbs on January 15th. Jews eat bitter herbs for Passover, also on the 15th of the month (although in this case, it is the 15th of the Jewish month of Nisan).

It has been a custom in Japan since ancient times that a woman during menstruation cannot attend holy events at shrine. She cannot have sex with her husband and had to shut herself up in a shed (called “Gekkei-goya” in Japanese) until about 7 days after menstruation has ended. These customs were in effect until about 100 years ago.

Japanese Types, Showing Jewish Features.(According to McLeod, "Epitome of the Ancient History of Japan," Tokyo,1879.)
Although the custom of women needing to move to a separate dwelling during menstruation is seen in other cultures (Thailand, certain parts of Africa), there are certainly a number of similarities to the Jewish rules of the mikveh, including a law in Japanese tradition that when the woman has passed the 7 day period, she needs to purify herself in a natural body of water such as a river, spring, or the sea.

In addition to the article cited above, Rabbi Marvin Tokayer spent many years living in Japan where he served as rabbi following his discharge from the army. He has written extensively on the subject.

                                                                                                                                    One of the Japanese mountains related to to the ancient Israelites. Does the Israelite king Asa have any relation with mount Aso?


No one - apart perhaps from a few Japanese who see themselves as descendants of one of the lost tribes of Israel - would think of Japan as in any sense a Jewish homeland. Yet among the many shrines and temples, Shinto and Buddhist, there stand occasional monuments to Jewish commitment and endeavor. As ever, this is part of a heritage in which hope and despair, longing and sacrifice, war and struggle, have all been mingled together.

Certainly this is true of Tokyo, whose Jewish community rose improbably out of the ashes of Allied victory. Probably there were more Jews in Japan during the postwar American Occupation than at any other time in the country's long history. Although the Occupation ended in 1952, an American military presence persists, with armed forces based in Okinawa as well as at other facilities. As a result, American Jews, both men and women, remain in Japan, able to take part in Jewish life if they wish to do so. At Yokosuka naval base near Tokyo, for instance, there is a small "chapel," complete with Torah scroll, which is used on the High Holy Days and on other occasions. It would not be surprising if on these days the number of Jews worshiping at American military facilities were comparable to the numbers taking part in services at Japan's two synagogues, in the capital, Tokyo, and in western Japan (Kansai) in the port city of Kobe.

Although Japan may be regarded as quite removed from Jewish life, the country has had its own rich Jewish history. Here can be glimpsed distinctive Jewish values as well as significant and unique ties to the wider Japanese society. At present, the Tokyo and Kobe Jewish communities make it possible for Jews of many different backgrounds - teachers of English, visiting business people, itinerant students and travelers, Israeli jewelry dealers, American tourists - to observe festivals and holidays, to keep the Sabbath, and to preserve their ties to the community, their faith, and one another.

Origins: Nagasaki and Yokohama

Although Jewish travelers are known to have entered Japan with Portuguese and Dutch merchants as early as the sixteenth century, Jews did not permanently settle in Japan until after Commodore Perry's arrival there in 1853. The first Jewish settler came to Yokohama - near Tokyo - in 1861. The earliest Jewish tombstone dates from only four years later. By 1895 this community, which developed to about 50 families, was able to dedicate Japan's first synagogue. While the community was never large, the foreigners' cemetery in Yokohama exhibits its diversity through tombstones etched in Hebrew, German, French, Russian, German, and Japanese.

Jews also settled in Nagasaki during the 1880s. As a significant Japanese port, the city was more accessible to Jews fleeing from Russian pogroms. Accordingly, the Nagasaki community, with about 100 families, was soon larger than the one in Yokohama. The Beth Israel Synagogue - which used to be depicted on Rosh Hashanah greeting cards sold at the Tokyo synagogue - was built in 1894. There is also a Hebrew section in its foreigners' cemetery. Although the Nagasaki community was regarded as an active one, during the Russo-Japanese War of 1904-5 the community disintegrated, passing its Torah scroll to the Jews of Kobe, a group of Jewish soldiers and recently freed prisoners of war who had participated in the Czar's army and the Russian revolution of 1905. One of the most esteemed members of this group was Joseph Trumpeldor, who lost an arm during the Russo-Japanese War and was later to become one of the genuine heroes of the Zionist movement for his role in the formation of the Jewish defense forces in Palestine.

The great earthquake of 1923 that destroyed most of Tokyo had a major effect on Jewish life in Japan as well. Until that time the most active Jewish community in Japan was in Yokohama. Following the earthquake the community moved to Kobe, which then had about 50 families.

Kobe and Tokyo

During the early to middle 1900s, the Kobe community was composed largely of Jews from Russia, the Middle East, and Germany. In most cases, the Russian Jews had arrived in Japan via the Manchurian city of Harbin, which had three synagogues, a Jewish school, and a population of about 30,000 Jews. The Middle Eastern Jews, known as "Baghdadi Jews," originally came to Kobe from present-day Iraq and Syria, as well as from Yemen, Iran, and other areas in Central Asia and the Middle East. Perhaps the most prominent family among them was the Sassoons, known as the "Rothschilds of the East." Other Jews came to Japan from Central and Eastern Europe, and particularly from Germany. While some emigrated for economic reasons, others responded to changing developments during the 1930s.

The Tokyo community - now Japan's largest - was slower to develop. Indeed, the Japanese capital only became an important center of Jewish life with the arrival of the American Jewish servicemen. From the postwar period through to the present, small numbers of Jews regularly arrive from the United States and Western Europe for business, academic, or professional reasons. The Tokyo community has a higher profile than Kobe, and the presence of the Israeli Embassy in the capital also may give members some additional opportunities for cultural and social activities. The Jewish Community of Japan, Tokyo's central representative body, is affiliated with the World Jewish Congress. In addition to the synagogue, the community center houses a Hebrew school, library, and recreational facilities. Friday night and Saturday services are followed by a kosher communal meal. The community premises, when launched, also included a Jewish Club, with a billiards room and other amenities.

Each community is organized along familiar constitutional lines. For instance, the Kobe community is organized as the Jewish Community of Kansai, with a General Committee consisting of a President, Vice-President, Treasurer, Secretary, and House Committee Chairman. The Constitution requires at least one General Meeting every six months as a well as a monthly meeting of its Committee. As in other small communities, the importance of these constitutional principles and procedures to members has faded except at moments of communal controversy.

Communal membership is open to "all persons of the Jewish Faith 18 years of age and over, who are recognized permanent or semi-permanent residents." Although there are procedures to recommend that members "resign" from the community, the Kobe Constitution also stipulates that "under no condition shall a member of the Jewish Faith be denied the right to worship at the Synagogue." The Jews of Kobe are represented by the Jewish Community of Kansai, which is also affiliated with the World Jewish Congress. There was substantial damage to the Kobe synagogue during the 1995 earthquake, but the structure was completely repaired. One of the two tablets of the Ten Commandments over the Ark was damaged but has since been replaced.

                                                       Ark of the Covenant carried by priests

The services in Kobe and Tokyo are a mixture of traditional and modern. The Kobe synagogue, Ohel Shelomoh, was built in 1970, not far from the Kobe Club, set up for foreign residents in the city's attractive Kitano section. An earlier synagogue was destroyed in air raids during World War II. The community conducts its services largely according to Sephardic practice, reflecting the origins of its founders, although most of the Jews attending services are usually Ashkenazim. There is no full-time resident rabbi and the size of the community probably makes it unlikely that one will be recruited. Some services are conducted by visiting rabbis. In 1999, for example, a Chabad rabbi visited the Kobe community during Passover before returning with his family to his position in Hong Kong. Over the High Holy Day period the community was assisted in 1999 by a very popular Israeli, who led services which attracted many other Israelis from their work in Osaka and elsewhere.

The community is very warm and welcoming. After Friday night services all those who wish to do so can stay for dinner, with a kosher meal prepared by a Japanese cook. Meals are also provided after morning services and there is a "third meal" just before the evening service. Usually most of those attending services will remain throughout the day, only leaving after havdalah.

The Tokyo community has a full-time American rabbi. In 1999 Rabbi Carnie Rose, a Canadian, left for a position in Long Island; he was replaced by Rabbi Elliot Marmon, an American who had previously held a position in North Carolina. The Tokyo congregation has had some communal strife over its services. At present, the rabbi presides over an "egalitarian" service in the main sanctuary while an Orthodox service may be held (numbers permitting) elsewhere in the Center. Seating in the sanctuary is also somewhat innovative, with shared seating (men and women sitting together) in the middle. Sections reserved exclusively for men or for women are found on either side. Although inevitably there are some tensions as a result of the synagogue offering two distinctively different services simultaneously - they never finish at the same time - this is perhaps an improvement over the Kobe situation, where those unhappy with the Orthodox arrangements (women sit in a separate area behind a partition) simply do not attend or take part in Jewish activities.

It is always hazardous to attempt to estimate the numbers of Jews in a particular community. Japan's Jewish population (excluding American armed forces personnel and diplomatic staff) is probably about 600, mostly in Tokyo, although the number who are active in synagogue or community affairs is considerably less. In such small communities a Bar or Bat Mitzvah - or a Jewish wedding - is a rare event indeed.

Japan: A Haven for Refugees

Japan has always been one of the most homogeneous of countries. There is no commitment to a "plural" society and the only statues of liberty are replicas which for some reason crop up in all sorts of places around the country. Japanese attitudes towards foreigners have in fact oscillated wildly throughout Japan's history, from outright hostility to the most extravagant admiration. Visitors today will often find Japanese people to be as genuinely kind and compassionate as any, and there have been occasions in the past when these qualities have served to save Jewish lives. For instance, during 1917-20, in the aftermath of the Bolshevik Revolution, the Jews of Yokohama and Kobe were able to offer significant help to several thousand Jewish refugees with the cooperation of the Japanese government. Many of these refugees had been unable to land in Japan because they lacked the necessary funds. This problem was resolved through the help of Jacob Schiff, the leader of the New York banking firm of Kuhn, Loeb, and Company, and the then president of the American Hebrew Immigrant Aid Society (HIAS). Since Schiff had given Japan important financial assistance during the Russo-Japanese War, his request to make Yokohama and Kobe transit centers for the refugees was quickly accepted.

Japan and the Holocaust

More recently, and more remarkably, Japan became one of the world's only countries where Jews could find refuge from the Holocaust. This occurred despite Japan's alliance with Nazi Germany. Following the German invasion of Poland in September 1939, Jewish refugees were unable to board Italian or Japanese ships en route from Italy to Shanghai or Japan. With passage from the Mediterranean effectively blocked, the only escape route east was through the Soviet Union on the Trans-Siberian Railway bound for Vladivostok. This route remained open until the German invasion of Russia in June 1941. More than 10,000 Jews, fleeing for their lives, were able to enter neutral Lithuania from Poland between October 1939 and May 1940. Among them were nearly 5,000 who successfully made their way to Japan.

These refugees were granted passage through the help of the Dutch Consul in Kaunas, Lithuania. The Consul offered the refugees misleading landing permits and transit visas to Curacao in the Dutch West Indies. They were also assisted by Chiune Sugihara, the first representative of the Japanese consulate in Lithuania, who had arrived to take up his position in August 1939. Although the Japanese have generally not had a reputation for individuality - to say nothing of conspicuous disobedience to direct orders - Sugihara ignored instructions from his own government, going on to issue several thousand passports with a Japanese 8-12 day transit visa. Hillel Levine's 1996 book, In Search of Sugihara, suggests this remarkable figure, motivated, it seems, solely by kindness and humanity, may have saved as many as 10,000 lives. In any case, the documents he granted were sufficient to allow those Jews fortunate enough to have them to secure exit visas from the Russian authorities.

Sugihara's heroism, recognized years later by the State of Israel (and Yad Vashem), cost him dearly with his own government. He sacrificed his career while enabling thousands of Jews to survive. In Japan itself, notwithstanding the government's equivocal attitude, compassion for Jewish refugees soon overcame any political reservations. The Japanese government assisted Jews and Jewish organizations, such as the National Council of Jews in Asia, providing food, shelter, and transportation. Individual Japanese offered Jewish people free medical service, gifts and food, treating them with decency and generosity.

About 500 of the Jewish refugees were students, rabbis, and families from the Yeshiva of Mir, the only European institute of Talmudic learning to remain intact throughout the Holocaust. While efforts were made to move the Yeshiva to the West, it established its study hall (Beit Midrash) in a Kobe neighborhood. Since the Japanese had never seen a yeshiva before, especially one whose daily 18 hours of study consisted of fervent singing and praying, an official was sent to examine the school. The yeshiva not only received "clearance" from the government, its members were regarded as "Holy idealists."

The refugees lived peacefully in Japan for some three to eight months, beginning in the winter of 1940-41. Before the bombing of Pearl Harbor half of them were able to move to the United States, Canada, and other areas in the Western Hemisphere. With no other place to turn, the remainder, including the entire Yeshiva of Mir, relocated to Japanese-occupied Shanghai. Here, too, the Japanese record proved exemplary, as the government resisted determined and repeated requests from Nazi German officials for assistance in the relocation and extermination of the Jews in the Shanghai ghetto.

Explicit anti-Jewish activity in Japan has been minimal. There are some accounts of Jews losing jobs during World War II. Music schools where Jewish performers taught were closed. On the whole, however, German advice and encouragement for the Japanese to establish anti-Jewish policies met with resistance from Japanese officials. Some of this reluctance may have been influenced by hopes of access to Jewish capital. Nevertheless, on December 31, 1940, Japanese Foreign Minister Matsuoka Yosuke told a group of Jewish businessmen, "I am the man responsible for the alliance with Hitler, but nowhere have I promised that we would carry out his anti-Semitic policies in Japan. This is not simply my personal opinion, it is the opinion of Japan, and I have no compunction about announcing it to the world."

There have also been many cases where Japanese, seeing themselves as victims of wartime raids and nuclear attack, have sympathized strongly with Jewish suffering. Some Japanese see parallels between their own personal and family wartime tragedies and those experienced by the Jews of Europe. Anne Frank's Diary of a Young Girl has been required reading for Japanese students for many years, and copies of the book can be seen in many Japanese homes. The book first appeared in Japan in 1952 and has since sold millions of copies. There have been numerous student essay contests about the work and there is even a company named after her, Anne Co., Ltd.

Films about the Holocaust are frequently shown in Japan, both on television and in the movies. The most recent to gain wide exposure is the award-winning Italian movie "Life is Beautiful." Other incidents and events (such as the trials of Nazi war criminals) have also brought the Holocaust to Japanese public awareness. There is a Holocaust Museum in Hiroshima and a Holocaust Resource Center in Tokyo, as well as some Japanese poetry comparing Hiroshima with Auschwitz.

Jews in Japanese Thinking

The Japanese attitude towards Jews, Judaism, and Israel seems somewhat complex. Only rarely is it accompanied by much first-hand information or detailed knowledge. Most Japanese people lack any awareness of Jews, which in some cases seems in many ways quite remarkable. For instance, few Japanese residents of Tokyo or Kobe would have any idea that there were Jewish communities or synagogues located in their cities. A visitor asking for directions to the synagogue might as well be inquiring after the most direct route to the pyramids. The nature of Jewish life, too, lies outside of Japanese experience. As for what takes place inside a synagogue, this is almost a complete mystery. Yet Japanese people are singularly thoughtful and sensitive. One hint of dietary requirements is all that is necessary for Japanese to go to great lengths, over a long and sustained period, to ensure that a visitor's needs will be fully met.

Such anti-Jewish attitudes as may exist stem more from a heritage of anti-foreign perspectives, one which goes back a long way in Japanese history and culture. As an isolated island nation which had minimal contact with foreign nations for much of its history, this has at times left Japanese people ill-equipped to deal with provocative points of view. Some anti-Jewish attitudes have at times found their way into widely read publications, yet in the long run they seem to have had little impact on individual Japanese perceptions about Jews and Judaism. Postwar Japan has developed a pacifist political culture which makes it a largely uninviting environment for organized hostility towards other peoples.

Publications identifying the Jews as the reason for Japan's problems have had their run, but seem in the end to have had only a shallow influence on policies or events. Nevertheless, ignorance does leave scope for considerable embarrassment. In October 1999, a Japanese publication, The Weekly Post, which has 852,000 subscribers and describes itself as the best-selling news magazine in the country, focusing on politics and the economy, published a story on the proposed acquisition of a Japanese bank, and soon generated strong complaints by Jewish groups, particularly outside of Japan. The Weekly Post quickly retracted the article and carried an apology on its home page. The publication explained its error by noting that "the problem stemmed from the stereotyped image of the Jewish people that many Japanese people have."

On occasion, Japanese images of Jews - to the extent that they have any - display a certain ambivalence. If some Japanese view Jews as powerful or affluent, others admire Jewish intellect and prosperity. Some have argued that Japan should learn from what is imagined to be Jewish business tactics and strategies. More typically, Japanese rarely meet Jews or, more accurately, realize that they are doing so. In this sense, Jewish people are seldom if ever distinguished from other foreigners unless they take some action themselves (such as observing dietary laws, the Sabbath, or holidays).

As elsewhere, anti-Zionism has had an influence over Japanese policy-makers. Following the 1967 Six-Day War, left-wing Japanese began to sympathize with the Arabs who, defeated, were now perceived as the underdog. In addition, conservative circles in government, business, and the bureaucracy were concerned about the country's access to oil, a dependency to which resource-poor Japan has been acutely sensitive. Japanese businesses were largely willing to comply with the Arab boycott and it was not until the 1990s peace process gained momentum that Japanese companies began to take a more active role in the Israeli economy. In addition, there are some Japanese university staff who conduct research into the Hebrew language and Jewish affairs. In 1995, the Japanese-Jewish Friendship and Study Society was established, and the fourth volume of the group's journal, Namal, was published in 1999.

Japanese Fascination with Judaism and Israel

As in other countries, some Japanese have been fascinated with kibbutz ideology, going to work for a time as volunteers at kibbutzim. It is likely that - apart from idealism and a sense of adventure - the collective approach of kibbutz life resonates well with Japanese values, which traditionally give primacy to the group over the individual. In 1963, Tezuka Nobuyoshi set up the Japan Kibbutz Association (Nihon Kibutsu Kyokai) which grew to 30,000 members within a few years. This group produced a number of publications and sent Japanese to volunteer on kibbutzim in Israel. One Japanese person who volunteered in Israel with the association wrote the 1965 best-seller, Shalom Israel, describing the warmth of kibbutz life.

Another group which sends Japanese to volunteer on kibbutzim is the Makuya, a pro-Israel Christian group which claims to have 60,000 members. The group was founded by Teshima Ikuro, who believed that the Japanese originate from one of the ten lost tribes of Israel. Some of the Makuya's pro-Israel activity included a rally in front of the United Nations headquarters in New York in 1971. After Japanese terrorists opened fire in the Tel Aviv airport in 1972, Teshima went to Israel to apologize to the families and offer bereavement. As well, 3,000 members led the first demonstration in Japan, held in Tokyo after the 1973 Yom Kippur War, to promote peace in Israel.

Another pro-Israel group is the Japanese Christian Friends of Israel, with perhaps 10,000 members. Its headquarters, Beit Shalom (House of Peace), is located in Kyoto. The group is also well known for its choir, the Shinome (Dawn) Chorus, which sings Israeli and Japanese songs and has traveled to Israel, Europe, and the United States. The group's main ideology centers on support for Israel and includes prayers for the coming of the Messiah. Rather than encourage conversion to Christianity, the group emphasizes peace between peoples. The Mayor of Jerusalem, Ehud Olmert, visited Beit Shalom in 1999. Jews and Israelis are specifically welcome to stay at Beit Shalom for up to three nights free of charge.

Kampo Harada, one of Japan's most famous calligraphers, also believed that the Japanese were descended from the lost tribes. Kampo went all over the world to do calligraphy, even traveling to Israel to paint for Yitzhak Rabin. Kampo was an earnest collector of Judaica. Hidden in the back of his Kyoto museum is a small room filled with Jewish books, three Torah scrolls, and various Jewish objects for use with prayer. Kampo's impressive collection includes hundreds of books about Israel, Jewish thought, prayer books, and books in Hebrew. There are rare works such as the Babylonian Talmud, the complete Zohar, and a Torah scroll which was saved at the end of World War II by an American soldier in Germany. Kampo collected Jewish books for forty years, and has another 4,600 books being held at a museum in Shiga-ken.

The Future of Jewish Life in Japan

When the Tokyo synagogue, Beth David, with its beautiful sanctuary, was dedicated in November 1968, the motives for maintaining Jewish life in Japan were articulated in a dedication speech at that time: "Here, in a strange land on the edge of the diaspora, far from the world centers of Judaism, with no external, visible reminders of our heritage, a whole generation, our children, are in constant danger of being lost to our people. This is why we have a Jewish Community, why we determinedly, stubbornly, even fiercely insist on a center of Jewish life in Tokyo, where we can raise our children as Jews."

Japan's Jewish population seems destined never to be very large, however, and there remains, in Japan as elsewhere, the reality of intermarriage. The attractions of Japanese to Western visitors having long been celebrated in literature and the arts. Jews living in Japan have not been exempt from these sentiments. In most cases the children of Japanese-Jewish marriages are not raised as Jews. However, a visit to the Kobe and Tokyo synagogues also finds a handful of Japanese Jews present at services. Some of them have Jewish spouses; others have converted to Judaism for various reasons. Converts to Judaism in Japan are not numerous, but they can and do have an impact on a community's life. In Kobe, for instance, a Japanese woman became an important member of the small community after her interest in Judaism (sparked by friendships with Kobe Jews) led to a program of study in the United States and participation in a formal conversion program. Her interest in Judaism reflected dissatisfaction with the secular attitudes of the younger generation of Japanese. Her subsequent marriage to an Israeli (formerly resident in Kobe), in Israel, was attended by other members of the Kobe congregation.

Of course Japan has a way of inspiring visitors with its own distinctive atmosphere. Some of its attractiveness is spiritual; even the seasons can seem intoxicating in Japan, with each providing its own special beauty, its own particular charm. The Japanese and the Jews - the subject of more than one book - do share much in common, as complex peoples who are among the world's most enduring and most modern, at once traditional and innovative, respectful of the past yet zealous for the future. If any bridge is needed between them, it is surely in the example of a Japanese diplomat - long neglected both by Japanese and by Jews - a man who, nearly 60 years ago, held life in his fingertips, in the form of pieces of paper, and gave them to all that he could reach - Sugihara, a righteous Japanese who helps make it possible for Jews to visit and live in Japan in warmth and with pride.


In 2005 Chief Rabbi Shlomo Amar recognized the Kuki-Mizo, a Tibeto-Burmese people in northern India, as one of the Lost Tribes of Israel. Since then there has been a lot of controversy surrounding the issuing of visas by Israel to these people but on Christmas eve 2012 the Israeli government decided to let them emigrate. These people have been renamed as Bnei Meneshe (בני מנשה, the Children of Menasseh) recognizing them as being descendants of the tribe of Menasseh.  The subject of the Lost Tribes of Israel are a matter of historical debate. Traditionally these Tribes were dispersed by the Assyrians after the destruction of the Kingdom of Israel in 720 BC. There are no records in history for whole tribes being dispersed, only portions of tribes are recorded as being sent to specific locations.

Nonetheless these legends have persisted throughout the centuries. There have been many scholars, adventurers and religious leaders who have claimed to have found the Lost Tribes and even several nations who claim descent from the Kingdom of Israel. These include several peoples such as the Kurds, the British and South American Indians. However, the most interesting claim, from my point of view, comes from Japan. Although it is nigh impossible for such a claim to be true it is interesting purely for the certain similarities between these two most distant cultures that provoked such claims.

One of first people to establish such a link was the 16th century Jesuit missionary João Rodriguez who claimed that the Japanese and Chinese were the Lost Tribes. He would later go back on this theory in his book Historia da Igreja do Japão which claimed that the Japanese were actually descended from the Koreans. This would not deter others from trying to establish links. In the 19th century a  Scottish, former herring farmer turned missionary called Nicholas McLeod, claimed in his publication, Epitome of the ancient history of Japan, that the Japanese aristocracy and priestly caste were descendants of the Lost Tribe and that the legend of Emperor Jimmu (the first Emperor according to legend) was an adaption of the story of Moses leading the Israelites out of Egypt. Such theories, written by missionaries, have a tendency to ignore Japanese social structures and acted as more of an attempt to explain the advanced state of the Japanese or Chinese civilizations. In the 19th century in particular it was used as a convenient explanation for Japan’s rapid modernization from a feudal nation to a rival of the Western powers.

These theories were always largely ignored by the Japanese themselves until relatively recently when Japanese Christians looked into it. Their arguments are more convincing but are more interesting if viewed as anthropological coincidence. Arimasa Kubo, a Japanese Christian and Biblical scholar, points to an interesting ceremony at a Shinto shrine in Nagano prefecture. The shrine in question is Suwa-Taisha which has a unique ceremony that takes place on the 15th April every year. The shrine sits in front of a mountain called Moriya. During the festival to honour the god of Moriya a boy is taken up the mountain and tied to a post. A priest symbolically prepares to sacrifice the boy until a messenger (another priest) comes to tell him to stop. After this a deer is sacrificed in the boys place. Kubo draws parallels between this and the story of Abraham and Isaac from Genesis down to the name of the mountain (in Genesis this takes place on Mt Moriah). Kubo also points to the fact that animal sacrifice, let alone human sacrifice, is not a particularly Shinto practice. This does not of course present any proof of Jewish influences in Japanese folk religion but the similarities are more interesting for that. At this time I have not managed to find out the origins of this unusual ritual aside from those who claim it comes from Judaism (none of them academics).

Recently there have been attempts to find similarities with the Hebrew and Japanese languages. Joseph Eidelberg, a Jewish former engineer, claimed to have found links between the two languages. In his book The Japanese and the Ten Lost Tribes of Israel  Eidelberg claims some words in ancient Japanese such as “agata-nushi” (県主) meaning “territorial leader” have similarities with Hebrew words for the same thing, “aguda-nasi” (אגודה נשיא). Eidelberg’s book goes on to list thousands of words that he claims are rooted in Hebrew. Some of these seem quite stretched but others do have a similarity.

Dr. Eiji Kawamorita, a hebraic scholar took a view that was a combination of Kubo and Eidelberg and became interested in a traditional Bon dance from Kumamoto prefecture called Naniya Doyara. Kawamorita claimed that the song to accompany the dance contained many non-Japanese words that sounded close to the Hebrew word hallelujah and the name of God Yahweh.

With the exception of Kawamorita, it is important to note that none of the above people are actually academics and their theories are the private speculation of people whose minds have already been made up on the issue. Nonetheless they point to interesting anomalies in Japanese tradition and legends and language. From the unique rituals at Suwa-Taisha shrine, the Naniya Doyara, or certain linguistic similarities. From the point of view of the language it is much more likely that this could have come from the Nestorian Christians who we know reached as far as China after their expulsion from the Roman Empire. The Nestorians used Aramaic in their liturgy which is a dialect of Hebrew. It is possible that a community of Nestorians reached Japan and were gradually assimilated into certain communities which in turn picked up some of their language and traditions.

In a related note. In northern Japan, near the town of Aomori there is a small crucifix that marks the grave, where local legend has it that Jesus was buried. This belongs to a folk tale that after the crucifixion and Resurrection Jesus didn’t ascend into heaven but went east and settled outside Aomori where he lived out the rest of his days as a rice farmer. There is even a local family which claims descent from Jesus. The origin of this story came in the 1930s with the discovery of what purported to be ancient Hebrew documents that detailed Jesus’ life and death in Japan. These documents have conveniently disappeared and there are currently no plans to excavate the grave itself. For more information see the BBC article The Japanese Jesus Trail by Duncan Bartlett.

Are the Japanese Hebrews or at least is the Hata clan Hebrew? The Hata clan for sure it is.

The Hata clan or tribe are also called Hada. As mentioned further the Samurai sect would come from Samaria. The Yamabushi people & the the Royal House of Japan have Israelite origin too. Apart from that there's a Christian group called Makuya that is deeply zionist & that has judaizing practices. There's an "Association of the Ten Tribes" in Japan as well.

3 pillar Torii, Trinity?: Christianity expanded thru the Silk Road & apparently the Hata Israelites became Christian)

A symbol that might represent the number 16 is what I will explain in the next sentences. The Levites were divided in 3 clans: Kohathites, Merarites & Gershonites. Therefore regarding the division of the Israelites they were often counted as 3 distinct grpups. The 2 tribes of Joseph (Manassehites & Ephraimites) were clearly counted separately. Finally the twin sons of Judah were often counted as separate. The result of the number of groups of Israelites then is 16, just as the number of spokes-petals of the celebrated wheel-flower symbol representative of Israel.The number 16 is also present in the number of Commonwealth members.         

                           Japan Kouzoku Flag the same as in the Herod's Gate in Jerusalem. 
                           It's interesting that the Japanese imperial flag has the very same number of sun beams as the 16 spoked wheel 16 petaled flower.

                                                       Baptismal font in Shinto shrine

                                                                Location of the Hata clan

                                                                        Israel-Japan Hata clan

         Komainu/Qilin & Lion compared to Unicorn & Lion of the Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom

A Palestinian (Israelite) village is called Katana. Another Palestinian (Israelite) village is called Nakhalin similar to the Japanese (Nowadays Russian) island of Sakhalin. Apart from that there's another called Sakhnin. All these Villages have "Arabs" of Jewish origin. Are these coincidences?. There's a Jewish Japanese sect called Makuya. The Hata clan have Israelite origin. Do you think they may join one day the People of Israel through aliyah? Arimasa Kubo

As far as I inquired, the name Sakhalin originated from a word of Manchuria 
(today's north part of China). The Japanese used to call the island Karafuto. I have several friends of Makuya. They love Israel. As far as I research, the Hata clan were ancient Israelite converts to Eastern Christianity. Before they immigrated to Japan, the Mononobe clan immigrated to Japan in the time of BCE. I believe they were Israelites with an ancient Israelite religion. About their Aliyah, I think only God knows. Arimasa Kubo

Is it a coincidence that the Khata clan from Tulkarem has another Hata clan in Japan with   Israelite costums? For sure not!

                                                                Mount Moriya in Japan

                                   Qiang Israelites have costums similar to the Japanese.

                                               Expansion of Christendom thru the Silk Road

The Japanese island of Shikoku & its minor islands around it belong to the prefecture of Shikoku. As mentioned before, this area of Shikoku & suroundings is the area of Japan were you find more legends, places & peoples with origin in the ancient Israelites. It was promised that by the name of Isaac the Israelites would be known as happened in other ocasions. The Saxons have that name as Isaacsons, as their ancestors did: Sakasuni or simply Saka (also known as Scythians). Some ethnic groups in India come from the ones that stayed in the east. Shikoku under the rule of Hebrew vowelizaton has the same Israelite name as Sakaide & Osaka do nearby.

It's also interesting that there's a Palestinian (therefore Israelite) village with the name of the famous Japanese sword "katana". The Palestinians of the village, at, least some, are still aware of their Jewish origin. And there's another town in Japan called Katano. What's interesting is the fact that is close to the mentioned Japanese Israelite area as it is the Makuya sect located in the same area. 

The Shindai, or holy class, of Japan is identified as the descendants of the Lost Ten Tribes. This is advocated by N. McLeod in his "Epitome of the Ancient History of Japan" (3d ed., Tokyo, 1879). He calls attention to a point of agreement between the two, namely, the fact that the first known king of Japan was Osee, 730 B.C., and the last king of Israel was Hosea, who died 722 B.C. In addition to this, McLeod points out that the Shinto temple is divided into a holy and a most holy place. The priests wear a linen dress, bonnet, and breeches, like the Jewish priests of old, and the ancient Temple instruments are used in the Shinto temple. The Japanese worship their ancestors, as the old Israelites did; and in addition to this McLeod points out the Jewish appearance of some Japanese, and supplements his "Epitome" with a volume of illustrations depicting among other things the supposed rafts on which the Israelites crossed, via Saghalien, to Japan, and their supposed order of march. Still further removed is the suggestion of some writers that the Australians are the Lost Tribes because they practice circumcision. 

According to Arimasa Kubo (Christian Protestant Japanese preacher & scholar on Japanese history & traditions), Shindai (Jindai) just means ancient and the ancient epoch of the Japanese mythology, the epoch of gods. The time is thought to be in B.C. Some people call the people of that time "Shindai tribe", but we don't know for sure if it is right or not, and what it was.

The Japanese Shinto Shrine is very similar to Israelite Temple & Tabernacle. The red Torii resembles the painted red door of the ancient Israelites too. The chōzuya o temizuya (手水舎) is a font with water to get purified through washing as in the ancient Temple of Israel.

There's a legend that Jesus visited the village of Herai (now called Shingou), in Aomori prefecture, Japan & died there. Jesus visited the other sheep of Israel as prophecied in John 10:16, but this was after His death & resurrection in the Holy Land. It's believed that Moses was buried in Mt. Houdatsu, Ishikawa prefecture & that many secret treasures of king Solomon are kept in Mt. Tsurugi, Shikoku, Japan.

Japanese Israelites

Some writers have speculated that the Japanese people themselves may be direct descendants of part of the Ten Lost Tribes. There are some parallels between Japanese and Israelite rituals, culture, traditions, and language, which provide some evidence for this possibility.5253 An article that has been widely circulated and published, entitled "Mystery of the Ten Lost Tribes: Japan" by Arimasa Kubo54 (a Japanese writer living in Japan who studied the Hebrew Bible), concludes that many traditional customs and ceremonies in Japan are very similar to the ones of ancient Israel and that perhaps these rituals came from the religion and customs of the Jews and the Ten Lost Tribes of Israel who might have come to ancient Japan. Joseph Eidelberg's "The Biblical Hebrew Origin of the Japanese People" makes a similar case:

Late in his life, Joseph Eidelberg began analyzing ancient traditions, religious ceremonies, historical names, haiku poems, Kana writings and Japanese folk songs, discovering thousands of words with similar pronunciations, sounds and translations between Hebrew and Japanese. These discoveries are history in the making, giving credible new information on the meanings of many unknown Japanese words, numbers, songs and cultural traditions – and this book is the first time that these remarkable similarities are combined into a single consistent theory.

Japanese Israel

Daber: in Hebrew, to speak. Daberu: Japanese for chatting.

Goi: a non-Hebrew or foreigner. Gai'Jeen: prefix for a foreigner, a non-Japanese.

Kor: cold in Hebrew. Koru: to freeze in Japanese.

Knesset: Parliament in Hebrew. Kensei: Constitutional government in Japanese.

These are among the thousands of words and names of places with no real etymological meaning in Japanese. And they all correspond with Hebrew words.

Even the Kings have similar names. The first known king of Japan, who was named Osee, ruled around 730 BC. This king has been identified with the last king of Israel, Hoshea, who died around the same time, at the time of the Assyrian exile of the ten tribes from Israel.

The holy Japanese shinto temple strongly recalls the ancient holy Israelite temple, which housed a holy of holies section and several gates. Several artifacts in Japan have been traced to Assyrian and Jewish sources, among them, a well in Koryugi with the words "well of Israel" inscribed on its side.

It has also been suggested that the carts of Otsu and Kyoto are of ancient biblical origin, as they are different from any others in Japan. Might the ancient Israelites and their wives and children have been conveyed to Japan in these carts? Among the Samurai sect, there is a tradition that their ancient ancestors came to Japan from western Asia around 660 BC.

The name 'Samurai' recalls 'Samaria'. And to which tribe do the Japanese belong? There are those who claim that the Mikado, the Japanese emperor, is a descendant of the Hebrew tribe of Gad. 'Mikado' recalls the Hebrew word for 'his majesty the king,' 'Malchuto' (& rulership in Hebrew is Malcut).


Makuya (幕 屋?), also called Makuya of Christ (キリストの幕屋 Kirisuto no makuya?) and based at the Tokyo Bible Seminary, is a religious movement in Japan founded in 1948 by Ikurō Teshima. To grasp the inner truth of Biblical religion, or the "Love of the Holy Spirit" as Teshima puts it, and to extol this existential love by embodying it and living accordingly is the essence of the Makuyas' religious life. They are fervently identified with the cause of Israel, conceiving the establishment of the State of Israel and the unification of Jerusalem as essentially a fulfillment of biblical prophecies.

"Makuya" is the Japanese equivalent for the Hebrew word mishkan, which refers to the Holy Tabernacle, the portable shrine where God and man encounter (Exodus 29:42–43). This name aptly captures the basic religious orientation of the Makuyas, who emphasize the significance of the personal, ineffable encounter with the Divine Presence in everyday life. This experience, according to them, must not, and indeed cannot, be substituted by a dogmatic belief in creeds or a stabilization of a religious institution; hence, the idea of the "portable" shrine, the Holy Tabernacle.

The Makuyas stress "a return to the dynamic faith of the original Gospel of early Hebraic Christianity, as opposed to the dogmatic, institutionalized, European-dominated churches." In their view, when Biblical religion was introduced to the Hellenistic world, its lively spirit was interpreted within Greek logic and eventually replaced by a set of theological creeds. The Makuyas, thus, seek to restore this original spirit by returning to its Hebrew roots, and learning the Bible accordingly.

The Makuyas are concerned not only about individual salvation but also the spiritual restoration, or enhancement, of each nation and social group. For example, they regard the contemporary value system of Japanese society as existentially deteriorated, overtly self-centered, with little consideration of fundamental moral virtues, traditional heritage, or common and public good of the society as a whole. Unlike nearly all other Christians in Japan, the Makuyas, rather, respect their cultural heritage and seek to inspire, or "re-awaken" as they put it, the "existential spirit of the Japanese people." In this respect, many Japanese Shintoists and Buddhists who share the same concern support Makuya's cause. Further, the Makuyas do not seek to proselytize to such believers of other religions, nor urge them to become Makuya members, for the Makuyas believe in religious pluralism, tolerance, and coexistence. In this sense, Makuya is best viewed, as they themselves see it, not as a "sect" but as a "movement," not as an "exclusive" but an "inclusive" group.

Unlike other Christians, which use the cross as their symbol, the Makuyas take the seven-armed Jewish menorah as their religious emblem, and display it on their badge or pendant. They prefer the menorah to the cross, viewing the latter as a symbol of "suffering" while the former, of "hope." The Makuyas have developed, or incorporated, a number of religious observances, customs and rituals. They also engage in convocations, marriage ceremonies, pilgrimages, and ritual costume and hairstyles.

Today, the Makuya movement has about a hundred branches all over the world, including Japan, Israel, United States, Canada, Denmark, France, the United Kingdom, Spain, Mexico, Brazil, Paraguay, China, Taiwan, South Korea, and Indonesia. Following, in part, the biblical tradition (2 Samuel 24), the movement does not conduct any census; hence, the exact number of its members remains unknown. It is known, however, that about 300,000 copies of its major magazine, The Light of Life, is subscribed to and issued every month. For those who live in Japan, more concretely, Teshima outlined a small number of tenets called "Our Beliefs" intended to define the core beliefs of the Makuya:

We lament over the spiritual deterioration of Japan and wish for the awakening of Yamato Damashii (大和魂 Japanese Spirit?). We wish for the revival of religion in the hearts of the Japanese and pray for the restoration of the Original Gospel. We stand on the basis of the Non-Church spirit; therefore, we neither belong to nor create any churches or denominations. We solely learn from the Old and New Testaments. We wish for the purification of Christianity, however we also cherish other religions of Japan and respect the personalities of their masters. Rising above the differences of political beliefs, we intend to sanctify Japanese society. We proclaim social justice and humanity with divine love, goodwill, and peace.

Makuya is a group of fervent lovers of Israel and Jewish people. It sends young members to a number of kibbutzim in Israel, and makes pilgrimages to Jerusalem. "Over [900] Makuya students have been sent to Israeli kibbutzim to work together with the people of the Bible, and to study Hebrew and the biblical background. Some of them continue their academic studies in universities." The primary kibbutz the Makuya students stay at is Heftziba. Makuya has also appeared in front of the United Nations on at least two occasions, speaking on behalf of Israel.

In 1967, when the Six-Day War broke out, Teshima wrote a telegram to the Makuya students in Israel: "Stay as long as you can and help Israel." The students, accordingly, volunteered to aid Israel during the war. In 1973, when the Yom Kippur War broke out, the State of Japan supported Arab countries, caving in to an Arab oil embargo. This diplomatic policy frustrated Teshima. Despite his serious illness (terminal cirrhosis), Teshima, then, organized, with 3,000 of his adherents, a campaign for Israel in front of the Diet building in Tokyo. It was the first pro-Israel demonstration ever held in Japan. The campaign received wide coverage in the press, radio, and television. However, it also worsened Teshima’s illness and he died three weeks later on Christmas Day 1973.

Teshima's name was inscribed twice on the Golden Book of the Jewish National Fund; once in September, 1967 in honor of his staunch support for Israel during the Six-Day War and once in January, 1974 honoring his passing. His unconditional love, devotion, and support for Israel that stemmed from his biblical faith is, to this day, carried on by the members of the Makuya movement. The Jewish National Fund had planted a forest in memory of Teshima, located in the Lower Galilee. It was named "Makuya Forest".

Teshima was influenced by the writings of Uchimura Kanzō, studying under his disciple Tsukamoto Toraji and joining the Nonchurch Movement. Other religious figures that made a great impact upon Teshima’s belief and religiosity include Toyohiko Kagawa, Sadhu Sundar Singh, and Martin Buber. In 1947, Teshima was accused of obstructing a municipal plan to destroy a local school in Kumamoto, and a warrant was issued for his arrest. Teshima fled to Mount Aso in central Kyūshū where he stayed in an inn for several weeks, where he claims to have had a face-to-face encounter with God. Teshima returned home and discovered the warrant had been retracted. His experience at Mt. Aso compelled him to begin a life of ministry. He set up a Bible study group which quickly grew into a movement known as Genshi Fukuin Undo (lit., Original Gospel Movement), and then as Makuya. The sympathizers of this movement include such religious thinkers and scholars as Otto A. Piper, Martin Buber, Abraham Joshua Heschel, Zalman Shazar, Hugo Bergmann, Zvi Yehuda Kook, André Chouraqui, and Yisrael Meir Lau.

The 16 Petaled Flower or the wheel with 16 spaces between spokes

The Sixteen Spoked Wheel or Sixteen Petaled Flower traces its origin in the Middle East & scholars relate it specifically  to the Israelites. I propose another more specific meaning regarding this Israelite symbol: the number sixteen is the sum of 12 (the Israelite tribes) plus the number 4, representing their dispersion to the 4 corners of the earth.

The "Anahata chakra" is a Star of David. It doesn't seem to be a coincidence that it has outside 12 petals like the number of the tribes of Israel. Is the symbol inside the star a harp of David too?

"Sixteen-Petal Chrysanthemum", "Sixteen-Spoked Chakra" Chakra in Sanskrit literally means "wheel", "disk" or "centre". Chakra is a center of activity that receives, assimilates, and expresses life force energy and refers to a spinning sphere of bioenergetic activity emanating from the major nerve ganglia branching forward from the spinal column.

I'm interested to know about the flower in Jerusalem's wall above Herod's Gate attached in the wall.  Who built it? Was a Jewish symbol? What's its meaning? What's its name? I'm talking about the 16 petal flower. I'm aware this part of Jerusalem wall & the whole of the wall was made by the Ottomans but the 16 petal flower or wheel is unique. It's in the Japanese imperial seal, in the Gypsy flag, in some Indian chakras (wheels) & might be somewhere else. I have the impresion that it's a Jewish/Israelite symbol. I'm thankful for your information. If anybody can give me more it would be very much appreciated.

-You'll see it above other gates in Jerusalem...

 -I can't speak officially but if you look even as late as Herodian you'll find blossoms were a significant piece of artwork.

 -I asked this because I know the actual wall & door were made by the Ottomans but the 16 petal flower or wheel is unique. It's in the Japanese imperial seal, in the Gypsy flag & might be somewhere. I have the impresion that it's a Jewish/Israelite symbol. I'm thankful for your information.

 -I have a research book about this 16 petal symbol. It says that the symbol appears at many relics in Israel, Egypt, Assyria and other Middle Eastern countries as a symbol of king. It is not necessarily Jewish and I don't know whether it was a flower or a wheal, but anyway it was widespread among Middle Eastern kings. Japanese emperors have been also using this symbol since ancient times.

  -What I read is that actually it is the symbol of the wheels used to smash the olives into oil. Since the Mount of Olives is just around this gate.I also heard that this symbol was common in Middle Eastern monarchies, including the Israelite monarchy.

According to this web Japanese, at least part of them, have Israelite ancestry:
Toriis remind of the painting in red on the frame of the doors as in ancient Israel.

Gypsy Israelites and the relation of the "16 Petaled flower"/Imperial Seal of Japan/16 Spoke Gypsy Wheel

While the word gypsy comes from the German word for Egyptian it is generally accepted that the gypsies come from the Indian province of Madras. I'm not sure of what caused their migration. The reason I think they might be of Israelite origin is that Madras cloth which was made in Madras India, is similar to gauze which was made in Gaza, (biblical Israel) the textiles are so similar that I'm sure the technology is the same. Perhaps they took the technology with them from Gaza to Madras? As it's well known that many of the Lost Tribes settled in India, I want to suggest to include in your list the Gypsies, as they have many reasons to claim true Israelite background.

This is well explained in the website, and I can add some information to support this, for instance, that many Gypsy groups (like the Gabor in Transylvania and many Gitanos in Spain) are by "coincidence" returning back to some Jewish consciuosness that got lost with time, like Shabbath, Kashrut and Brit Milah... Other Rom are following their way. There are many interesting details among Gypsies that suggest origin in some Israelite Tribes: for instance, among Sinti groups and many Rom, a respectful way to address a person is the word "Manush", that suggests "Manassheh" (French Sinti call themselves with this term). Gypsies in India are called "Lambadi" - any connection with "Lemba" or just a coincidence?

Another detail to remark: When was the Tribe of Shim'on lost? In Dibre haYamim 4:38-43, Ezra asserts they lived in Edom until his time, that means, after Yehudah came back from Babylon! In fact, Shim'on could have not joined the Northern Tribes and was in fact assimilated into Yehudah... The 10 Lost tribes are indeed 9, maybe adding some Levites of the Northern Kingdom, we have 10 again.

Those from Madras are only the Lambadi tribe of Gypsies. The ones that emigrated to the West were settled in Rajasthan (Rom) and Sindh (Sinti), the same area of the B'ney Yisrael of India. Lambadis may belong to the same migration as Jews of Cochin, who came from Yemen, as well as Lemba in Southern Africa came from Yemen. So, we have the same areas for both Israelites and Gypsies in India.

Another important fact is that Rom settled in Israel (except Domari, who acknowledge themselves as Arabs rather than Gypsies) are recorded as "Yehudim" in their ID, that is not granted to all Israeli citizens but only to Jews! One of the main Gypsy internet organizatios is as well settled in Israel. Even Domari of Jerusalem are leaving Islam for Christianity, coming closer to Israeli people than ever before.

This image is from Jerusalem. Specificly it's Herod's Gate. Take a look on 16 Petal's Flower on the upper area.
Compare the wheel of this Romani/Gypsy flag. It's exactly the same. It has the very same shape with the same 16 spaces between the spokes. The same as the Seal of Japan. Many Gypsies & non-Gypsies alike say gypsies are Lost Israelites. The 16 Spoked Wheel of their flag is identified as Israelite at least.

I don't know if all LDS (Mormon) temples have these flowerpots, but at least the Temple of Madrid, Spain has flowerpots decorated with the 16 Petaled Flower, a flower considered to be a symbol of ancient Israel & surrounding area of the Middle east.

This symbol is the Imperial Seal of Japan as well. There's a big support of the Israelite (at least in part) origin of Japan too.The Japanese Hata clan can't be explained only with Christianity. Various beliefs and culture might be mixed in this people.They might be part of the Ten Lost Tribes of Israel, including some christians. In Japan they might have mixed their faith of Judaism & Christianism into the teachings of Buddhism and Shinto so that they're not noticed.

Hata clan

The Hata clan (秦氏?) was an immigrant clan active in Japan since the Kofun period, according to the history of Japan laid out in Nihonshoki.

Hata is the Japanese reading of the Chinese surname Qin (秦) given to the State of Qin and the Qin Dynasty (the ancestral name was Ying), and their descendants established in Japan. The Nihonshoki presents the Hata as a clan or house, and not as a tribe; also only the members of the head family had the right to use the name of Hata.

The Hata can be compared to other families who came from the continent during the Kofun period: the descendants of the Chinese Han Dynasty, by Prince Achi no Omi, ancestor of the Yamato no Aya clan, the Sakanoue clan, the Tamura clan, the Harada and the Akizuki clan; also, the descendants of the Chinese Cao Wei Dynasty by the Takamuko clan.

The Hata are mentioned by name more often than almost any other immigrant clan in the Nihonshoki, one of Heian-period Japan's epics, combining mythology and history.

The first leader of the Hata to arrive in Japan, Uzumasa-no-Kimi-Sukune, arrived during the reign of Emperor Chūai, in the 2nd century CE. According to the epic, he and his followers were greeted warmly, and Uzumasa was granted a high government position.

Roughly one hundred years later, during the reign of Emperor Ōjin, a Hata prince called Yuzuki no Kimi visited Japan from the Kingdom of Baekje in Korea. He said he had come from Baekje, and he wanted to emigrate to Japan, but that Silla would not permit him to do so. So 120 persons of his clan were staying at Minama. Having enjoyed his experience, he left Japan and returned with members of his clan "from 120 districts of his own land", as well as a massive hoard of treasures, including jewels, exotic textiles, and silver and gold, which were presented to the Emperor as a gift.

                       Different representation of Qin Shi Huang, first Emperor of united China

The clan was said to be descended from Yuzuki no kimi (弓月君?), who in turn was allegedly a descendant of Qin Shi Huang, the first emperor of the Qin Dynasty. The Hata clan personally claimed Chinese descent, but their immediate origin seems to have been in the Korean Peninsula. Yuzuki no kimi had become a Korean prince, and emigrated to Japan in 283 with a great number of his countrymen. They are said to have come to Japan from China through the Chinese Lelang Commandery then through the Kingdom of Baekje (both on the Korean peninsula). Lelang, near what is today Pyongyang, was the greatest of the Four Commanderies of Han created in 108 BC in the areas captured after the conquest of the Wiman Joseon state (194 BC-108 BC) by Emperor Wu of the Chinese Han Dynasty, which corresponds to the current North Korea. A flux of Chinese immigration into the Korean peninsula continued without cessation, implanting there Chinese culture and technology. Some scholars say Hata clan did not come from Baekje, but Silla or Gaya area.

The Hata clan were the most prominent inhabitants of the Kyoto basin during the time when the area emerged in the 6th and 7th century. The Hata are said to have been adept at financial matters (like thw Jews), and to have introduced silk raising and weaving to Japan. For this reason, they may have been associated with the kagome crest, a lattice shape found in basket-weaving. During the reign of Emperor Nintoku (313-399), the members of the clan were sent to diverse parts of the country to spread the knowledge and practice of sericulture. Members of this clan also served as financial advisors to the Yamato Court for several centuries. Originally landing and settling in Izumo and the San'yō region, the Hata eventually settled in the areas of what are now Japan's most major cities. They are said to have aided in the establishment of Heian-kyō (modern-day Kyoto), and of many Shinto shrines and Buddhist temples, including Fushimi Inari Taisha, Matsunoo Taisha, and Kōryū-ji. Emperor Yūryaku granted the clan the family name of Uzumasa in 471, in honor of Sake no kimi's contributions to the spread of sericulture. Over the next few centuries, they were given the rights to the status (kabane) of Miyatsuko and later Imiki.

A number of samurai clans, including the Chōsokabe clan of Shikoku, the Kawakatsu clan of Tanba and the Jinbō clan of Echigo province, claimed descent from the Hata. The Koremune clan, also allegedly descended from the Emperor of Qin, were related to the origins of the Hata as well. Prince Koman-O, in the reign of Emperor Ōjin (c. 310), came to dwell in Japan. His successors received the name Hata. This name was changed to Koremune in 880. The wife of Shimazu Tadahisa (1179–1227) (son of Minamoto no Yoritomo and ancestor of the Shimazu clan of Kyūshū), was a daughter of Koremune Hironobu. In addition, many towns in Japan are named after the clan, such as Ohata, Yahata, and Hatano. The population of Neyagawa in Osaka Prefecture includes a number of people who claim descent from the Hata. The Hata were also claimed as ancestors by Zeami Motokiyo, the premiere Noh playwright in history, who attributed the origins of Noh to Hata no Kawakatsu. According to Zeami's writings, Kōkatsu, the ancestor of both the Kanze and Komparu Noh lineages, was the first to introduce kagura Shinto ritual dances to Japan in the sixth century; this form would later evolve into sarugaku and then into Noh.

The hypothesis that the Hata clan were a Jewish Nestorian tribe was proposed by Saeki Yoshiro in 1908. Saeki developed a theory described by Ben-Ami Shillony being "somewhat similar" to that advanced by Norman McLeod in 1879.

In 1879 the Scottish businessman Norman McLeod, who had lived in Japan since 1867, published in Nagasaki Japan and the Lost Tribes of Israel. Based on "personal research and observation", the book identified the Japanese as the descendants of the Ten Lost Tribes... Over thirty years later, in 1908, Saeki Yoshiro (1872-1965) a Waseda University professor, a Christian, and expert on Chinese Nestorians, published a book in which he developed a somewhat similar theory. According to Saeki, the Hata clan, which arrived from Korea and settled in Japan in the third century, was a Jewish-Nestorian tribe... Saiki's writings spread the theory about "the common ancestry of the Japanese and the Jews" (Nichi-Yu dosoron) in Japan, a theory that was endorsed by some Christian groups.

Have the Names Sapporo & Nagoya Hebrew Origins?

Hebrew is consonantical system, therefore vowels don't count really. Sapporo, the name of the most northern island in Japan, has the consonants SPR like the town of Judah called Saphir (Micah 1:11). Sapporo was founded in 1869. It's believed that Sapporo's name, 札幌 , is probably an Ainu term that translates to "Open dry plan" or "big open marsh". The translation is not clear, so how about if it was originally a Hebrew (taking into account the Israelites that came to the archipelago) name that local Ainus preserved & when the Japanese came they used it to name the new city?

In fact if it would be an evolved form of Saphir (beautiful in Hebrew as we'll further on the reading) the meaning of the area were Sapporo lays is pretty proper because the island of Hokkaido (including Sapporo's area) is very green. The green of Sapporo's area is so remarkable that it's nearby theme park is called Greenland. Hokkaido has also beautiful mountains often with snow in the summits.

Saphir is identified with modern es-Suafir, which is 5 miles south-east of Ashdod.

The name Sapphira obviously conveys the beauty of the gem sapphire. In Biblical times, the name Sapphira was probably understood to mean something like Precious or Beautiful.

Other forms of Saphir are: Shaphir, Sappir...

The Hebrew root שפר (shapar) means to be pleasing, predominantly to the eye. It appears to be related to an Arabic verb that denotes the removal of the veil of a woman, which also may mean to shine. As verb it's used only once, in Psalm 16:6, where David exclaims, "indeed my heritage 'is beautiful' to me".

Its derivatives are:

The masculine noun שפר (sheper), meaning beauty or loveliness. It occurs only in Genesis 49:21. The feminine noun שפרה (shipra), meaning fairness. It's used only once, in Job 26:13, to describe a pretty (clear?) sky. The masculine noun שופר (shopar) or שפר (shopar), denoting a ram's horn made into a trumpet. This noun is used over seventy times in the Bible and the connection to the root is not clear.

But it should be noted that the regular word for horn is קרן (qeren), which comes from a root-verb that either means to have horns, or else to shine. The masculine noun שפרור (shaprur) or שפריר (shaprir), which apparently denotes a kind of (brightly colored?) canopy. It occurs only once in the Bible, in Jeremiah 43:10.

The rarity of this root indicates we're not dealing with a general pleasantness but something more specific. In Psalm 16:6, David sings about his heritage being 'beautiful.' The derived masculine noun שפר (sheper) is used only once too. In Genesis 49:21 Jacob declares, "Naphtali is a doe let loose; he gives words of 'beauty'".

The derived feminine noun שפרה (shipra) is used only once as well. When Job responds to Bildad he says, "By His breath the heavens are made 'beautiful'". This verse is usually translated with images of a clear sky (since Job just prior sketches a sky full of storm clouds) but since draught was a considerable enemy in Job's days, a cloudless sky would be just as threatening as one filled with thunder clouds. Job is probably talking about a stable and peaceful sky, to coincide with the peaceful sea of verse 12. Similarly, the words of Naphtali may have been calm and peaceful, and David's heritage was one of stability.

The name Shepher (or Shapher, as the King James, Darby and Young translations demand) occurs only once in the Bible (or actually twice, but in one text). It's the name of a mountain in or near the desert of Sinai at which Israel camped (Numbers 33:23-24).

Etymology of the name Shepher

The name Shepher is identical to the noun שפר (sheper), meaning beauty or loveliness, from the verb שפר (shapar), meaning to be pleasing:

The Hebrew root שפר (shapar) means to be pleasing, predominantly to the eye. It appears to be related to an Arabic verb that denotes the removal of the veil of a woman, which also may mean to shine. As verb it's used only once, in Psalm 16:6, where David exclaims, "indeed my heritage 'is beautiful' to me".

Its derivatives are:

The masculine noun שפר (sheper), meaning beauty or loveliness. It occurs only in Genesis 49:21. The feminine noun שפרה (shipra), meaning fairness. It's used only once, in Job 26:13, to describe a pretty (clear?) sky. The masculine noun שופר (shopar) or שפר (shopar), denoting a ram's horn made into a trumpet. This noun is used over seventy times in the Bible and the connection to the root is not clear. But it should be noted that the regular word for horn is קרן (qeren), which comes from a root-verb that either means to have horns, or else to shine. The masculine noun שפרור (shaprur) or שפריר (shaprir), which apparently denotes a kind of (brightly colored?) canopy. It occurs only once in the Bible, in Jeremiah 43:10.

The rarity of this root indicates we're not dealing with a general pleasantness but something more specific. In Psalm 16:6, David sings about his heritage being 'beautiful.' The derived masculine noun שפר (sheper) is used only once too. In Genesis 49:21 Jacob declares, "Naphtali is a doe let loose; he gives words of 'beauty'".

The derived feminine noun שפרה (shipra) is used only once as well. When Job responds to Bildad he says, "By His breath the heavens are made 'beautiful'". This verse is usually translated with images of a clear sky (since Job just prior sketches a sky full of storm clouds) but since draught was a considerable enemy in Job's days, a cloudless sky would be just as threatening as one filled with thunder clouds. Job is probably talking about a stable and peaceful sky, to coincide with the peaceful sea of verse 12. Similarly, the words of Naphtali may have been calm and peaceful, and David's heritage was one of stability.

Somewhat more difficult to place is the masculine noun שפרור (shaprur) or שפריר (shaprir) as some manuscripts have it. This word occurs only once as well. Jeremiah writes that in response to the ill-advised flight to Egypt of a group of refugees , God warns them that "his servant" Nebuchadnezzar will come and spread his shaprur over Egypt and pretty much destroy it (43:10).

Another military use of our root is in the word שופר (shopar), meaning ram's horn. And this noun is used 72 times, and it too occurs in several cognate languages. The ram's horn was blown predominantly in battle to convey the command to charge, and although war and peace have not a lot to do with each other, the blast of the ram's horn allowed Israel to collectively undertake a single action, first in war and later in worship. And that obviously required stability. Similarly, Nebuchadnezzar's predicted actions would increase the stability in the area.

Associated Biblical names with the same original meaning:

♀ Sapphira Ø Shaphir ∩ Shepher ♀ Shiphrah

Sapporo is in the Ishikari subprefecture, Hokkaido prefecture. Ishikari is an Ainu name with unclear meaning. How about if it's named after Isakar (their ancestor?)?

If Isachar was these people's ancestors that means a group of Isacharites went to northern Japan. This is remarkable because it is considered that the Israelites that went to southern Japan were mostly Zebulunites & when the tribes are counted one tribe goes after the other. First Isakar & then Zabulon.

Even in the map of tribal allotment the Land of Issachar & the Land of Zebulun were right next to each other.

There are many world areas were Lost Israelites have been found, nevertheless that doesn't mean that a whole tribe went to this or that area. For example a group of Naphtalites is prominent in Scandinavia, while some Pashtuns are descendants from the Nephtalites that formed the Ephtalite empire. So a clan of Issakarites with a clan of Zabulonites could have traveled to the far east & then, when crossing to Japan, the Zabulunites would go south & the Issacharites would go north.

Nagoya 名古屋 means "famous old house", though historically it was 名護屋, which is more like "famous house" or "The house of a lord (Daiymo and Shugo)" (both pronounced the same) there's an alternative 那古野 which is a translation from the pronunciation to the Chinese word with the same pronunciation (in modern Mandarin those 3 words would be Na-Gu-Yie). As we see above Nagoya meant House of a Lord. Perhaps the original meaning of Nagoya was "House of the Lord", meaning the Lord of Israel. Interestingly this city is remarkable for it's Atsuta Shintoist shrine. This shrine is dedicated to several gods, including the goddess Amaterasu. Amaterasu is a Shinto goddess that resembles Astaroth, a Middle East goddess. The Israelites were the only monotheistic people in their vicinity, but eventually they became as idolaters as their gentile neighbors. The Shinto religion & sanctuaries have much in common with the original Israelite religion.

A tsurugi (剣) is a Japanese sword, akin to the jian Chinese sword. The word is used in the West to refer to a specific type of Japanese straight, double-edged sword used in antiquity.

Japan is a country with a deep sense of honor & a great love for swords. So much that, for example, the Atsuta Shrine, as the Kojiki explains, was originally founded to house the Kusanagi no Tsurugi, a legendary sword.

Moreover, an important shrine-mountain in Tokushima prefecture that is called Tsurugi is said to hold the Israelite Ark of the Covenant & some other Israelite secret.

The Mormon doctrine teaches that Joseph Smith, guided by an angel, unburied the so called Golden Plates, from which the Book of Mormon was translated, the Urim & Thummim & the sword of the Israelite Laban. This sword & copies of it were used in the many wars of the people of the Book of Mormon. The Mormons also believe that the Hagothites (descendants of the people of the Book of Mormon) spread through out Polynesia. Some Mormons even believe that those Hagothites spread to other areas of the Pacific Rim like Japan, the Philippines... Perhaps a replica of Laban's tsurugi (sword) is with the Japanese Ark of the Covenant. Perhaps the Japanese love for swords was transmitted with a tsurugi replica that brought a group of Hagothites that arrived in Japan.

Kusanagi-no-Tsurugi (草薙の剣 ? ) is a legendary Japanese sword and one of three Imperial Regalia of Japan. It was originally called Ame-no-Murakumo-no-Tsurugi (天叢雲剣, "Sword of the Gathering Clouds of Heaven"), but its name was later changed to the more popular Kusanagi-no-Tsurugi ("Sword Cutting Grass"). Kusanagi is also a common Japanese name.

Artist's impressions of the (unseen) Imperial Regalia of Japan

Due to the refusal of Shinto priests to show the sword, and the rather sketchy nature of its historical references, the current state of or even the existence at all of the sword as a historical artifact cannot be confirmed. The last appearance of the sword was in 1989 when Emperor Akihito ascended to the throne; the sword (including the jewel Yasakani no Magatama, and the Emperor's privy seal and the State seal) were shrouded in packages.

Akō has the very name of the Israelite city of Akko, usually known as Acre. One of this city's main leaders was Asano Naganori. Asano is close to the Hebrew word ashan meaning smoke & literally or figuratively is vapor, dust, anger... Ako was founded in the 50's, but it was founded around ancient Ako's original area. Ako is not far from Nagoya either.

Ise is a city not very far away from Nagoya. It’s named after the Ise shrine which is the most important Shinto shrine in Japan. The name Ise is very similar to Isa, the Arabic name of Jesus the Messiah. The Hebrew name is Joshua, so if in neighboring Arabic renders Isa, far away Japanese could easily render Ise. This name could have fallen in disuse & been substituted by a newer rendering brought at the time of the Christian missionaries.

Ise sanctuary is dedicated to the pagan goddess Amaterasu, identified with Ashtoreth, worshipped by the Israelites during their pagan stages.

Refering to the Lost Israelites scattered over the face of the earth Jesus sain in John 10:16: I have other sheep that are not of this sheep pen. I mustio bring them also. They too will listen to my voice, and there shall be one flock and one shepherd. Many traditions (often altered or paganized) different world areas tell of Jesus, the white bearded God (under different names) visited them: North & South America, England, Kashmir (India), Japan. In the Kashmiri & Japanese they say He left the cross without dying & visited them to die eventually there. Obviously this is an altered version of a real event because He died on the cross & after He resurrected He visited His Lost Sheep of Israel. The story is only from 1933 & places Him in Shingō, northern Japan. This story might be a bluff, so perhaps Jesus really went to southern Japan & the Ise shrine was founded in his memory. Eventually, a few generations later they might have reversed to paganism & turn it into a shrine to Amaterasu (Ashtoreth).

Ise Grand Shrine (伊勢神宮 Ise Jingū). Officially known simply as Jingū (神宮), Ise Jingū is in fact a shrine complex composed of a large number of Shinto shrines centered on two main shrines, Naikū (内宮) and Gekū (外宮).

The Inner Shrine, Naikū (also officially known as "Kotai Jingū"), is located in the town of Uji-tachi, south of central Ise, and is dedicated to the worship of Amaterasu. The Outer Shrine, Gekū (also officially known as "Toyouke Daijingu"), is located about six kilometers from Naikū and dedicated to Toyouke-Ōmikami, the deity of agriculture and industry. Besides Naikū and Gekū, there are an additional 123 Shinto shrines in Ise City and the surrounding areas, 91 of them connected to Naikū and 32 to Gekū.

Purportedly the home of the Sacred Mirror, the shrine is one of Shinto's holiest and most important sites. Access to both sites is strictly limited, with the common public allowed to see little more than the thatched roofs of the central structures, hidden behind four tall wooden fences. The chief priest or priestess of Ise Shrine must come from the Imperial House of Japan and is responsible for watching over the Shrine.

According to different scholars this shrine's mirror contains words in Hebrew.

The two main shrines of Ise are joined by a pilgrimage road that passes through the old entertainment district of Furuichi. The region around the shrines consists of the Ise-Shima National Park and numerous other holy and historic sites including the "wedded rocks" (Meoto Iwa), and the Saikū (the site of the Heian period imperial residence).

The roles, ceremonies... played by the emperor & priesthood holders regarding this shrine have commonalities with those in ancient Israel.

From the late 7th century until the 14th century, the role of chief priestess of Ise Shrine was carried out by a female member of the Imperial House of Japan known as a saiō. According to the Man'yōshū, the first saiō to serve at the shrine was Princess Ōku, daughter of Emperor Tenmu, during the Asuka period. Mention of Ise Shrine's saiō is also made in the Aoi, Sakaki and Yugao chapters of The Tale of Genji as well as in the 69th chapter of The Tales of Ise. The saiō system ended during the turmoil of the Nanboku-chō period.

During the Empire of Japan and the establishment of State Shinto, the position of chief priest of the Ise Shrine was fulfilled by the reigning emperor and the Meiji, Taisho and Shōwa Emperors all played the role of chief priest during their reigns.

The most important annual festival held at Ise Shrine is the Kannamesai Festival 神嘗祭. Held in October each year (the most important Jewish holidays, Rosh Hasana, is held also between september & october, followed in days by Yom Kippur & then Sukkot that remembers the wandering in the dessert & like the Japanese, also a harvest festival) , a ritual that makes offerings of the first harvest of crops for the season to Amaterasu. An imperial envoy carries the offering of rice harvested by the Emperor himself to Ise, as well as five-coloured silk cloth and other materials, called heihaku.

Besides the agricultural ceremonies already mentioned, ceremonies and festivals are held throughout the year at both Naikū and Gekū to celebrate such things as the new year, the foundation of Japan, past emperors, purification rituals for priests and court musicians, good sake fermentation and for the Emperor's birthday. There are also daily food offerings to the shrine kami held both in the mornings and evenings.

Conan, Sakai & the Lost Israelites

The Scandinavian, Greek & Celtic legends, myths, sagas... protray heroes, gods like Heracles, Odin, Thor, Beowulf... These heroes often recall, in an altered form, events, stories, names, people...that were real in a long lost past.

The Scandinavians & Celts are considered by many people as the descendants of Israelites that lost their awareness of their Israelite past. The Greeks, at least the Spartans..., had Israelite origin.

There adventures are in an unkown land with exotic names like Midgard, the Middle Earth... These areas have been identified with territories spanning Central Asia (the stan countries, including Afghanistan, plus western China) mainly, but also Caucasia & Ukraine. Well, some territories of Grecian myths spanned areas like Troy (by the way, the Trojans were, according to Celtic legends, London's founders), in western Turkey & other spots.

Thor & Odin, his father, are considered to be originally two heroes, or leaders, that drove a large group of Israelites through the Caucasus. With time they became deified as it was tradition to do. Another possibility is that Odin was no other than Adonai (the Lord, meaning the Lord of Israel) & his son Thor was the very Torah. In Hebrew, vowels didn't exist really & the consonants coincide in the four names.

Heracles (the Romans renamed him Hercules) with his superpowers, is believed to derive from the historical personage Samson. Samson was a Danite & Danites were the Greek Danaans. The Dardanoi (Greek: Δάρδανοι; its anglicized modern terms being Dardanians or Dardans, another group of Danites) in classical writings were either the same people as, or a people closely related to, the Trojans. In fact Troy's ruins overlook the Dardanelles (Hellespont) where according to Saxo Grammaticus once existed a settlement named Dan whence the Danites sailed to Scandinavia.

As well as the mentioned legends recalling biblical heroes & non biblical Israelite heroes, authors inspired on these myths & through divine inspiration, wrote books like Conan the Barbarian, Conan the Cimmerian, The Lord of the Rings... With a good amount of fantasy, these books also protray the Israelite heroes that lost their Israelite identity in a strange land (Arzareth, another land in Hebrew) on the other side of the mythic Sambation river. This is the were Lost Israel became powerful & feared again. This is the area of Scythia (also known as Scütia, Skitia, but always bearing the consonantical sounds SK of their ancestor Isaac), Cimmeria, Parthia... The Scythians (also known as Saka, Sacae, Sakai) were famous archers. Their main bulk would end up in Britain, but likely the modern Japanese clan called Sakai descends from them (& also the Indonesian clans). It’s not coincidence that there are people in Japan with the last name Konan... Not to count the toponym Konan near Nagoya & the many times repeated Sakai toponyms (first name & last name), all over Japan & even close to Nagoya.

Conan is a Cornish-Breton (therefore Lost Israelites) given name. In Irish mythology Conand (aka Conann and Conaing). There are many Conans (sometimes spelled Konan) in literature (comic personages like Conan the Barbarian, Conan the Cimmerian...) , television, games...probably based on many historical personages that were nobles, bishops & even a king. They were mostly Cornish & Bretons.

Conand is a commune in Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes, France & the name of a leader of the Fomorians, in Irish mythology. Connan is a French surname. Kɔnan is a male given name in a number of Akan cultures in west Africa, an area with plenty of Lost Israelites. Konan is also a Japanese given name & a very common Japanese toponym.

Osaka, also bears Isaac's name & it’s near Nagoya. Uda, near Nagoya might be derived from Judah. Kainan is the name of two biblical persons & it’s near Nagoya too. Other possible Israelite names close to Nagoya are Konan (Kanaan?), Kani (Kanaan?), Godo (Goth, a group of Lost Israelites in Europe), Kanie (Kanaan?), Yodo (Judah?). Osaka is next to a bay called Osaka too. In this bay is Awaji island. This island has mysteries & legends, some of them considered to have an Israelite origin. On the other side of Osaka bay, lays Shikoku island. In Tokushima prefecture has many Israelite remarkable locations like mount Moriya, mount Tsurugi (where it’s believed the Ark of the Covenant or a replica is)... Kochi is another toponym in the vicinity that could derive from Kish, Saul's father, from whom many Pathans claim to come from. The Chinese cities of Kashgar (Kashi in Chinese) & Kuche on the Silk Road could derive from his name. Dr Avigdor Shachan affirms that Tak lam a kan is a phrase in Hebrew meaning “You will be destroyed here".

Other toponyms close by & related to Kish could be Hindu Kush & even to KuSHima.

Names on the Chinese Silk Road like Dunhuang, Danxian (next to the city of Zhangye) or Dandong would derive from Dan. The tribe of Dan is a tribe of adventurers, explorers, pilgrims, pioneers...even more than other tribes, & that’s a lot, because the Israelites really were all of that. As a pioneering tribe arrived first in Ireland leaving toponyms (& last names) like Donegal, Duncan (DaN from Canaan), Dunhill, Dundalk, Dungannon, Dunmore, Dungarvan, Dingle, Dungloe. They also were first on their way to Danemark leaving toponyms like Danube, Dniester, Dnieper, Don. In England there’s a Dunham, a name very similar to Dunhuang.

Danxian mountains, next to the city of Zhangye

Dandong at the end of the road  next to the Koreas, could be a previous step before crossing the Korean peninsula & arriving to Japan.

Anan is a town in Tokushima prefecture. Anan is mentioned in the Old Testament as a descendant of Levi that sealed a righteous covenant in Babylon. A commune in France (the French are considered Lost Reubenites) is also called Anan. The first Jewish Karaites were called Ananites after Anan ben David, one of their main founders.

Annan is an Ashanti & British surname. Both are considered as Lost Israelites. The Ashantis are part of the Akans.

Annan was a legendary Chinese sailor who taught the Chintō kata to Matsumura Sōkon Places.
Australia Annan River, Queensland is a river just south of Cooktown. Taiwan Annan District is a district located in the north of Tainan City Others. Annan (kata) is a karate kata.

In Irish mythology, Anu (or Ana, sometimes given as Anann or Anand) is the name of a goddess. She may be a goddess in her own right, or an alternate name for Danu. In Irish mythology, Danu (in modern Irish is Dana ) is a hypothetical mother goddess of the Tuatha Dé Danann (meaning the tribe of Dan). These Danann or Danaan were a group of Danites that left Egypt before other Danites & the rest of the Israelites left Egypt. They moved to Greece & then they moved to Ireland.

Dan was very present in areas that were part of the Ethiopian empires (Axum, Ethiopia, kush...) or in their spheres of influence. These would correspond to modern countries like Sudan, Eritrea, Ethiopia... These are some of the regional toponyms: Medani (Dani means Danite), Dongola (similar to Donegal: since gola & galut means diaspora, then both Donegal & Dongola would mean diaspora of Dan), Danakil, Ogaden...

Annandale (Gaelic: Srath Anann) is a strath in Dumfries and Galloway, Scotland, named after the River Annan. It runs north-south through the Southern Uplands from Annanhead (north of Moffat) to Annan on the Solway Firth.

Annandale has also been applied as a name for several places around the world by Scottish emigrants:

Australia Annandale, New South Wales. Annandale, Queensland. Annandale Station (pastoral lease), a cattle station in Queensland United States Annandale, Pasadena, California Annandale (Pacific Electric), railroad in this location. Annandale, Minnesota. Annandale, New Jersey. Annandale, Virginia, census-designated place (CDP) in Fairfax County, Virginia, United States. Annandale-on-Hudson, New York, United States; referenced in the song "My Old School" by Steely Dan Guyana Annandale, Demerara-Mahaica. Annandale, Pomeroon-Supenaam. Annadale is another variant of this British surname & toponym.

Annam may refer to: Regions of Vietnam: A name of Vietnam used prior to 1945. Annam (French protectorate), a former subdivision of French Indochina, now the central region of Vietnam. Annam (Chinese province), the southernmost province of Imperial China between 679–939, now part of northern Vietnam. Annamite Range, mountain range in Indochina. SAS Tafelberg, Danish tanker originally named Annam.

                                             Indian rug as the ones trade with in the Silk Road

Anam may refer to: Anam is a name & last name everywhere in Indian subcontinent. Anam (album), an album by the Irish band Clannad. Anam Station, a station on the Seoul Metropolitan Subway and serving Korea University. Anam-dong, a neighbourhood in Seongbuk-gu, Seoul. Anam, more usually Annam, the name of a former territory in central Vietnam with the capital city Hué. Anam, or Pondoma, is a Papuan language of Madang (Dan?) Province, Papua New Guinea. Anam, possible transliteration of Inaam, a given name of Arabic origin meaning "gift".

Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics, a battery of tests of cognitive functioning. Anam (town), a group of eight villages in Anambra State, Nigeria. Anambra is probably derived from Anam. Interestingly this is an Igbo area. Igbos are some of the most celebrated African Lost Israelites. By the way the Annangs are one of the tribes surrounding the Igbos & considered as Lost Israelites too. Annang might have an origin in the Hebrew name Anan after all. The g might be a local suffix.

The Israelite Hata clan is said to come from Central Asia. Even the skeptics (of their Israelite past) agree with this. In ancient times they wore clothes different from the rest of Japanese, typical of Central Asia.

In the Hebrew kingdom of the north (Israel) the names derived from their god Yahweh were added Yo as a prefix, like in Yonatan, Yochanan. Sometimes was a suffix in Yah, like Elijah, Nehemijah...or a prefix like in Yael, Yacov, Yair... In the kingdom of the south the same name was added as a suffix (Yahu) like in Matiyahu... In Japan there are many toponyms, names, last names...starting in Yo,  or in Ya, like Yoko Ono, Yokoso, Yokosuka, Yokai, Yokohama... & in Yamaguchi, Yamaha, Yamanashi, Yamada...or even ending in ya like Nagoya or yo like Tokyo. Does any have Israelite origin?

Japanese-Jewish common ancestry theory

Gordon attempts to link Japan to British Israelism, particularly the view that the British royal family were of Israelite descent. Gordon was well known in Japan, where she was researching Shingon Buddhism, which, she claimed, had Christian origins. In her 1921 letter she adopted a "fantastic chain of reasoning" to prove that "the meeting between the Japanese and British crown princes signified the long-awaited reunion of Judah and Israel." Gordon had some influence at the time in Japan.

Abiru clan (The hAbirus were ancestors of Hebrews), Asakura clan (Isakar?), Sakai clan (Isaac), Sakakibara clan (Isaac), Ishikawa clan (Isaac), Isshiki clan (Isaac), Tsugaru clan (Isakar?).

Tomb of Jesus Christ

Crosses mark the graves. The cross on the right is the alleged grave of Jesus Christ.

Sign explaining the legend of the grave of Jesus Christ, in Japanese.

Shingō village is the location of what is purported to be the last resting place of Jesus, located in the "Tomb of Jesus" (Kirisuto no haka), and the residence of Jesus' last descendants, the family of Sajiro Sawaguchi. According to the Sawaguchi family's claims, Jesus Christ did not die on the cross at Golgotha. Instead his brother, Isukiri (Isakar?), took his place on the cross, while Jesus fled across Siberia to Mutsu Province, in northern Japan. Once in Japan, he became a rice farmer, married, and raised a family with three daughters near what is now Shingō. While in Japan, it is asserted that he traveled, learned, and eventually died at the age of 106. His body was exposed on a hilltop for four years. According to the customs of the time, Jesus' bones were collected, bundled, and buried in the mound purported to be the grave of Jesus Christ.

Another mound near the alleged grave of Jesus is said to contain an ear of the brother of Jesus and a lock of hair from Mary, the mother of Jesus, the only relics of his family Jesus could carry when he fled Judaea. The claims started in 1933 after the discovery of supposed "ancient Hebrew documents detailing Jesus' life and death in Japan" that was supposedly the testament of Jesus. These documents were allegedly seized by the Japanese authorities and taken to Tokyo shortly before World War II and have not been seen since.

The English text on the sign explaining the legend of the Tomb of Christ reads:

When Jesus Christ was 21 years old, he came to Japan and pursued knowledge of divinity for 12 years. He went back to Judea at age 33 and engaged in his mission. However, at that time, people in Judea would not accept Christ's preaching. Instead, they arrested him and tried to crucify him on a cross. His younger brother, Isukiri casually took Christ's place and ended his life on the cross.

Christ, who escaped the crucifixion, went through the ups and downs of travel, and again came to Japan. He settled right here in what is now called Herai Village, and died at the age of 106.

On this holy ground, there is dedicated a burial mound on the right to deify Christ, and a grave on the left to deify Isukiri.

The above description was given in a testament by Jesus Christ.

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