lunes, 27 de julio de 2015

The South Asian Muslim groups of Pathans, Kashmiris, Chowduris, Qidwais, Milkis, Baluches, Nuristanis, Lyulis, Bani Israil, Chalas & Tajik are Israelites. Chalah Muslim Jews, Jewish ‘New Muslims’ of Meshhed & Kalash

Pakistan has more than 60 languages and therefore many different naming systems, but one of the country's most common names is Khan, which signifies Afghan or central Asian descent.

Jalal or Galal (جلال) is an Arabic masculine given name. The word Jalal is also found in Urdu and Persian language dictionaries, with near-identical meanings in all three languages. Galilea or Galil is Jalil in Arabic. Since Gilead or Galaad are Jalad in Arabic, Jalal could be an old corrupted form of Jalil or Galilea. Vowels don't really count in Semitic languages so it should not be discarded. Muhammad had a great influence from the Jewish Arabs. Muhammad was said ti have some Jewish ancestry. So much that even Islam is considered (together with Christianity) as an offshoot of Judaism. This means that the Arabic name Jalal could have been taken from the. There are many Jalalabads. Jalalabad means City of Jalal. The most celebrated is in the Pashtun area of Afghanistan. Perhaps Aramaic speaking Pattans named it after Galilee, situated in the north of the Promised Land, where their Israelite ancestors came from. The other toponyms Jalal, Jalalabad...might or might not be put by Israelites of the diaspora. 

Kedarites / Kedar (Qedarites / Cedarenes)
The Kedarites were nomadic Arabic people, just like their cousins, the Nabataeans. They occupied the desert regions of eastern Syria and present day Jordan, on the edge of the Levant. Also like their cousins, the Kedarites claimed an Abrahamite ancestor figure eing Kedar, second son of Ismael, who was himself one of the sons of Abraham. Abraham's sons are claimed as the founding fathers of many of the kingdoms which existed on the borders of ancient Israel. They had a state which was the Kingdom of Kedar (Qedar / Qidri). There are many ethnic groups that claim an Arab origin in PaK-Afghanistan, India & other areas, not to mention the Israelite claims. Perhaps the Kedarites or part of them were taken by the Assyrians (the ones that conquered them) together with the Israelites.  Then as the Israelites ended up in Central Asia so did the Kedarites. So they could be the ancestors of the Central Asian Kidarites. The name has just a slight change. Kedarnath is a town located in the Indian state of Uttarakhand and has gained importance because of Kedarnath Temple. Kedarnath is named after honor of King Kedar, who ruled in the Satya Yuga. This king seems like he was related to the said Kedarites. The Israelite connection here is with the nearby lake Manasa, considered to be named after Manasha, patriarch of one of the Lost Tribes of Israel. Interestingly the Chinkukis from northeast India consider themselves Manasehites. Not to mention the lake Manas in the not far distant Kygizstan & the legend of Manas, the Kygizs national heroe.

Khwarezm (modern Khiva) had Parthian population. So when it's talked about Khwarezmites it's really about Parthians or their offspring. Another name for Khwarezm is Chorasmia, so the Khwarezmians would be Chorasmians. Samarkand is a remarkable Chorasmian city that at Benjamin of Tudela's time had as many aa 50000 Jews.  Khwarezmite Moslems were the founders of Ispahan, a city known in Persia as the "The Jews' City". The  old town of Isphahan is still known as the Jew's town. According to Tolstow, a Soviet scholar, the Judaism of the Khazars originated in Khwarezm. Another name for the Khwarezmi is Kabbar, a word in Hebrew. This indicates the deep roots found in the people of Khwarezm.

Even if Lewani is a Pathan form of the Israelite tribe of Levi, the similar sounding name Lewana is a girl's name originated from the Hebrew culture. Lewana means shining white one; the moon.

In Persia apart from Meshed, there are communities with Marranos in Tabriz & Shiraz. Many Persian synagogues have turned into mosques as was the case abroad in Nablus-Shechem, Jerusalem, Toledo...

There's a strong tradition of descent from tribe of Benjamin among Muslim tribes in Iran, Afghanistan & Pakistan. The tradition of Benjamite descent is especially strong among Kurdish tribes, though some Persian tribes also adhere to it. In certain areas Benjamin they call him grandfather & saint. They have their own holy book written in Kurdish & are regarded as a sect (crypto-Israelite?). These people are found in Kerend, Baba-Yadigar... Kerend is very similar to the Hebrew "Keren", meaning "horn". It might have been Keren originally, but eventually a "d" would added, perhaps as a toponym. Another group of group of Benjamite Kurds is the one of the "Kakai" meaning "brothers". In Iraq they're more often called "kakai", while in Iran they're called "Ali Allah". The Kakais are often considered a separated ethnicity & as a non Muslim sect. They are subdivided in three castes: Said, Baba & Mayum. They consider that Judaism resembles Kakaism. They are scattered in northern iraq mainly, but also in Turkey & Iran. One of their villages has a very Jewish sounding name: Judaida. Some of the Benjamites have also migrated to Caucasia. The Sangawy & the Gauran, tribes from Iraq & Iran respectively, are also regarded as Benjamites.

In Waziristan the Shangar (Simeon), Gany (Gad) & Afridi are remarkably numerous. Other names, at least for part of the tribes of Simeon & Gad, are Shinwari (& Shinware) & Jaji (Gaji & Gadoon) respectively. Rabbani, Daftani & Lewani (or Levani) are the Pashtun names of the Israelite tribes of Reuben, Naphtali & Levi respectively. Muhammad Labani & Goth Pathan are two villages near each other in an area with Pashtuns. The name Goth is the very name of one of the Israelite tribes that invaded Europe.

Every Pashtun tribe marches under its own tribe. This is what the ancient Israelites did as commanded by the Lord. This great value that ancient Israel gave to flags is also found among other Lost Israelites, the Qiangs, an ethnic in southwestern China.

Benjamin of Tudela called the river Hindus as Gozan. Pukhtunwali is generally similar to the Hebraic law, although modified somehow & similar in certain particulars to the Rajput costum. 

Historians believe that Afghans were the descendents of Israel-another name of Abraham's grandson Jacob or Yaqub. The Pattan Ephraimites came to the region known as North West Frontiers and Afghanistan and as they moved onwards they were called Afridan, in Persian meaning 'newly arrived' and thus acquired the title 'Afridi'. So this people had a name (Ephraim) but because of their circumstances & Hebrew name-nickname the locals gave them a local new name just like it happenex with the Lembas, black Israelites from southern Africa. Many of the Afridi-Afghans still follow Jewish tradition like Sabbath and circumcision on the eighth day of the birth.

All the disciples of Jesus were from the tribe of Benjamin. Jesus was from the tribe of Judah. The tribe of Benjamin migrated to Afghanistan. The Bani Israel tribe migrated to Kashmir. Both of these tribes later embraced Islam becoming deobondis. The modern day tribe of Benjamin are those in Afghanistan, while the Bani Israel settled in Kashmir, India. Allah so loves these tribes that when the Dajjal rise it will be these tribes His hand is with as they support Isa & help him reclaim Al Quds from the Dajjal. There are prophecies about the Land of Khorasan & the flags will come from there (Iran, Pakistan Afghanistan)

According to an account in 1951 there were about 15000 warriors in camels between Baluchistan & Kuwait, so they were pretty much in Iran. They were from the Wassili tribe (the Israelite tribe of Benjamin). Benji was the youngest of the tribal patriarchs, but his tribe, as a wolf, turned up to be one of the most feared.According to the same account  there was also in 1951 another group of about 15000 warrior camelmen Luwanis between Baluchistan & Kuwait.

The Pattanis are famous for their love of freedom & independence, both very typycal Israelite attributes. They are known more in India as Pattani & in Afghanistan as Patanaly.

As the Kashmiri Pandits have their Kahanas to perform their religious ceremonies, the Israelites had the Kohens. The similarity of names in both of priestly classes points the Pandits again (again because this is not the first time suggested) as Israelites.

In central India (nowadays it would correspond to the border between Afghanistan & Pakistan) there was the Jewish Kingdom of Khaibar (or Habar).

The Pathans have been called Rohillas as well. They call themselves Duranis since the Patan Durani empire. It's said that the word Afghan comes from a Hebrew word meaning brave. One of the mosst celebrated ancestors of the Pathans or Pashtuns was called Qais. One of his children was called Patan, from whose name would derive the name Pashtun. One Pashtun tribe is called "Isa Khel", which means "Jesus' tribe". Some believe to be possible that the members of this tribe might be the offspring of Jesus & that He might have married a local Israelitess. 

Genetic science admits a possible link between Jews & Tajiks.

Pashtuns don't marry non-Pashtuns. Their tribal laws take precedence over Sharia.

Yaqubi, in Swabi, pakistan, is a name clearly based on the forefarther of the Pashtuns & all of Israel.

The Israelites were dispersed in Hala, Habor & Harah which were later Aria, Ariana, Arachosia (Khorasan), Peshawar & Harat.

In Herat province some districts may have Israelite origin: Guzara (Khazar), Kushk (Kush), Kushki (Kush)...

Zaduqabad could mean Saduk city. Saduk is a common Israelite last name from which the name saducee is considered to derive. Another name for this city is Jawa. Does it come from Jaweh? There's a Jawa in Jordan & Jawa is another name for Java, the main island of Indonesia. Zaduqabad is in the Iranian district of esfanDaN (western Iran), a name that may come from DaN. There are plenty of names in western Iran with Israelite origin. It shouldn't bee surprising, after all Mesopotamia is the area were the Lost Ten Israelite Tribes were taaken captive & this is next to Mesopotamia. 

Northwestern Iran still holds an important Israelite population: the Kurds. Some Kurds trace their origin to Pashtun clans, one of the mosst popular ethnic groups witn Israelite roots. All Kurds have Israelite though. Even DNA confirms it.

Because of the Arab expansion of Islam you can find Arabs (apart from the more recent diaspora) in areas as distant as Morocco, Somalia, Saudi, Iran, Afghanistan. Afghanistan & Iran are Muslim countries, but not Arabs. Somalia sometimes is considered an Arab country because of its belonging to the Arab League & its Arab minority, but it's less Arab thaan it is so. It's interesting that many Israelites worldwide have Arab neihbors: Israeli Jews, Moroccan Jews, Kurds, Druzes, Iberogens, Madis, Zakhors, Iddaoshahaks, Yibirs, Pashtuns, Yemeni Jews (Although most so called Arab Muslim Yemenis have Israelite genes), Tunisian Jews. The Arab is the constant neighbor of the Hebrew, but almost everywhere you find Israelites. Many ethnic groupss in Afghanistan & Pakistan, including some which are not even called Arab, are believed to have Arab origin. This is the case, for example, of the Awans of Miawali (Called in Mianwali, Pakistan, Maliks) & many other ethnic groups, tribes, clans... Yemen is genetically Jewish, Levitic to be exact, but why?, & how? Yemen had a very old contact with the ancient Israelite state. 

The queen of Sheba (ancient name of Yemen) visited king Solomon & not few even believe she got pregnant from him. The Israelite colony of Yemen became big. Eventually a local king adopted the Israelite religion & later made Judaism the official religion of Yemen. This attracted even more Israelites more Israelites & the converts to Israelitism & the biological Israelites intermingled. That's why Yemen is genetically an Israelite state today. The local Israelites were called Jews despite not being only fro the Kingdom of Judah as it happened in other areas. In the time of Muhamad the Jews were quite numerous, but not only in Yemen, but in such places as Medina (An Arab name that became a very common Jewish Sephardi name), Mecca (Or Makkah). Makkah coincidentally is a Hebrew word meaning slaughter. There's an African tribe with this name (Makaa) & an Amerindian one with this name. Where their ancestors Arabs or Jews coming from Mecca?

Hanbhi Pashtuns might have Baluchi origin. This & other facts make Baluch attached to Pashtuns (Israel). 

Why the Indian emperor Ashoka erect a pillar in Afghanistan in Aramaic unless this was the language of the locals. 

The area of Zabulistan, Afghanistan, means litterally land of Zabulon.

Gilgit, Pakistan. Is there any relation with the Gilgal found in the Holy Land or the Bible?

It's interesting that there are names in Afghanistan & Pakistan like Seraiki, GaMbiLa similarly found in Ethiopia (like Serai, Seraye or Serae, being several versions of the same name, GaMbeLa), in Eretz Israel (GaMLa). I don't believe it to be by chance that these & other names are repeted & the 3 areas hold 3 areas inhabited by Israelites.

The Pashtuns are considered of the Children of Israel by many different people, including many scholars. The Pashtun tribe "Safi" is considered to be related to the Nuristani people. The Nuristanis are not Pashtuns though. I did state in another chance that they might be Israelites (the Nuristanis), giving some arguments to support the theory. My consideration of the Nuristanis as Israelites might be reinforced by the fact that they aree related to the Safi (Nurzais might as well)  & other Pashtun tribes or clans. Do the Isazai Tarkanis, a Pashtun clan, receive their naame from Isaac, forefather of the Israelites? The actual name TaRKaNi might be a deformation of TeL KaN, meaning something like "Population of CaNaan", "Town of Canaan", or "People of Canaan", proving farther that CaNaan-Israel is their land of origin & that they are Israelites. Does the name of the JuDhal (Of the TaNoli tribe of the Pashtuns) come from a deformation of the name JuDah, one of the tribes of Israel? It wouldn't be surprising that the members of this clan would be the remnant of the Jewish (including in this all the tribes of the Kingdom of the South: Simeon, Judah, Benjamin...) captives that never came back to Judea & were "lost" with the tribes of the Kingdom of the North. The name of the TaNoli of the TaNoli tribe might come from the Israelite tribe of DaN. That doesn't mean all TaNolis are DaNites because as I pointed some might be Judahites or from other Israelite tribes. The Khel, translated as families, is an important subdivision among the Pashtuns or Pathans. Do the Shaba khel of the Umarzai Pashtuns receive its name from Sheba or Saba? How about the TaaN Umarzai coming from DaN? The t & d,the b, f , p & v, the g & k are inte<rchangeable sounds. Is the name Kot, a Pashtun district, derived from the Hebrew name Kohat? Panjshir, meaning "Five Lions" is one of the provinces of Afghanistan. The Tajik, Hazara & Nuristanis are the most important groups. The Tajiks (& I add the Nuristanis) are believed to have Israelite roots. The lion is the symbol of Judah, but it's also a symbol of Israel as a whole (The British Ephraimites have a lion in their coat of arms) , so the name was possibly given by local Israelites. In fact the Efridi (Ephraimite) flag has a lion with crown. 

Some Punjabi names or toponyms of possible Israelite origin: Ghalla (Galut, Hebrew word for diaspora. Similar to Gallic, Galla or Gaellic), Dera Ghazi Khan (Deraa city, Syria), pakPattan (Pathan), Hazrat Bahaudin Zakria (Zakariah, the prophet)

Part of Judah never came back to Israel from its captivity in Mesopotamia & surroundings This area spans the current Kurdishtan, the rest of Iraq, parts of Armenia, Azerbajan, Georgia, Iran... The captives left traces of their Israelite names & their former places of captivity where ever they went. These are a few possible Biblical, Israelite or Jewish names that haven't been mentioned often as such: 

Zarakhel (Zara's family. Zara was with Phares one of the twin sons of Judah the patriarch), Mangal (could mean people of GaLut, or diaspora, clearly pointing at the Israelite diaspora. The popular Indian last name may have come from here.), Shalman (Biblical name. The name of two villages & one city in Kurdishtan, Azerbajan & Iran), Judhal (A Tanoli clan. Any relation from Judah?), Shakhi (Isaac), Shaman (A deviation from the Israelite priest?), Sadozai or Sadu zai (From Sadok, an Israelite name & ancestor of the Saducees?), Tarakai (From Torah?), Tara Khel (idem), Ustarana (Astarot, pagan Goddess Worshipped by Israel), Jacobabad (Jacob's city), larKaNa (Cana, in the Holy Land), Khyber (Habor), pesHAWAR (Habor), Pishin (Pishon), Betanee (Bethany), Daudzai (Davidson), Kabul (A Palestinian city has the same name), maiDaN wardak (From DaN. There's a Maidan in Ukraine that might have been founded by DaNites along with the naming of the DoN, Dniester, Dnieper, Donietsk. Danites are also regarded as having founded Denmark, meaning literally the Mark of Dan.), JuDba (JuDah? Capital Tor Ghar.), baDaN (DaN? Name of a village of the Wur or Wara Pashtuns), QaDian (GaD?), Ashezai (Asherson?), manDaNr (DaN? Any relation with the Mandan Amerindians? These Amerindians are considered to be Israelites by different people.), Qaddi (The Spanish city of Cádiz is said to be founded by Phoenicio-Israelite Gadites from which it's believed to come its name. It's people are called Gaditanos, almost like Gadites. GaDite in Hebrew is GaDi), Zakarya (Israelite prophet), Beka (Like the Bekaa valley, Lebanon), Ilyaas (Elias), Deshiwal (Any relation with the Desi Jews from India?), KoTGaLa (Kohat GaLa, translated as the "diaspora of Kohat", name of an important priestly Israelite clan), Kohat (The very name of one of the three priestly Israelite subdivisions around the Tabernacle.), Skande (Similar to Skandinavia or Skania, bearing the name of Isaac in their first consonants.), Ishakzai (Isaacson), Sakzai (Isaacson. In the Two-Houser movement they consider the Saxons to be Isaacsons. The Saxons were called anciently Saxoi, very close to Sakzai. The Two Housers believe the Saxons are the offspring of the Sakasunis & Sakas, the very ancestors of the Pashtuns. They quote different historians to support it like the celebrated Flavius Josephus), Swabi (The very name of an ancient Germanic tribe that settled Spain. Celts & most Germanic peoples like British, Swedes, Danes... are Israelites according to Two-Housers), Abdali (From Ephtali, Nephtali), Dotani (Datan, biblical personage), Kayan (It's interesting that has the very name of the Karen or Kayan Israelites of Myanmar), Haro (Anything to do with the Igbo, Israelites too, clan called Aro that live in Nigeria? How about the Aro Gadites of the Bible?), Shakarzai (Ishakarson), 

Hindkowans are an Indo-Aryan ethno-linguistic group native to the Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa, Pothohar Plateau and Azad Kashmir regions. However, an indeterminate number have left the region and now live in other parts of South Asia, such as Indian-controlled Jammu & Kashmir and Pakistani-controlled Azad Kashmir. Hindkowans mainly inhabit Peshawar, Hazara region. In Afghanistan, they are known as Hindkis. Hindki is the name given to an ethnic group who inhabit Afghanistan and parts of Pakistan. They are found all over the country.H. W. Bellew, in his Races of Afghanistan, estimated their number at about 300,000. The name Hindki is also loosely used by Pathans on the upper Indus, in Dir and Bajour, to denote the speakers of Punjabi or any of its dialects. The name Hindko simply means "Indian" (of the Indus), and has been applied to various dialects spoken in northern Pakistan, in the areas of the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (including Hazara), Punjab especially Pothohar Plateau, Pakistan Administered Kashmir, including by some Pashtun tribes, as well as by the Hindki people of Afghanistan. The name is found in Greek references to the mountainous region in eastern Afghanistan and northern Pakistan as Καύκασος Ινδικός (Caucasus Indicus, or Hindu Kush).

The name "Caucasus Indicus" suggests me that these peoples were once in the Caucasus (they were Caucasian) or that they were related to peoples from the Caucasus (the Israelite ancestors of western Europeans).

Handko or Handkowan is similar to & could be related to Hindko or Hindkowan. They are part of the Pashtuns. The word is composed of Kowan, & Cowan is the Irish version of the Hebrew Cohen.

The Pashtun confederacies are, putting in brackets their attributed meaning or the one that I suggest: Arbanee (similar to Albany & Albania, Israelite lands in Scotia & the Caucasus. r & l are interchangeable consonants. Albany / Albania are considered to come from the Hebrew haLiBaN, meaning "the white". Sarabani is another name for Arbanee & it means "children of Sara", Abraham's wife.), Betanee (Baitani. Do they receive the name from Bethany, located in the Holy Land?), GhaRghast (Do they receive their name from GR, GL, KL... GaLut, diaspora in Hebrew?), KaRlani (KRai, KaRlan are names derived from KaRran or KaRlan, considered their ancestor. Notice the interchangeability between l & r. From GaLut, diaspora in Hebrew.).

And these are the names of some Pashtun tribes & clans: Khattak (Manasseh), Afridi (Ephraim), Barais or Barech (similar to the Biblical name Barak), JaLwaanai (JoeL), Daudzai (Davidson), BaNGaSh (BeNGoSheN, son of GoSheN, the very region where the Israelites lived in Egypt.), Gagyanai (GaD), GaNdapur (CaNaan), GhaRshin (GaLut), BaLailzai or Panni (sons of BaaL, the pagan god worshipped by the Israelites), KaSi (KuSh, the Israelite Kish or QaiS, father of king Saul of Israel & ancestor of the Pashtuns. The Chinese city of KaShi or KaShGaR, not far from the Pashtun areas could mean the diaspora of KaShi or QaiS), KheShgai or KhaiShagi (Origin in king KaShi or QaiS too), LaWoon (LeVi), LoDi (LoT), Maako, MallaGoRi or MullaGoRi (GR of GaLut), manDaN (The very name of an Amerindian tribe considered to be Manassehite, although DaN might be present as well.), Zirak, MusaKheL (Moses GoLa or diaspora) or BaiL KheL-Laharzai (BaaL), Niazi or GhiLzai (sons of the diaspora), OriaKhiLl (GaLut), Sadozai (Sadok sons or Saducees), SaaKzai (iSaaCson), SahaaK (like the Berber Israelite tribe Iddak SahaK, meaning children of iSaaC), Tarakaij (like the Tara hill in Ireland, that means Torah hill.), Sherman (common western last name), aKwaL (GaLut), naKuNdar (CaNaan), Safar (Sepharad), Yahyazai (Johnson), Yakubzai (Jacobson), Tarakai (Torah like the Tara hill in Ireland that supposedly comes from Torah), Tarai (Torah), tsamKaNi (CaNaan), KaLa (GaLa, GoLa or GaLut), doTaNai or doTaNi (DaN or Datan), sTaNikzai (DaN), Adam, Tor or Toor (Thor, Torah), Karmo (Carmel), KoReGaR (GaLut), Zakha (iSaKhar), Budai, Barakzai (son of Barak), Daavi (David), Kabul (Kabul, village in Israel), GhaNi (GhaNa, CaNaan), GaNder (CaNaan), SKander (SKandinavia, iSaaC), Musa Zai (Moses son), GaMaRyani (Khumri, ancient king of Israel from which the Assyrians named the Israelites), Moseegh (Moshe, Moses), KaTran or KheTran (Kehat or GaD), Sarangzai (Sharonson), Adamzai (Adamson), aDiNzai or aDiNazai (oDiNson or DaNson), Tarakzai (Terah son or son of the Torah), Bear (Jewish last name), maiMana (Manna, sweet bread from which God fed the Israelites in the desert), Manazai (Son of Manna or son of Manasseh), MaLiK (King in Hebrew), DiNai (DiNa or DaN), wiDaNai (DaN), baDaNzai (DaN), Landazai (son of the land), Daulatzai, BaLlo (BaaL), KaRzai (GaLut son), Shinwari (Shimon, Simeon), Shilmani (Shilo, Solomon), Shirani (Shilo), Salarzai, Swati, Sephai (Sepharad), Oghaz, Quraysh, KoTwal (KohaT or GaD), kuki, Haider, haSKa (iSaaC), Paracha, aliKaRan (GaLut), yarKuLli (GaLut), Ashtor (Astarte), Gabari or Gabar, Oba (Ovadia), usTARAna (Astarte or Torah), Mekhiani (Meshianic), Arozai (Aroson, son of Arodi, GaDite clan or son of Aaron), Haroonzai (children of Aaron), MaLKaL (Royal), Ashtor (Astarte), Aggai (Haggai), KaLu (GaLut), KhaDdaR (GaDaR, GaD), KhoZBai (Jewish hero BaR KoZiBa), ShuGai (iSaaC), Idar, Khazzar (Khazar, people of the Jewish empire of Khazaria), waDiN (DaN), Abazai (Abaza, a people that dwells in the Caucasus mountain considered to be Israelite as well.), TaNzai (DaNson), GiTa (GeTae, GoTh, GaD), manGaL (GaLut), TaRin or TaReen (TeL), TaNoli or TaNokhel (DaN), TaRKaNri (TeL CaNaan), BeTtaNi or BiTtaNi or BaTtaNi or BhiTtaNi (BeThaNy, BeTaNia), GoRbuz (GaLut), muqBaL (BaaL), Yusufzai (Josephson), GaMaRyani (KhuMRi, king of Israel from which the Israelites received his name sometimes), Zadran, Zeranai (Zerah, son of Judah), baBaR (BaR, son in Hebrew), Durrani or Panjpai, manGaL (GaLut), Miani (Manasseh?), Awani or Awanri, Sahibkhel, kaKaR (GaLut), naGhaR or GoRyani (GaLut), Dawi (David), Hamar (Hama), Rawani or Rawanri (Reuben), Jadoon or GaDoon (GaD), Safi or Sapai have more variants, but it's interesting that, like in Hebrew, the f & p are interchangeable, Shalman (Solomon), KuNdi (CaNaan), Khakwani or khoGyaNi (CaNaan), Daur or Dawar (the d is close to the r in this geographic area, therefore could be Daud, or in other words David), TaNiwal (DaNial, DaN), Zazai or Jaji (GaD. The Zaza people or Zazaki people living mainly in Turkey are considered to have Israelite ancestry like the Kurds, among which the Zazas are often included. Kurds & Pashtuns are considered to be related & to be both Israelites), Shaman (a deviation of the Levite priest?), GaLesahi (children of the GaLut or diaspora), Shamarzai (Samarson or son of Samaria), Daudkhel (David), KaNazai (CaNaanson or CaNason, location where Jesus went for a wedding), Darozai (a Somali clan, the Darod, with claimed Israelite origin. It's said that Darod means David, therefore Darodzai would mean Davidson), baDeeN (DaN), BaRwat (BaR, son in Hebrew), KhaNki (CaNaan), KaLa (GaLut), QaLandr (GaLut), KhaNo (CaNaan), KhaRh (GaLut), GuDdi (GuTi, GoThic, GaD),KhaLas (GaLut), KaRam (GaLut), DhaNai (DaN), KuNdi (CaNaan), GuL (GaLut), MaLaKzai (King's sons), GaNdahab (CaNaan), Lamay, Sonay (Sinai), Shebay (Sheba or Saba), KoTanay (KohaT or GaD), koTaNay (GaD), GhaLbay (GaLut), KaLah (GaLut), TaNi (DaN), Nazar (Nazarene, Nazareth), QaTal (GaD or KehaT), KoR (GaLut), KoDaezai (KohaT or GaD), Ghazikhel (Gazati, from Gaza), KhuDu (KohaT or GaD), lashKaRzai (GaLut), Tori (Thor, Torah).

It's interesting that one of the Pashtun districts is called Batakara & other Kotha because the first is very similar to one of the Insulindian Israelites, the Bataks, the second is similar to Kohat, a Levitic clan. The Betanee or Baitanee received their name from Batan, but the origin of the name could come from Bethany, in the Holy Land. Have the KaNga any relation with CaNaan? Ishtarlay is an Afghan toponym after the pagan goddess Ishtar.

                     The Pashtun tribe of the Ishaqzai translates as Isaacsons, very similar to Saxons.

It's interesting that the areas of sojourn or pass of the Niazis, a Pashtun clan, are or were salGhaR, KuRram, Gambela & iSaKheL,  because the first two names & the last bear the GR KR KL consonants of GaLut, diaspora in Hebrew. The last one bears the SK consonants of iSaaC. I would even say that iSaKheL is "iSaaC GoLa", or diaspora of iSaaC, confirming further the Israelite origin of the Pashtuns. QaLaye (GaLut), GaNdez (CaNaan), loGaR (GaLut) & QueTta (GaD or KehaT) are also places that may have Israelite roots. It's quite ironic that an Israelite clan, the Niazi Pashtuns, have a name so similar to the worst enemies of the Jews in the first  half of the 20th century. Other two areas with Niazi Israelites that have noteworhty names are KaNdahar (CaNaan), Swabi (German Israelite tribe) & marDaN (DaN). How about the name Saraiki, a local language, if it came from Sarai, Abraham's wife, that was renamed as Sarah?

                            Tomb of a Pashtun prince of the Durrani tribe in KoHaT, Pakistan

Why some Afghans would be offended for being called jews, but would be proud of being called Children of Israel (Bani Israel)? It's for the very reason alleged by the Two-Housers (British Israel movement): Israel & Judah (or Jews) are not synonyms. Israel was the name of the Kingdom of the North, encopassing the Lost Ten Tribes, whereas Judah was the Kingdom of the South, encopassingthe rest of tribes, although the most exact only includes the tribe of Judah.

The fact that  they have mainly Sarmatian ancestry gives more weight to their Israelite ancestry. Most Two Housers only believe that the offspring of Massagetaes, Scythians, Parthians, Bactrians & other Iranian speaking peoples living in the west (western Europeans, Americans, Australians...) are the only descendents of Israelites, but if they (Massagetaes, Scythians, Parthians, Bactrians & other Iranian speaking peoples) were Israelites their offspring in the Caucasus, Afghanistan, India... should be Israelite as well. They believe the Lost Ten Tribes are only the western peoples because they were the countries which recieve more biblical promised blessings (the ones promised in Genesis to the sons of Israel/Jacob) in power (British Empire, American Superpower...), welth... I believe it to be true although I also believe there are also pockets (large ones sometimes) of Israelites as promised biblically that they would be all over the face of the earth. These so called Iranian peoples were in reality only Iranian speaking peoples. The Scythian were the main ancestors of the Pashtuns & several western peoples mentioned before. According to rabbi Eliyahu Avichail (and the Pashtuns themselves) they are the offspring of Israelites.

The toponym Sammah, in Pakistan, resembles Samaria in the Holy Land. Selah is a Hebrew word meaning to lift up or to exalt. Saleh Khana is a village found in Pakistan & Koh-e Silah (Selah) is a mountain in Afghanistan. Saleh or Șāliḥ (Arabic: صالح‎, meaning Pious) was an Arabic prophet of ancient Arabia mentioned in the Qur'an. What's interesting is the meaning in Arabic of Saleh in Arabic & Selah in Hebrew are similar since only the pious can be exalted. Is Saleh an Arab name of Hebrew origin coming from Selah? Several rulers in Arab speaking countries had this name, included the last Panarabist dictator of Yemen. Yemen is genetically Levitic, even if most people are Moslems. Yemen is a Jewish state genetically or more exactly Yemen is a Levitic state genetically. The district of MarDaN, Pakistan is composed of the very name of DaN. It's believed that not all Scythians were Sacae, therefore not Israelites, but the Sacae were in northern India, Pakistan, Afghanistan... & you can find a big similarity between the lnaguages of all these areas. Kalat, in pakistan is bride in Hebrew. The name of the Pashtun town of Tirah resembles the name of Tyre, a Phoenician city neighboring ancient Israel. Moreover, the Phoenicians were allied to the empire of king Solomon, so the were one & the same nation. It's noticeable that one peak has the name of Ghal resembling the Celtic (Israelite) & Israelite toponyms: Gael (in France), Galatia, Gaul, Galicia, Galilea...

"Afghanistan from a Y-chromosome perspective". An analysis of the Y-chromosomes of 168 Pathan males from Afghanistan.
"Central Asia has served as a corridor for human migrations providing trading routes since ancient times. [...] Our study demonstrates genetic similarities between Pathans from Afghanistan and Pakistan, both of which are characterized by the predominance of haplogroup R1a1a*-M198 (>50%) and the sharing of the same modal haplotype. Furthermore, the high frequencies of R1a1a-M198 and the presence of G2c-M377 chromosomes in Pathans might represent phylogenetic signals from Khazars, a common link between Pathans and Ashkenazi groups, [...]"

"Cyrus the Israelite" 

Pasargadae means "Sons of Gad" and this tribe of Gad can be found in the region of Carmania. What makes this tribe so interesting is that it's the very tribe that the Achaemenid dynasty came from! Cyrus the Great was ether a full blooded Israelite or half. In ether case Cyrus has Israelite blood and belongs to the tribe of Gad!

The next tribe mentioned that is recognizable is the Germanii or Carmania. The Carmania are from the tribe of Reuben, and the name Carmania seems to come from the Reubenite clan found in the book of Numbers chapter 26 known as the Carmi. This Carmania is also called Germanii by Herodotus and can be found in the region named by them called Carmania which is east of Persia.

The Sagartians or Asakarta in Persian are also from the tribe of Issachar. It's said that the Sagartians settled around an oasis in Yazd and were known for their use of the dagger and lasso. Also it's mentioned that they used no or little armor ether. This could be due to the hot climate in the region. In a way they do resemble the American Cowboy.

The next tribe that is mentioned is the Daan or Dai, and rendered as Dahae in Persian or in old Persian "Daha". The tribe the Dahae came from could be from the tribe of Dan do to the nature of the various spellings. But, it is possible that they were from the tribe of Ephraim. For the Dahae seem to be the Dahanites, and the name itself is similar to the Ephraimite clan known as Tahanites found in the book of Numbers 26:35. This is due to similarity in consonants based on the letters D and T.

Cyrus the Great seems to be of full or partial Israelite blood, and to make matters interesting to the reader, consider where Cyrus gained his Israelite blood.   Cyrus' mother was a Umman Manda princess named Mandane. This Mandane was the daughter of Astyages who was king of the Umman Manda.11 Now princess Mandane name is of interest and she could be named after two tribes, the first being Manasseh since her name Manda is another possible and plusable for the name Manasseh due to the "d" being changed or expressed like the letter "s". Thus Mandane becomes Mansae.

What makes this interesting and so ironic is that Cyrus came from the tribe of Gad, and was killed in battle by his own kin the Massagetae who were in turn the combined tribes of Gad and Manasseh.

In Mughal Bengal (India) the elites were the Pathans, Senas, Palas & Mughals. Then came the Brahmins, Kayasthas & Baydyas. In Bhopal (Central India), a majority Moslem area the Pathans ruled. Not to mention the many Pathan (Pashtun) empires ruling different parts of India.

The Scythian “Sacae” -- The Asian “Sons of Isaac”

Steven M. Collins

There is a common misconception that the ten tribes of Israel “disappeared” when they migrated into Asia. Nothing could be further from the truth! For many centuries, ancient historians knew both who the Israelites were, and where they went. They were not “lost” at all.

Consider one such example. Flavius Josephus was a Jewish military commander, a Pharisee, and an historian of the first century A.D. He wrote this about the ten tribes of Israel who were in Asia:

“...there are but two tribes in Asia and Europe subject to the Romans, while the ten tribes are beyond Euphrates till now, and are an immense multitude, and not to be estimated by numbers.”

Eight centuries after the ten tribes of Israel migrated to their new Asian homelands, Josephus knew that their population had become too numerous to estimate, and that the Euphrates River served as their western border.

Ezra 4:1 records that contingents of only three tribes (Judah, Levi and Benjamin) returned to Palestine in the time of Ezra and Nehemiah. They were the forebears of Judean Jews living in Judea at the time of Christ and Josephus. Judah, Levi and Benjamin were part of the former kingdom of Judah (II Chronicles 11:1, 14), not the kingdom of Israel (i.e. the "ten tribes of Israel”). Josephus affirmed that while contingents of Jews lived in Palestine, the ten tribes of Israel stayed in Asia. This is important because it refutes the misconception that the ten tribes migrated back to Palestine and were included with the Jews at the time of Christ.

The Ten Tribes of Israel Become “the Scythians”

Josephus asserts that the ten tribes of Israel were still in Asia in the first century A.D. His comment that the ten tribes were an “immense multitude” indicates we should expect to find very large masses of Israelites in Asia in the first century A.D., not isolated little remnants. An inevitable result of nations having very large populations in the ancient world was the achievement of political and military power, and we will see that the Asian Israelites had attained such power long before the time of Christ. Josephus’ comment that the Israelites were “beyond Euphrates” tells us that the Asian Israelites were then located north and east of the Euphrates River. As the reader will see, it is not difficult to locate the Israelites in Asia.

The Bible contains promises concerning the Israelites that must be mentioned before the historical evidence is examined. A prophecy in Hosea 1:6-10, stated that although God would “utterly take away Israel [from Palestine],” he would, thereafter, make their population “as the sand of the sea, which cannot be measured or numbered.” This prophecy about an innumerable population for the ten tribes had been fulfilled by the time of Christ, as Josephus confirmed. This illustrates an important lesson: God always keeps His promises and fulfills His prophecies.

Also, the Bible promised that the descendants of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob (Israel) would perpetually be known by a particular name. Genesis 21:12 records God’s promise to Abraham that:

“through Isaac shall your descendants be named.” (RSV)

God’s “covenant” blessings upon Abraham were inherited by Isaac and Jacob, whose name was changed to “Israel.” Genesis 48:14-20 shows that Jacob-Israel passed on these blessings to the tribes of Ephraim and Manasseh. Therefore, while the name of “Isaac” could generally apply to any of the Israelite tribes, the term would most specifically identify the descendants of the tribes of Ephraim and Manasseh. Therefore, we should look for the Israelites in Asia or elsewhere to be known by various forms of the word “Isaac.” As we shall see, secular history confirms that many large population groups in Asia did come to be known by variations of the name “Isaac.”

Chapter two discussed several waves of migrations into Asia by the ten tribes of Israel. The captivity of the Israelites who withstood a three-year Assyrian siege in Samaria is the most famous, but it is actually the least significant of the Asian migrations. Assyrian cuneiform records state that a mere 27,290 Israelite captives were taken from Samaria. The other two migrations involved far more people.

About twenty years before the fall of Samaria, the tribes of Gad, Naphtali, Reuben, and one-half the tribe of Manasseh were carried captive into Assyria (II Kings 15:29, I Chronicles 5:26). While the captives from Samaria represented only one city in the territory of the tribe of Ephraim, this earlier captivity involved the entire populations of at least three and one-half tribes. The Israelites taken in this captivity can be conservatively estimated in the hundreds of thousands. Also, as we learned in chapter two, many Israelites fled the final Assyrian invasion, voluntarily migrating into the region of the Black Sea and the Caucasus Mountains. Since this body of Israelites had a military escort of 220,000 soldiers as they migrated, it easily numbered over one million people.

Many inhabitants of Israel’s capital city, Samaria, were taken to the cities of the Medes (II Kings 17:6). We will begin our search by looking for a group of people who were not physically present in Media before the fall of Samaria. One historical account records that Assyria’s King Esarhaddon in 674 B.C. was confronted by an alliance of “Mannaean, Median, and newly-arrived Cimmerian forces.” The “newly-arrived” Cimmerians were the Israelite Samarians who had been settled among the Medes only a few decades earlier. Webster’s New World Dictionary states that “Cimmerian” is pronounced “Si-mer-e-en;” the consonants of “Samarian” and “Simereen” are a perfect match. That these “Cimmerians” were “recent arrivals” in Media adds weight to their identification as Israelite captives from the city of Samaria.

The Israelites who migrated to the Black Sea region became known as “Scythians.” The Encyclopedia Britannica records the Scythians as first being present in Eurasian locations in the seventh century B.C. The Encyclopedia Americana adds:

“The Scythians...are those tribes that occupied this territory [the region north of the Black Sea] from about 700 B.C.”

Another account of the Scythian arrival in the Black Sea region is found in The Scythians, by Tamara Talbot Rice, which states:

“The Scythians did not become a recognizable national entity...before the eighth century B.C...By the seventh century B.C. they had established themselves firmly in southern Russia... Assyrian documents place their appearance...on the shores of Lake Urmia [just south of Armenia] in the time of King Sargon (722-705 B.C) a date which closely corresponds with that of the establishment of the first group of Scythians in southern Russia.”

These accounts are all consistent with the historical records cited in chapter two that the Israelites migrated to the Black Sea area toward the end of the eighth century B.C. Rice’s account indicates the Black Sea Scythians arrived in southern Russia via a route that included territory south of Armenia in 722-705 B.C. That is exactly the time period the Israelites were migrating from their homeland, and it also indicates the Scythians originated in a former homeland south of Armenia. That place was Palestine, the location of the old kingdom of Israel.

Later in this chapter, we will see other Scythians came to live far to the east of the Black Sea Scythians. Tamara Rice’s book includes a map showing that the burial sites of these “related clans” of the Scythians have been found as far eastward as the Pazirik/Altai region where the old Soviet Union joined the western edges of China and Mongolia.

The opening of a burial mound of these eastern Scythians was the subject of an article in the October, 1994 issue of National Geographic magazine. It had the following commentary:

“The Pazyryks thrived in these the sixth through the second centuries B.C. They were horsemen...[and] shepherds...Dozens of such tribes rose on the steppes of Eurasia in this era, creating a deceptively uniform culture labeled Scytho-Siberian...The Greek historian Herodotus faithfully detailed much of the life of the Scythians, a powerful, semi-nomadic people who lived north of the Black Sea between 800 B.C. and 100 B.C.”

A female mummified in the burial vault must have been a prominent Scythian as she was buried with several horses and gravegoods with gold ornamentation. An earlier excavation in the area had yielded “two skeletons with European features” who were buried with weapons and ten horses. These eastern Scythians were one of many clans on the steppes related to the Scythians of the Black Sea region. The fact that some of their burial mounds yield skeletons “with European features”11will become increasingly important later in this chapter and in the next book in this series.

The Scythians were frequently called the “Saka,” or “Sacae.” The Encyclopedia Britannica states that the terms: 

“Saka [Sacae] and Scyths...were regarded as synonymous.”

The Greek story of Xenophon mentions the “Sacians” of Asia had “suffered very severely” at the hands of the Assyrians, and a Roman writer, Pliny, stated the Scythians were “descended from slaves.” These accounts can only describe the Israelites: they bore the name of “Isaac” (“Sac”-ians), the Israelites truly were descended from a race of slaves (freed from Egypt in the Exodus), and they had suffered the complete destruction of their old kingdom of Israel at the hands of Assyria.

It is very significant that the Scythians were known as Sacae or Saka. As cited earlier, Genesis 21:12 promised that Abraham’s future descendants would be known by the name of Isaac. The ancient Hebrew language did not list vowels; therefore, the name Isaac would be represented by the consonants S-C or S-K. Sac-ae is the word Isaac with the Latin plural “ae” attached. That these “ Sacae” are recorded as living near the Black Sea soon after many Israelites migrated there supports the contention that they were relocated Israelites.

Speculation that the Scythians originated in the interior of Asia is clearly refuted not only by the above account of Tamara Rice, but also by the images found on Scythian artifacts. A Russian art book (translated into English) reproduces many examples of Scythian artwork showing Scythians with bearded, Semitic features, not Mongoloid features. The McClintock and Strong Cyclopedia reproduces images of a Scythian family and a Scythian horseman, footman and general. All depict Scythians with obvious Caucasian and Semitic features, indicating that their origin was in the Fertile Crescent, not the interior of Asia.

Not all ancient people bearing the name “Scythian” were descended from the ten tribes of Israel. The term “Scythian” was sometimes used generically to describe any tribe with a nomadic or semi-nomadic lifestyle. Some “Turanians” were also called “Scythian” or “Sacae.” The Turanians may have had a Japhetic descent, with the term “Turanian” perhaps based on Tiras, one of the sons of Japheth. (Genesis 10:2) The Dniester River, which empties into the Black Sea, was anciently called the “Tyras” River, further supporting such a conclusion. It is possible to confuse the “Sacae Scythians” and “Turanian Scythians,” as George Rawlinson observed:

“The term ‘Scythic’ is not...ethnical. It designates a life rather than a descent, habits rather than blood. It is applied by the Greeks and Romans to Indo-European and Turanian races indifferently, provided they are nomads, dwelling in on the produce of their flocks and herds...”

Two races were called Scythians: the Indo-European “Sacae” and the “Turanians.” The terms “Sacae” and “Saka” do indicate an Israelite ethnicity, but the term “Scythian” can sometimes include non-Israelites as well.

In 653 B.C., the Medes and Cimmerians allied with the Scythians under a leader named “Phraortes” against the Assyrians. They lost their war with the Assyrians (and Phraortes died), but it is significant that the Scythians were anti-Assyrian. Once it is understood that these Scythians were Israelites, their antipathy toward Assyria is understandable. The Scythians and Cimmerians were kinsmen; the Encyclopedia Britannica calls the Cimmerians a “Scythian tribe.” Here we see Israelite tribes joining the Medes to fight the Assyrians mere decades after they left Palestine.

Their leader’s name, “Phraortes,” was a Hellenized form of “Phares,” a name of the tribe of Judah. Genesis 49:10 promised that dynasties of kings would come from Judah, and Jeremiah 33:17-22 prophesied that the descendants of King David, also of the Phares line, would become very numerous and would perpetually rule over descendants of “the house of Israel.” Jeremiah prophesied this after the house of Israel (the northern ten tribes) had migrated to Asia. The name “Phraortes” indicates that descendants of King David were ruling Asian Israelites soon after their removal from Palestine, showing that God had not forgotten His promise to David’s progeny. (II Samuel 7:8-17)

One of the last kings of Judah, Jehoichin, was taken to Babylon as a captive (II Kings 24:8-15), but a later Babylonian king “set his throne above the throne of the kings that were with him in Babylon.” (II Kings 25:27-30) Jehoichin, David’s descendant, became a high vassal king in the Babylonian Empire. He fathered many sons (I Chronicles 3:16-24), making the royal seed of King David numerous in Asia. The kings of Babylon apparently placed these royal descendants over captive Israelites, fulfilling God’s promise to King David that his seed would rule over the ten tribes of Israel! Almost from the beginning, these royal descendants were the kings of the Asian nations and empires of the Israelites.

What happened to the Israelites -- the tribes of Reuben, Gad, Naphthali and one-half of Manasseh -- who were carried captive by the Assyrians about twenty years before Samaria fell? It is recorded that the “Scythians” were not only located in the Black Sea region, but also in Mesopotamia, just east of Assyria. The Encyclopedia Britannica states that: “A Scythian power had grown up in the old kingdom of Ellip, to the east of Assyria...[by] Ecbatana.” History records that Scythian powers developed in two locations: one by the Black Sea and the other east of Assyria.

The Scythians located east of Assyrian in modern Iran were descended from Israelites taken captive by the Assyrians, while the Sacae Scythians in the Black Sea region were descended from Israelites who fled there to avoid Assyrian captivity. The captive Israelites soon displaced the nation of Ellip into whose region they had been placed. What nation had been displaced by the Israelites who migrated to the Black Sea and Caucasus Mountains? This region was previously called Urartu. William Culican’s The Medes and the Persians states that Urartu was “enfeebled by Scythian incursions.” Tamara Rice’s book, The Scythians, records:

“in the area roughly corresponding to present-day Azerbaijan, the kingdom of Urartu had crumbled. The Scythians, under their king Partatua...firmly established themselves in...Urartu itself, where they set up their capital at Sakiz...”

A Scythian capital was named “Sakiz,” honoring the Israelite patriarch, Isaac. Who else but the relocated ten tribes of Israel would name an Asian city in honor of Isaac? Their territory was in the modern region of Armenia and Azerbaijan, between the Black Caspian Seas. One of their first kings was named “Partatua.” Ancient languages often interchanged the letters “p” and “b.” Try saying these letters yourself; they have very similar sounds and are called “labial consonants.” When you change the first “p” in the Scythian king’s name to a “b,” you have “Bart-atua.” The first syllable of his name “Bart-” preserves the root word of “B-R-T,” the Hebrew word for “covenant.” As the reader knows from previous discussions in this series on Israelite history, the consonants “B-R-T” are a distinctive identifier of the tribes of Israel.

The Encyclopedia Britannica refers to the Scythians as “newcomers” to the area in the seventh century B.C., and William Culican’s book, The Medes and the Persians, states that Scythian numbers and influence grew in the seventh century B.C. Since the Israelites migrated into Asia at the end of the eighth century B.C., their rise to prominence in the seventh century B.C. is very consistent with biblical accounts.

Scythian Culture and Society

Historians tell us the Scythians were agriculturists who both planted crops and followed their herds (hence the word “nomads”). The old Israelite lifestyle from the days of Abraham revolved around agriculture, and they both planted crops and were herdsmen. Ezekiel 27:17 records the Israelites had been food exporters in the kingdoms of Israel and Judah. A Jewish historian cited by Col. Gawler in an earlier chapter stated that the Israelites fled through Armenia from the Assyrians, and went “with their flocks, and turned nomads.” The Scythians carried on the Israelite traditions of being agriculturists, food exporters and “nomads” dwelling in portable dwellings as they followed their flocks and herds. Zenaide Ragozin’s book, Media, records:

“Some seventy years after the time of Herodotus we find from contemporary evidence that 600,000 bushels of Scythian corn went to Athens alone each year.”

If 600,000 bushels of grain went to one Greek city each year in the fifth century, B.C., one wonders how much the Scythians exported to the world as a whole. Herodotus confirmed that the Scythians grew corn for use as an export crop, and the production of a voluminous grain crop shows the Scythians were skilled farmers, not “hunter-gatherers.”

Scythian agriculturists had civilized tastes. William Culican, in The Medes and the Persians, states:

“ was to the Scythians that Achaemenid objects had greatest appeal. The dinner services, upholstered beds and thrones designed for the mess tents of Persian officers on field duty admirably suited the...nomadic Scythian leaders. Scythian tombs were elaborately furnished and...the Scythians not only had a close relationship with the Medes and Persians but supplied from their Ural territories much of the gold on which Persia depended.”

Tamara Rice also wrote concerning the Scythians:

“...their wealth and love of finery won them the good will of the great Hellenic merchants established along the shores of the Black Sea...the Scythians already displayed an extraordinary ability to appreciate and assimilate the best in the art of their day.”

The above accounts are significant. A nation that possessed wealth, enjoyed fine tableware and upholstered beds, and exhibited an “extraordinary” appetite for the fine arts is one that prizes the material comforts of a civilized society. The fact that Scythia had a well-developed gold mining, refining and exporting industry indicates that not all Scythians were farmers or ranchers. Their gold mines indicate that some Scythians were involved in industrial pursuits, and their success in the gold trade confirms that they possessed the technological expertise to process gold ores into beautiful finished products. These Scythians had originated in the kingdom of Israel’s “Phoenician” homeland. The Israelite-Phoenicians were a very civilized, prosperous people who enjoyed a civilized society and excelled in international commerce. It is not surprising that their Asian descendants exhibited these same attributes. Like their Scythian progeny, the Phoenicians had been excellent goldsmiths. The McClintock and Strong Cyclopedia states that the Phoenicians:

“...manufactured all kinds of beautiful vessels and ornaments in gold, silver and ivory...”

The Scythians manufactured some of the ancient world’s most elegant works of gold art. Books have been written which display their artistic abilities. Their civilized tastes and sophisticated skills indicate that their origin was in the Mesopotamian/Mediterranean region, not the wild steppes of deepest Asia. A comment by Georges Charriere, author of the book, Scythian Art: Crafts of the Eurasian Nomads, also confirms the Scythians migrated into the Russian steppes from the south, not from the north.

Speaking of the “characteristic animal style of Scythian art,” Charriere wrote:

“There is no ground for concluding that this style had its birth in the Altai or in any other region of Siberia. Along with the other elements of the Scythian culture, it was derived from the cultural heritage of the ancient East and originated in the peripheral regions of Assyria, among the Iranian-language tribes settled in the north of Iran.”

Charriere is speaking specifically of the Scythians who lived east of the Caspian Sea. While the Black Sea Scythians descended from Israelites who fled to that region to avoid Assyrian captivity, the eastern Scythians evidenced an origin in “the peripheral regions of Assyria” and “the north of Iran.” The Bible records that the Israelites who did go into captivity were settled “in Assyria” (II Kings 15:29) and in the “cities of the Medes.” (II Kings 17:6) The “cities of the Medes” were in “the north of Iran.” Here we see strong cultural evidence that the eastern Scythians were originally subjects of the Assyrian and the Median and Persian Empires, and moved into the Russian steppes from the south. These Scythians were the Israelites who had, indeed, been captives in the Assyrian Empire and were transplanted to the north of Iran. When the Assyrian and the Median and Persian Empires fell, these Israelites were freed from their captors, and they migrated into the steppes east of the Caspian Sea. II Kings 15:29 and 17:6 identify these captive Israelites who became the eastern Scythians as the tribes of Naphthali, Gad, Reuben, one-half the tribe of Manasseh, and the Ephraimites who had been besieged in Samaria.

Georges Charriere also notes linguistic evidence that the Scythians migrated into the Russian steppes from the south, not from northern Asia. He wrote:

“...the steppes as far as the Altai Mountains were inhabited by Scythians or Sacian tribes -- Persian-speaking peoples of Central Asia, similar to the Scythians in their economic organization, way of life and culture.”

Obviously, if these Scythians had originated in the northern, interior regions of Asia, they would not have been a “Persian-speaking” people. The fact that their many tribes spoke a language of the Persian Empire confirms not only that the Scythians had once lived within the Persian Empire, but that they had lived there for a considerable period of time. This would be an expected trait of the Israelite captives who had lived within the Assyrian and the Median and Persian Empire for centuries.

It was mentioned earlier that the “Scythians” included both the Sacae and the Turanians. In addition to the civilized Scythians, there were ignorant and uncouth tribes on the steppes. Herodotus, a Greek historian of the fifth century B.C., affirmed that the civilized Scythians lived close to some very uncivilized tribes, which he described in these words:

“the Man-Eaters, a tribe that is entirely peculiar and not Scythian at all...[and] the Black Cloaks, another tribe which is not Scythian at all.”

Herodotus confirms the civilized qualities of the Scythians and the backwardness of “non-Scythian” tribes in the following blunt words: “The Euxine Pontus [the Black Sea]...contains -- except for the Scythians -- the stupidest nations in the world.”

In these accounts, Herodotus used the term “Scythian” in an ethnic sense to designate the civilized “Sacae.” However, as noted above, other writers sometimes used the term “Scythian” to describe all the tribes living in the Russian steppes.

Colonel Gawler cites Epiphanius as stating “the laws, customs, and manner of the Scythians were received by other nations as the standards of policy, civility, and polite learning.” He also cites the following from book viii, iii, 7 of Strabo’s Geography:

“Aeschylus too...says, ‘but the Scythians governed by good laws...’ And this is still the opinion entertained of them by the Greeks; for we esteem them the most sincere, the least deceitful of any people, and much more frugal and self-relying than ourselves.”

Strabo was a Greek writer during the first century B.C. Modern students are taught to think the Greco-Romans were the most civilized people of the ancient world, yet Strabo’s account offers the opinion that the laws, frugality and self-reliance of the Scythians excelled that of the Greeks! Strabo even declares that the Scythians excelled all nations in their sincerity and honesty. Strabo, a prominent Greco-Roman, seems to assert that the Scythians were the most civilized people of his time.

There is an additional record that the Scythians of South Russia had their origins among the Semitic nations of the Mideast. Zenaide Ragozin’s Media states:

“...Scythians was not a race name at all, but one... used for all remote, little known, especially nomadic peoples of the north and northeast, denoting tribes...of Turanian as of Indo-European stock: to the latter the Scythians of Russia are now universally admitted to have belonged.”

The term “Scythian” came to represent a lifestyle as well as a racial group. However, the highly civilized Scythians of South Russia were known to be Indo-European,” not “Turanian.” This adds more confirmation that their origin was among the Indo-European nations south of the Black Sea, not among the uncivilized nomads in the interior of Asia.

The evidence clearly indicates that the Scythians moved into the Russian steppes from the south, not from the north! A large body of the ten tribes of Israel moved from Palestine to the Black Sea region of south Russia when Samaria fell. Even as the Israelites were herdsmen and exporters of grain, so were the Scythians. Even as the Israelites had been skilled in metallurgy from the time of Solomon, so were the Scythians. Even as the Israelites had civilized tastes, so did the Scythians. The Israelites were descendants of Isaac, and the Scythians bore the name of Isaac (“Sac-ae” or “Sak-a”). The Israelites fled into the Black Sea regions in about 721 B.C., and the “Scythians” were first noted in the Black Sea regions soon after this date. There is no doubt about the origin of the Scythians: They were displaced Israelites building a new homeland in the Black Sea region and in parts of the Russian steppe.

                                                                          Samaria fall

Herodotus records that the Persians called all the Scythian tribes “Sacae.” Latin writers substituted an “x” for the “c” or “k” in Sacae/Saka and called them the “Saxoi” or “Saxones.” This provides even more evidence that the Sacae Scythians were the of the ten tribes of Israel. The Israelites were known by these names before they ever left Palestine!

Assyrian records mention the rebellion of the Esakska, who called themselves “Beth Sak” or "House of Isaac” in their own country. Here we have an Assyrian confirmation that the Israelites were known by the name of Isaac (the root word: “Sak”) prior to their migrations into Asia. The word “beth” is a Hebrew word meaning, “house.” The Israelites continued to bear the Hebrew racial names “Saka” or “Sacae” after their migration into Asia. The prophet Amos cited the term "House of Isaac” (i.e., "Beth Sak”) as describing the ten-tribed northern kingdom of Israel just decades prior to the fall of Samaria and the Israelites’ migrations to Asia. (Amos 7:16)

The biblical book of Jeremiah confirms that many of the ten tribes of Israel migrated to the Black Sea region. Jeremiah 3:3-12 contains a message from God to both the Jews (Judah) and the ten tribes of Israel. This message was given a century after the ten tribes of Israel were conquered by the Assyrians. In verses 6-10, God warned that Judah was repeating the sins that had caused the kingdom of Israel to fall. In verse 11, God states: “Backsliding Israel hath justified herself more than treacherous Judah.” This confirms that the Jews and the northern ten tribes were still separate entities, and that the ten tribes were in a better standing with God than were the Jews at the time of this message! That is consistent with accounts presented in an earlier chapter that the people of the ten tribes who migrated to the Black Sea region had implemented religious reforms. Jeremiah 3:12 directs this statement to the ten tribes of Israel:

“...proclaim these words toward the north, and say, Return, thou backsliding Israel, saith the Lord; and I will not cause mine anger to fall upon you: for I am merciful...” (KJV)

If all ten tribes of Israel were taken captive to Assyria, this message to the Israelites would have been sent “to the east” since Assyria was located east of Jerusalem. Jeremiah 3:12 acknowledges that most of the ten tribes of Israel were then located not to the east but to the north of Jerusalem. If you check a map or globe, you will confirm that the Black Sea region is located due north of Jerusalem. Jeremiah’s message to the ten tribes (“Israel”) was directed toward the Black Sea region where the Scythians (the “Sacae”) lived.

Many have the mistaken impression that God forsook the ten tribes of Israel when they migrated from Palestine. Not at all! Jeremiah directed a favorable message from God to them about a century after Samaria fell. Hosea 1:10 records that God promised to vastly increase the population of the ten tribes of Israel after he expelled them from Palestine. Josephus’ quote at the beginning of this chapter indicates God had fulfilled that prophecy by the first century A.D. In Jeremiah 51:5, it is also stated:

“For Israel hath not been forsaken, nor Judah of his God, of the LORD of hosts...” (KJV)

This was written circa 595 B.C., long after the ten tribes went into captivity. God was still guiding the destinies of both the ten tribes of Israel and the Jews even after the ten tribes left Palestine. How could He forsake them? They were the “birthright” seed of Abraham, and God’s covenant with Abraham’s descendants was unconditional! In greatly expanding the ten tribes’ population, God was keeping His promise to Abraham! (Genesis 13:16 and 48:14-16) God also kept His promise in Genesis 21:12 and Genesis 48:14-20 that Abraham’s descendants would be known by the name of Isaac. Because this promise primarily applied to the tribes of Ephraim and Manasseh, many of the Scythians known as the “Sacae” would be from those tribes.

God did not give the great “birthright” blessings of the Abrahamic covenant to the tribe of Judah (the Jews). These birthright blessings were permanently given to the tribes of Ephraim and Manasseh in Genesis 48. The one Abrahamic blessing specifically given to the tribe of Judah was the promise that dynasties of kings would emerge from that tribe. (Genesis 49:10) This was fulfilled when King David’s descendants founded many dynasties of kings, as will be examined more extensively in the next book in this series.

The famous "Amarna Tablets” are very ancient records of letters from Canaanite rulers to Egypt’s Pharaoh desperately calling for help against the powerful invasions of a people called the “Haberi,” “Habiru,” etc. These invaders were the Hebrews, as documented in David Rohl’s book, Pharaohs and Kings. (see the first book in this series) Mrs. Sydney Bristowe, in Oldest Letters in the World, wrote the following about the Amarna Tablets:

“The great importance of the Amarna Tablets has not been recognized because apparently, the translations have been unwilling to admit that the Israelites are mentioned upon them...the name hardly seen in these translations, yet that name, appears frequently in the tablets and leading philologists certify that it stands for the Hebrews (Israelites)... Another name mentioned upon the tablets is Saga which is said to be identical with Haberi (Knudtzon, Die El-Amarna Tafeln, p. 51), and is proved to be so by the fact that it occurs upon the Behistun Rock in Persia where, according to Sir Henry Rawlinson, it represents the Israelites (the Sakai or ‘House of Isaac’).”

Mrs. Bristowe’s book cites a German book and Sir Henry Rawlinson in support of the conclusion that the Amarna Tablets identify the Israelites. Dr. H.R. Hall, a former Keeper of the British Museum’s Department of Egyptian and Assyrian Antiquities, wrote in his book, The Ancient History of the Near East:

“It seems very probable that the SA-GAZ’...and...the Khabiru who devastated Canaan in Akhenaton’s time are no other than the invading Hebrews...In my own view, the probabilities are all in favor of the identification.”

Both the above authors agree with David Rohl that the Habiru were the Hebrews, and that the Amarna tablets record a Hebrew invasion of Canaan. Bristowe and Dr. Hall favor the time of Joshua for this invasion, while David Rohl assigns it 400 years later to the time of King David’s conquest of all the cities of Canaan. This author finds Rohl’s evidence persuasive. Accounts that the Hebrews were known as “Saga” or “Sagaz” indicate an obvious similarity to “Saka” or “Sacae” (“g” and “k” are closely related guttural consonants). This confirms that the name of Isaac, so firmly stamped on the Scythians, had also been applied to the Israelites in Palestine at least since the time of King David.

Israelite Customs among the Scythians

The inscriptions on the Behistun Rock also link the Scythians to the Israelite/Phoenicians. The Persian ruler, Darius, proclaimed a victory (circa 516 B.C.) via a huge inscription on a mountain near Behistun (or “Behistan”). It depicts Darius receiving the leaders of captive nations who are being led before him via ropes tied around their necks. The Encyclopedia Britannica states that the last captive in line is “a Scythian wearing a tall, pointed cap.” Herodotus was cited above as stating that the Persians called all the Scythians “Sacae,” so a cultural characteristic of the Sacae was the wearing of tall, pointed caps.

That only the Scythian captive wore this hat identifies it as a trait unique to the Scythians. Herodotus commented on this Scythian headgear: “The Sacae, who are Scythians, have high caps tapering to a point and stiffly upright, which they wear on their heads.”

Wearing a tall, pointed cap was also a cultural trait of the Israelite-Phoenicians. Evidence of this Phoenician trait has been found in both the Old World and in ancient America. In the Old World, an example of Phoenicians wearing such caps is found on a relief from Persepolis as shown in the Encyclopedia Americana. Dr. Barry Fell’s America B.C. shows a terra-cotta figurine found in an American burial mound depicting a Phoenician with a tall cap, the “characteristic high-crowned hat, the hennin, worn on formal occasions.” Israelite high priests wore tall hats called miters. (Exodus 28:37-29:6) The miter had a “forefront” (Exodus 28:37), and a blue decoration “high upon the miter” ( Exodus 39:31), verifying that it was a tall cap. This type of headgear was adopted by Israelites in leadership positions. Harper’s Bible Dictionary shows tall, pointed hats as an example of “Hebrew royal attire.”

                                                                Behistun inscription captives

The matching headgear of the Israelite-Phoenicians and the Sacae-Scythians is one more cultural factor supporting the conclusion that the Scythians were the displaced ten tribes of Israel. Further evidence of the Israelite origins of the Scythians is found in this comment of Herodotus about them:

“They make no offerings of pigs, nor will they keep them at all in their country.”

Such a prohibition is very consistent with the well-known Hebrew custom of forbidding the use of swine for either consumption or sacrifice because it was an “unclean” animal. (Deuteronomy 14:7-8) Who else but displaced Israelites would be observing -- if readers will pardon the oversimplification -- a “kosher” lifestyle in the Russian steppes? Herodotus also records that one of the Scythian kings was named “Saulius.” Given the Hebrew-Israelite background of the Scythians, the namesake of this Scythian king was Saul, the first Israelite king. (I Samuel 9)

Herodotus also records that “The Scythians themselves say that their nation is the youngest of all the nations...[and] from their first the crossing of Darius into Scythia was, in all, one thousand years...” Col. Gawler analyzed Herodotus’ record as follows:

“Now Darius’ expedition against the Scythians was about 500 B.C., and 1000 years before that brings us to the time of Moses.”

Significantly, the Scythians traced their origin as a nation to the approximate time of Moses. It was after the Exodus, under Moses, that the Israelites truly became a nation with their own distinct culture, sovereignty and laws.

Additional evidence that Scythia was a new Israelite homeland is the appearance of the name of the Israelite tribe of Dan in the Black Sea area. The tribe of Dan was known for giving its tribal name to geographic locations (Joshua 19:47). The rivers emptying into the Black Sea were formerly known as the Ister, Tyras, Borysthenes, and Tanais, but, after the Scythians migrated into the region, their names were changed to the Danube, Dniester, Dnieper, and Don Rivers.

Collier’s Encyclopedia states: “The names of the...rivers Danube, Dnestr, Dnepr and Don are Scythian...”

The tribe of Dan was split into two homelands in Palestine: one on the seacoast and one in a land-locked area in the north of Israel. In a previous chapter, we saw evidence that many Danites migrated to Ireland when Israel fell, but the prominence of the name Dan in Scythian areas indicates that other Danites joined the migration into the Black Sea regions. A major Scythian tribe was named the Dahai or Dahae, which may also indicate the tribe of Dan.

Israelite migration into western Europe, Khazaria and Central Asia

One of the most prominent Scythian tribes was the Massagetae, most likely indicating the Israelite tribe of Manasseh. Note the similarity between the Scythian Massa-getae, and the Massae-scyli, a tribe that lived in Carthaginian territory (the Israelite origin of Carthage was discussed in the previous chapter). Manasseh was one of the largest tribes of Israel, so large that it received two territories for its population when Joshua conquered Canaan. As one of the largest tribes, Manassehites logically would have been among the Israelites who founded Carthage, as well as being one of the more recognizable tribes in Scythia.

Pashtuns and Pashtunwali

The Pashtun social life has an unwritten code of ethics known as Pashtunwali. Every Pashtun is expected to abide by Pashtunwali, which is based upon centuries of collective wisdom of the Pashtun. Pashtunwali consists of important principles that guide social and individual life such as:

Melmastiya– which means an open-hearted hospitality; Pashtuns are famous for their hospitality.
Nang– means chivalry, a moral and social virtue or a noble deed. To stand up for the weak is the very essence of Nang.

Nanawatey– is derived from the verb meaning “to go in”. This is used for the protection given to a person, who requests it, against his/her enemies. The person is then protected at all costs. It can also be used when a vanquished party is prepared to go in to the house of the victors and ask their forgiveness. This is a peculiar form of “chivalrous” surrender, in which an enemy seeks “sanctuary” at his enemy’s house.

Badal– defines an obligation to seek revenge by retaliation although the performance of Nanawateymeans one can obtain forgiveness in his enemy’s house. Through the tradition of Nanawatey, a typical Pashtun will always forgive the killer of his dear ones in the presence of a Jirga.
Jargah or Jirga– a council of Pashtun elders through which justice is sought. Settling disputes through negotiation is the basic objective of Jargah: in other words, Jargah is a form of direct democracy in Pashtun society, where every individual has the right to speak.

                                        Namoos– the respect of women, country, and property.

Attan– is an Afghan national dance, performed before war and after the victory. It is also performed at various cultural celebrations in Pashtun society. Every Pashtun man and woman is trained to dance the Attan as well as being the best in playingRabaab and singing Tapa – a typical Pashto song.

Pashto or Pakhto is not only a language in Pashtun society, but is synonymous with the Pashtun code of life – Pashtunwali (the Pashtun values). Pashtuns love their mother tongue Pashto and claim that in paradise they will speak Pashto instead of Arabic; it is pointed out that according to the teachings of Islam, Arabic is the only language that will be

spoken in the world hereafter. However, a well-known Pashto poet, Hamza Khan Shinwari (Hamza Baba), in one of his poetic verses responding to the teachings of Islam and Mullahism, says:

“The rivals (Mullahs) name Pakhto as the tongue of hell, But I (Hamza) will go to paradise with Pakhto.” (Hamza Baba)

Ghani Khan, the great Pashto poet of 20th century, is of the view that “a typical Pashtun is kind and gentle but hates to show it. He loves fighting but hates to be a soldier. He loves his new rifle and his old wife. He will forgive you anything, if you do it bravely enough. In a historical perspective the Pashtun bears close resemblance to the people of great civilizations. His villages have Greek names. His tribes have Greek customs. Like the Greek he is a great poet and a great warrior and like the Greeks, almost all his wars are over women.”

Pashtuns are basically a proud people, as former British Prime Minister Sir Winston Churchill, in his book ‘The Malakand Field Force’, says, “Any poor Pathan (Pashtun) here is ready to look into the eyes of the Queen of England and say, I am no less than you”.

Pashtuns have a great love for Pashtunkhwa which is their historical land, but unfortunately, British-India occupied part of it and later, in 1893, divided it by drawing a line, called the Durand Line, through its centre, effectively cutting the Pashtun nation in half. With the withdrawal of the British from the subcontinent, the land came under the jurisdiction of Pakistan in 1947. To date, Pashtuns in Pashtunkhwa are occupied by Pakistan, but the spirit of freedom among the Pashtuns will never die. Yes, it can be weakened by fate and time, but stays always strong in will. PoetExpressing love for the land of Pashtunkhwa, Ahmad Shah Abdali, the founding father of the modern state of Afghanistan, spoke in his poetry in 1760, “I forget my Delhi throne when I recall the mountain peaks of my beautiful Pashtunkhwa. If I conquer the whole world, even then I can never forget thy beautiful gardens.”

Now the Pashtun land is divided into many parts and almost all occupied by their neighbors. The Durand Line is considered with hate, dividing the Pashtun as once the Berlin Wall divided Germany. Now, it will not be wrong to say that Pashtun cannot be called a nation, but rather groups that are divided and scattered and the uneducated Pashtuns, are unable to realize the dilemma of their disintegration. In Pakistan, Pashtuns are not taught their own history, but that of the Indo-Pak and Jihad in Islam. The Pashtuns are indoctrinated into the belief that they are born to fight against   infidels, for the sake of Allah and Islam. In Pakistan, the Pashtuns are appreciated for their fighting skills but not for their intellectual abilities. Their language Pashto has been replaced by Urdu and as a result the majority of the Pashtuns living under the jurisdiction of Pakistan, cannot read or write their own Pashto language and only a few are able to understand news bulletins in the original and pure Pashto. The Pashtuns are being pushed into darkness and ignorance by the Pakistani establishment. By doing so, Pakistan can easily use the Pashtun for their own purposes, especially for proxy wars in the name of Islam, proclaiming that Islam is in danger. As a result, Pashtun society is falling apart politically, socially and economically.

Historically speaking, the Pashtuns, as individuals or a people, are a great people having done great deeds, but Pashtun as a modern nation has failed and for centuries, they have done nothing to forward a collective national cause.

Pashtuns will always have a dynamic character with a great zeal for music and dance, poetry and art, but in contrast to his poetic nature, the Pashtun is a warrior too. The best example of this contradiction is the great Khushal Khan Khattak.

At the present time Pashtuns are unfortunately the most unfortunate people because they live in a society where religious Mullahs have dominated all the powers in the name of Islam, and have declared love, art and music as taboos. But if one looks through the pages of Pashtun’s history, they will find a culture full of creativity and art of any kind was not considered a taboo. In Pashtun society there is an institution known as ‘Hujra’, the essential symbol of Pashtunwali. Hujra is the site of great learning, for the promotion of art, poetry, music and culture in the Pashtun society. It is a common sitting or sleeping place for men in the villages, as Pashtuns are basically people of villages rather than cities, and guests and unmarried young men (bachelors) would sleep there. The Rabab and Mangay are two old Pashtun musical instruments and the real ornaments of Hujra and it is a well-established custom among the Pashtun to welcome guests with music. Hujra is also the decision-making forum of the villagers and provides vivid picture of the real Pashtun society and traditions. Today, the Hujra tradition is on the verge of disappearing, constituting a great loss for the culture. Although one can still see Hujra in some parts of Pashtun society, it exists in a very wretched form. Due to the dominance of the Mullah, Hujra has lost its important significance and the decision making process now takes place in the mosque instead.  The mosque and the persons connected to the mosque are at full gallop to grab away the powers of Hujra.

The Rabab and Mangay in Hujra actualize the Pashtuns’ basic love of art, music and poetry that the religious Mullah has declared taboo in the name of Islam. With the banning of love, art and music in Pashtun society, religious extremism has been increased and the society altogether looks orthodox. This is not only a threat to all liberal Pashtuns but also an attack on the cultures throughout the rest of the world as the religious extremism benefits Mullahs in the recruitment of Mujahideen (Jihadists). Yet there is a group of cultured and progressively-minded Pashtuns who prefer Pashtunwali – the Pashtun code of life, to religious law ‘Shari’a’ for the conduct of matters. Such liberal people strongly proclaim that first, they are Pashtuns and then, Muslims.

The Pashtuns Are the Tribes of Israel

Common traditions of Pashtuns and Jews

Although the common traditions of Pashtuns and Jews might not be enough on their own to prove Pashtuns are Israelites, they can certainly be used for further confirmation that our conclusion is correct. Amongst the common traditions are:

Lighting candles before Saturday (Shabbat): Not eating sea-creatures such as lobsters, shrimps, and crabs, and animals like camels and horses, and meat with cheese. These are, in fact, not Kosher (cannot be eaten) according to the Torah given to the people of Israel by God through Moses.
Circumcision on the 8th day: The days of the week are called by their numbers, like in Hebrew, except for Friday which is called by its Arabic name Jummah جمعه (it is a holy day for Muslims) and Saturday which is called Shambah, in the Torah (and in Hebrew) it is called Shabbat (Shabath).
Wearing a small hat, In Hebrew they are called Kipa:

Wearing a square piece of clothing by men. In Hebrew it is called Talith. In Pashtun, it is Shawl/Sadaar.

A man marries his dead brother’s widow if the brother didn’t have children. In the Torah it is called Yibum.

In Weddings there’s a piece of fabric hanging above the marrying couple. In Hebrew it is called Hupa. In Pashto it is called Dolaye.

In some Pashtun weddings, the bride breaks a glass (in particular, I heard it is done by Pashtuns in Kandahar). In Jewish weddings the groom breaks it. This is actually a relatively new tradition that Jews do for the remembrance of the destroyed Temple, so it is likely that Pashtuns heard of this tradition after they have already been exiled and added it to their other Israelite traditions.

Some Pashtun women grow side brows (called Kamsai in Pashto). A lot of Jewish males do that too (mainly Hasidim [Ashkenazi] and Yemenite Jews). Jews and Pashtuns are probably the only ones in the world who do this:

Using names like Yaakov (Christians use Jacob but only Jews and Pashtuns use it as it should be pronounced), Israel, Barak, Asaf, Benyamin, Kenan, Tamir, Timor, Shir, Sahar, etc.

Other evidence includes names of places in Afghanistan and Kashmir that resemble ancient towns in Israel that are mentioned in the bible. And some say that until not so long ago, one of the names of the Amu Darya (River Oxus) was Gozan, which is mentioned as one of the placed the damn Assyrians exiled the people of Israel to. There are also the names of tribes that resemble the children of Yaakov (the names of the Israeli tribes), like Lewani (Lewi), Daftali (Naftali), Yusufzai (children of Yussuf-Yossef), Rubanni (Reuven), Afridi (Efrayim) etc. Also parts of the Pashtunwali resemble some parts of the Torah.

Some Pashtuns also have Jewish artifacts. For example, I heard first hand from a Lewani Pashtun that his grandmother had these jewelries:

DNA Testing

It is said that almost half of Indian Afridi Pathans are very close genetically to Jews. I heard from some Pashtuns that Pathans are actually Pashtuns that mixed with other nations, so I was set to try to do a DNA test myself on friends of mine who are pure-blood Pashtuns. I already got an offer from a commercial company, when I suddenly remembered something I read not long ago – a Wikipedia article about Jewish genetics. I’ll outline some of the conclusions of those studies, and explain their relevancy afterwards.

Male lineage studies: A book published in 2012 that surveys previous studies concluded that all major Jewish groups share a common Middle Eastern origin, and claimed that the theory that some Ashkenazi Jews are Khazars is refuted. Another study done in 2012 claimed to prove that North African Jews are genetically close to European Jews. Another showed that Ashkenazi Jews from Germany are much closer to Sfaradic Jews than to non-Jewish Germans. Another study in 2013 found no Khazar evidence for Ashkenazi Jews and again concluded that most of the Ashkenazi Jews have common Middle Eastern origin as the Sfaradic Jews.

Female linage studies: In 2008 someone found that about 40% of Ashkenazi Jews had 4 female founders (consistent with Jewish tradition of being the children of Yaakov’s wives – Lea, Rahel, Zilpa and Bilha), but that the same is not true for Sfaradic Jews (basically claiming that many women converted to Judaism and married male Jews). In 2013 someone said the exact opposite – that about 88% of the Ashkenazi Jews had non-Middle Eastern female ancestors, suggesting that Jewish males migrated to Europe and took new wives from the local population, and converted them to Judaism. In 2014 another study contradicted both other studies.

Tribal Groups in Afghanistan, Pakistan & Kashmir

Straddling the boundaries between Afghanistan, Pakistan and Kashmir lives the world's largest tribal grouping—the Pathans. All of the 15 million Pathans, who comprise some 60 tribes, claim descent from Kish, an ancestor of the Biblical King Saul.

Many of them also claim to be them children of the Lost Israelites. The Pathans perform circumcision of the eighth day, wear a fringed garment similar to the Jewish tzizit, light candles on Friday nights and observe food taboos similar to the laws of Kashrut.

Kashmir is renowned as one of the most spectacularly beautiful places in the world. Kashmir consists of a wide and beautiful valley, surrounded by tall mountains and is one of the most beautiful places in the world.

There have been many controversies regarding its history. Till now many references about the origin of Kashmiri people have been given but controversies are still present. One such theory is about kashmiries being the Lost Tribe of one of the twelve tribes of Bani-Israel.

The history of the Kashmir is shrouded in mystery, as is the history of other people in Kashmir. Many researchers are of the opinion that many inhabitants of Kashmir are descendants of the Lost Tribes who were exiled in 722 BC. They wandered along the Silk Road into the countries of the East, Persia and Afghanistan until they reached the Kashmir valley and settled there.

Others say the wanderings began approximately 300 years later. The wanderers settled in Kashmir, kept their traditions until they slowly started idol worship and gradually got converted to Hinduism & ultimately they got converted to Islam when the word of Allah (Islam) reached the valley and thus once again started worshiping the one GOD “ALLAH”.

There are 5 to 7 million people here. Generally speaking, they have clearer complexions and are different from the other citizens of India.

The priest Monstrat said that in the time of Vasco da Gama in the 15th century, "all the inhabitants of this area who have been living here since ancient times can trace their ancestry, according to their race and customs, to the ancient Israelites.

HAPLOGROUP G2c - The Silk Road Gene

In human genetics, Haplogroup G2c (formerly G5) is a major Y chromosome haplogroup, and yet unique: It has a very high frequency in Ashkenazi Jews, and shows strong evidence of a very recent settlement in Europe.

Recently, G2c was discovered in an Egyptian and a Jordanian and have values very similar to the Lebanese G2c sample from Sicily--- and the common ancestor between the Jewish group and this lone Sicilian match up to the time Titus brought the Jews out of Judea.

This Jewish group could very well be Italkim Jews (Italian Jews); which would explain why it was never found amongst Sephardi Jews (those with origins in Spain or Portugal) and would explain its rather late arrival into Eastern Europe.

The TMRCA (time until most recent common ancestor) appears to be around 1100 CE for this close group of Ashkenazi Jews. It is rare outside of northern Europe but there is recent evidence that this haplogroup is also found in certain Lebanese Christian populations originating from southern Syria and it has been found in a single Turk from Kars Province in Turkey on the border with Armenia plus a Pashtun from the area of Pakistan bordering Afghanistan in the Hindu Kush range.

There are just two other confirmed G2c samples that have been publicly reported in the academic literature so far, one Pashtun in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan (the Hindu Kush Range), and one Burusho in the Hunza Valley in Kashmir. Hunza was an important stop on the 'Silk Road' from the Near East to China.

The Sakas, Hepthalites, Cimmerians, Sarmatians, Scythians, Parthians, Sogdians & Dardics were the Israelite Ancestors of the Pashtuns

Cimmerians, Sarmatians, Scythians, Parthians, Sogdians & Dardics were the Israelite ancestors of the Pashtuns under different names, but they absorbed some non Israelites (according to the scholar Daniel Bart the Medians converted to the Israelite religion) as well: Medians, Hurrians, Cassites & Mittanites.

The Pashtun Cassites are possibly, as well, descendants from Kish, Saul's dad, first king of Israel.

What is available are a bunch of Pashtun Ethnogenesis (PE). It's a four century old subject that is still at square one. Despite efforts of hundreds of local and international scholar a clear, scholastic, logical and academically acceptable ethnogenesis is still not at hand. What is available are a bunch of myths, fairy tales, legends and half-truths that belittle and degrade an over two millenia history of ethnogenesis that is probably the most unique- and complex- on the Eurasian continental shelf.

I have been able to determine the essentials facts and strata of this ethnography, after long years of study and research and can almost clearly determine the important features of this ethnography and the route it has taken over the centuries and millenia. The crux of my findings are;-

1. Saka clans settled on the Durand line around 625 BC-Immediately after the end of the Saka Interregnum in Persia that lasted from 653-625 BC. These Saka clans (At least 7 in number) (Parsithi, Parlatae, Astakae and Massagatae/Masgut Sakas were the prominent clans) These Saka Clans were accompanied by small groups of Medians (Madakhel, present in a number of Pashtun tribes today), Hurrians (Uryakhel, now a part of the northern Khattaks), Mittanites (Mattani), Cimmerians (Ghimriyani/Zhimriani/Jumriani Pashtuns), Sauromatae (Sur Sarmashee Mahsuds) and Sarmatians (Sarmashee Mahsuds). Together, these groups constituted the first stratum of PE. (Many tribes)

These Scythian clans were, in subsequent centuries and millenia, joined in the mountains by:-2. Indo-Parthians-1st century AD. (Many tribes). 3. Arsacid Parthians of Persia-3rd century AD. These were accompanied by a group of Mesopotamian Cassites (Kasi Pashtuns today).(Many Tribes) 4. Hepthalite Huns-6th century AD-These were accompanied by groups of Sogdians and other Hunnic groups.(some known scholars of PE erroneously consider this to be the first stratum of PE).(Abdali/Durrani Pashtuns) (Large and Significant Tribes) 5- Khalaj Turks-9th century AD.With some small groups of other Oguzz Turks (Ghilzai Pashtuns). (Many Tribes) 6. Ghorid Shinshabani Farsiwaans-13th century AD. These were also accompanied by small groups of Oghuz Turks. (Mohmand, Mandanr and Yusafzai Pashtuns and many others) (Many Tribes) 7. Assimilation of some clans of Asapsai/Assakanai (Pashai, Nuristani, Dardics)15-16th century AD (Safi, Mashwani and some small related tribes) 8- Other peripheral groups. (Many small groups)

All of these groups are represented by clans and tribes that have retained ethnonyms of their ancient ancestors along with other distinguishing characteristics. Evidence of PE such as circumstantial historical evidence-direct evidence is almost impossible to come by-linguistics, genetics/anthropology, archaeology, ethnonyms, geography, historical movements/migrations routes, other related ethnic groups living in close proximity, and historic material of ancient and modern scholars are at hand to support PE contentions.

The process of PE is spread over a period of over 2 millennia till consummation. I am currently working on a synopsis of PE before commencing work on a brief research book on the subject. I shall appreciate if afforded some information on any possible/potential sponsors from among institutes, universities, think tanks and others who may be interested in extending sponsorship to this time consuming, tedious, difficult and ground breaking work on a subject of significance. Pushtoons are a national group with an estimated world wide population of 55 million (46 million in ancestral lands, the rest in diaspora) that is going to be of crucial importance in determining the future of two countries: Afghanistan and Pakistan. Pashtuns are, by far, the largest national group of central Asia and are poised to play an important role in the future of central Asia and south Asia.

What I am looking for, essentially, is a professional, scholarly and academic environment for compiling the following two manuscripts:-1. Pashtun Ethnogenesis. The Untold Story. A Brand New View. 2. Pashtun Expansion Since The Fifteenth Century A.D.

Regards, Shahid H. Khattak Hayatabad, Peshawar

Patan is another form for Pathan or Pashtun

There are several toponyms with the name "Patan". The Pathans have traveled away from their traditional area in Afghanistan & Pakistan. 

The toponym Patan is found in Afghanistan once. In Gujarat, India is repeated & it's even the main city of the eponymous district. It's also found twice in Rajasthan, India. In Chhattisgarh, India there's another location called Patan. The Indian states of Maharashtra & Madhya Pradesh have a Patan each other. Finally Nepal has two toponyms with the name Patan. Where those places founded by Pathans? I recon they were, after all Pathanistan is not that far away & there's a Patan community in northern India.

Afghan Origin

They are descendants of Hazrat Ibrahim (ABRAHAM).

I still remember when I asked an old man if there was there any prophet among pashtuns, the old man answered yes of course: Khalil khan (Abraham), Isaac khan (Isac), Israel khan (Jacob),Yousaf khan (Joseph), Musa khan (Moses), Isa khan (Jesus), they were all Pashtuns (Hebrews).

I could not believe he was telling me something very important. I thought all prophets were Arabs, at least that’s the Arab propaganda to get respect and call themselves sayyid and exploit Pashtuns. In fact the real children of prophets are Pashtuns. All these prophets spoke Hebrew not Arabic and they were not Arabs at all.

In Hebrew Abraham sounds Afroim , Avram , Afram etc. In Pashto we use words zar-ghan etc (which can be explained as goldlike or from gold, etc).

Afr-ghan (meaning from Abraham) gave origin to Afghan. (Also Hebrew is ibrani -ibran-afghan and ibrani-ifghani (Pashto).

The holy book of David (Hazrat Daud) was Zabur (the Psalms), and hence Pashtuns use words Zaba-language or tongue or promise (the message or promise of God to Abraham and his descendants, zabardast- fantastic, Zabul-a region in Afghanistan). Many words are used in Pashto -spinzar, srazar, sanzarkhel, zartasha, zamina, zarina, zarghon shah, zarghona, zahra, zanana, etc.

Today some tribes use the word jaba instead of zaba. The name of Abraham’s grandfather was TERAH and father was AZAR (Azad Kashmir). Abraham lived in Babul and the king at that time was Nimrod. When Hebrews settled down in Afghanistan they named different regions to represent their history eg. At that time this region was called Khurasan meaning kha urasan-we got here safely). TERAH (Grandfather of hazrat Ibrahim) and JAMROD, NIMROZ (nimrod),

AZAR (father of Hazrat Ibrahim). Srazar, spinzar, zarghona, zarghonshah, zarmina, zartasha, azara - another word for Afghans. Afgans living in district hazara in NWFP. Word Hazara is mistakenly used for Mongols in Afghanistan. When real azara migrated to Hazara, Abbotabad, Gilgit and Kashmir areas, the areas they came from were taken by Chengez army and those mongols came to be known as Hazaras in Afghanistan. While real Hazaras are living in Pashtunkhwa, most of them speak Hindko but they are real Afghans. Also Gilgit are Gilzai. Kashmiris are also Afghans (Kasi is a Pashtun tribe, mir is a Pashto word e.g mirali; it’s actually Kasimiris-Kashmir. You will be astonished to know that, but living in Punjab and Kashmirs are actually buttkhel Afghans (buttagram, buttkhela etc). No matter what language they have adopted during process of assimilation they were and are Afghans.

Yasrab (Yathrub) was a big Israelite city later named Madina in Arabic. The present 10 or 20 million Jews are only a small tiny portion of a huge Hebrew family.

The Darwish Kahl Pattani tribe & other possible relatives

The Darwish Kahl & Mahmudis are Pattani tribes living in Waziristan, Pakistan. The Mussa-Say or Musazi (Sons of Moses) in the hamlet of Marcau mostly, on the border with the former USSR & Afghanistan. Around Maimana, close to Amkhoy, live the Malmals, crypto Jews that convertes to Islam on about 1850.

Kahl is part of the name of a Pashtun in tribe. Interestingly Kahl & Kahle are German last names. In Germany there are a lot of blood of Israel still. Interestingly the coat of arms of that German last name has a Star of David.

The Qahal/Kahal (Hebrew: קהל) was a theocratic organisational structure in ancient Israelite society, according to the Masoretic Text of the Bible. In later centuries, Qahal was the name of the autonomous governments of Jewish communities in Eastern Europe.

Many people agree that the Hawaiians have Hebrew words & Israelite origin. Kāhala, is an affluent neighborhood of Honolulu, Hawaii. Kahala is famous as an icon for wealth and the rich and famous in Hawai'i, and for its large concentration of expensive real estate and beachfront properties, which include some of the most expensive in the entire state.

The point that I'm trying to make is that the Pattan name "kahl" is the same as the German last name "Kahl", it's very close to the Hebrew name "kahal" and the Hawaiian "kahala". In Hebrew vowels didn't really count after all.

I suggested that the Kahl Pattans may have the "Kahl" of their name related to the Hebrew "Kahal" & I discovered that this Pattans are also called "Derwish Kahal".

Bactria's Name Is Believed to Be Israelite

Today Bactria corresponds to several nations, the north of Afghanistan, the south of Uzbekistan & Tadjikistan. The Bactrian language was related to Soghdian & Parthian. Today the closest language would be Pashto, the Pattan language. Balkh is posibly the oldest city of Afghanistan & corresponds to the ancient Bhakri, the Bactra that the Greeks reported. Bactra gave name to Bactria's satrapy. The Bachrites were an Ephraimite clan & Bhakri derives its name from this Ephraimite clan. And indeed Bachrite in Hebrew would be "Bacri or Bakri", pretty much the same as Bhakri.

Manasseh came to the rescue of Ephraim when the Scythians assisted the Parthians in their ancient wars.

They relocated tribes of Israel included the Scythians (known also as "Sacae," named after Isaac their forefather), and the Parthians.

The tribe of Manasseh came to be one of the dominant tribes of the Scythians, and the Greeks called them the Massagetae. These Massagetae were located in the Caspian Sea region, and they seem to have been the descendants of the half-tribe of Manasseh taken captive by the Assyrians in approximately 741 BC when Gilead's tribes were taken by the Assyrians. When the Assyrian Empire fell, those Israelites who were captives were free to migrate elsewhere and they migrated toward the Caspian Sea. These related tribes were known as the Eastern Scythians/Sacae and they were led by the Massagetae. One would expect the birthright tribe of Manasseh to be one of their leading tribes.

These Massagetae were attacked by Cyrus the Great and the Persian Empire in the 6th century BC in an apparent attempt to bring them under a new Persian captivity. Israelites are freedom-loving people and they fought fiercely to prevent any new captivity. Herodotus records that virtually the entire Persian Army died along with King Cyrus himself as the Massagetae gained a total victory.

It seems like the other half of the tribe of Manasseh migrated to the Black Sea region along with several other tribes just before the final Assyrian invasion, which conquered the city of Samaria. This mass of migrating Israelites established Sacae Scythian kingdoms in the Black Sea region as well as the Kingdom of Iberia (named after Eber, the forefather of the Hebrews) in the Caucasus Mountains.

"...Numbers 26:35-36 records that three clans of the Israelite tribe of Ephraim were named the Bachrites, the Eranites, and the Tahanites. The Seleucid province of Bactria, which revolted along with Parthia, bore the name of one of the clans of Ephraim in a Hellenized form. An Israelite origin for Bactria is supported by an account from Richard Frye's book, The Heritage of Persia, which states that the Bactrian language "...was related to Saka, or at least underwent strong influences from Saka tongues." The Persian word "Saka" referred to the Sacae Scythians. The record that the Bactrians welcomed a Scythian ruler who freed them from a Greek satrap, and the fact that the Bactrians shared a linguistic heritage with the Parthians argues that the Bactrians were also Sacae (or Saka) who had descended from the ten tribes of Israel.

Henry Rawlinson, in his book Bactria, states: "there seems to be very little doubt that the population of Bactria was largely Scythian"...[and cites Justin, a classical author, who wrote] "The Bactrian Empire was founded by the Scythians."

Numbers 26:36 also notes that another clan of the tribe of Ephraim descended from Eran and was known as the "Eranites." A group of people known as the Eranians were present in the region of ancient Persia and Parthia. Assyria had transplanted the defenders of Samaria (an Ephraimite city) into "the cities of the Medes." Therefore, we should expect to see Ephraimite names in the Medo-Persian region. The "Eranians" manifested the exact Hebrew name of one of the clans of Ephraim in the area of Medo-Persia. This name has survived into modern times as the English name for modern Persia is Iran. The terms "Iran" and "Eran" are interchangeable. The Encyclopaedia Britannica (1943 Edition), in its Index section, simply states "Eran: see Iran." The capital of Iran, Teheran, also preserves the name of this Ephraimite clan. This book does not assert or imply that modern Iranians are Israelites as it is clear from history that modern Iranians are principally Medo-Persian in racial origins. However, the name "Iran" is derived from the name of a clan of Ephraim, which was placed in Medo-Persian territory by the Assyrians and lived there for many centuries.

Most historical accounts assume that the name "Eran" originated from the term "Aryan." However, historical accounts generally have not considered an Israelite alternative for the origin of the Eranians. Indeed, historical accounts seem unwilling to even look for the large masses of Israelites who were relocated into Asia. The case for an Israelite origin for the Eranians is very strong. Not only are the Eranians found in the correct geographical location where Israelite tribes and clans were placed (Medo-Persia), but there were many other ancient names in that region with an Israelite origin!"

The Ephraimite clan of "Tahan" was known as "Dahan" by the Greco-Romans who wrote about the Parthians. The Ephraimite dominance of the Parthian Empire is clear. Josephus wrote that the ten tribes were "in Asia" and "beyond [the] Euphrates" in his lifetime. The Euphrates River was the border between the Roman and Parthian Empires then, so Josephus was designating that the ten tribes "were in Parthia." Since Ephraim was the chief birthright tribe of the ten tribes of Israel, it is no surprise to find the Ephraimite clans in a leadership role in Parthia.


The term "Ashura" in the Indian sub-continent is applied not only to Assyrians but also to Jews, Gypsies and other peoples coming from Mesopotamia. In this context it is likely that Asher became Ashurai in the same way as Yosef became Yusufzai, by changing "e" into "u".

An enigmatic statement is written in an Apocryphon ascribed to Ezra, saying of the exiled Northern Tribes as follows: "then they resolved to leave the country populated by Goyim and go to a distant land never yet inhabited by man, and there at last to be obedient to their laws, which in their own country they had failed to keep". Crediting this book, it was suggested that part of the Northern Israelites in exile actually decided to re-organize their nation and appoint the House of Shaul, their first King, to rule over them. This might be the main original stock of the Afghans and their Binyaminite royal house.

Besides the tribal names, it is important to consider: 1) cultural features and traditions; 2) historical records.

1) Cultural features and traditions:

* The Pashtun call themselves "Bani-Israel", and they believe to have been carried away from their original homeland.

* Jewish names such as "Israel" - never found among the Muslims - as well as Shmuel and the names of the Northern Tribes, are frequent among Afghans.

* Besides the oral tradition, there are also scrolls of genealogy that have been kept among the tribes, reaching back to the ancestors of the Jewish nation. These scrolls are well preserved and some are written in gold on doe skins.

* Their legal system, called Pashtunwali, (the Pashtu Law), has many resemblances with Torah. They have in great esteem the "Tavrad El Sharif" (meaning "Torah of Mosheh"), and they rise at the mention of Mosheh's name.

* The Pashtun practise circumcision on the 8th day like Jews, while Muslims perform circumcision usually at the age of 12 or 13, because of Yishmael, the father of the Arabs.

* They rest on Shabbath day, not working and not cooking either. On 'Erev Shabbath they prepare twelve "hallot" -traditional Jewish bread- (1), and an elder woman lights a candle in honour of the Shabbath. After lighting, the candle is usually covered by a large basket - perhaps, this might have been done in the origin to hide their Jewishness.

* They are careful about not shaving their side-locks, keeping curled hair before the ears in a similar way as Orthodox Jews do, in accordance to the commandment (2).

* They use to wear a sort of small "tallit", a four-cornered garment to which they sometimes tie strings or fringes similar to the "tzitzit", which is a Torah commandment. Some of them even wear a small box that recall the "tefillin" (phylactery).

* Many Pashtun people pray facing Yerushalaym.

* They also keep "kosher", dietary laws like those observed by Jews. Some of them do not eat meat and milk together, and make difference between pure and impure birds.

* Pashtun women keep laws regarding their period of impurity. During this time and for a week after, no contact is allowed with the husband. After this period, she immerses in a river or in a bathhouse if a natural spring is not available. This is exactly like the Israeli "mikveh".

* The "Magen David" is widely used as their symbol. A Pashtun property, either house or vehicle, may be recognized for this emblem shown somewhere.

* There is also the practice of sprinkling blood on doorposts and lintels, and offering sacrifices during pestilence.

* Some customs related to marriage: endogamous, the wedding is done at the bride's family. There is also the law of levirate.

* Honour laws require the avenger of blood, as well as stoning for blasphemy.

2) Historical records:

* The Islam Encyclopaedia, published by the Turkish Ministry of Education, considered to be among the most authoritative sources, states: "The Durrani and the Galzay tribes originate from the Ibrani (the Hebrew people)...And it is asserted that many others of the Afghan composition are originally of the Ibrani as well."

* The most reliable Persian historians said that the Afghans are descended from the Jews, and that since they embraced Islam, they cautiously conceal their origin.

* The Pashtun language shows evidences of a Chaldaic influence.

It is however clear that not all Pashtun tribes are of Israelite origin. The Pashtun are a complex ethnic group, resulting from different migratory flows. Nevertheless, the tribes mentioned above have enough characteristics to be considered partially descendants of the Northern Kingdom of Israel.

(1) Wayyiqra 24:5 (2) Wayyiqra 19:27

Afghanistan & Israel (Britam)

"Hara" was much further to the east in the region straddling the borders of present day Iran and Afghanistan. "Hara" encompassed places named Aria, Ariana, and Arachosia, by the Greeks. "Hara" was called "Haraiva" and "Hare" by the Persians, and known under its correct name "Hara" to the Medes, just as it is still called "Hara" by the locals today. It is crossed by the Hari Rud or "River of Hara" and contains the city of Harat.

According to local tradition the eastern part of Hara ("Ghor"), where the Hari River rises, was once settled by a people referred to as "Assakan" and "Bnei Yisral" or Children of Israel. "Assakan" was shortened to "Sak" or "Sok" and local Muslim lore equated the term with the name "Isaac", father of Israel21. A dialectical variation of "Assakan" is Afghan. The original dwellers are apparently to be identified with the historical "Sok" or "Sakae" (meaning Scythians) were in the Hara region.

Much later there was a Judaizing movement in the area possibly connected with the Nestorian Christains that lead to the adoption of Jewish customs prior to the region becoming Muslim. Well after that (relatively recently, only a few centuries ago) a group of Jewish townspeople in Afghanistan were forced to become Muslims. These Jews kept many of their customs and traditions while merging into the existing Tribal structure so that their own practices became part of the common cultural heritage.

Concerning the Tribe of Joseph: In Scythia Ptolemy placed the ASPASSI Scythae to the north of the Iatii and Augali and the Chorasmii to their southeast. ...The Massagetae (according to Ptolemy) had two sections, one in Margiana and another further east in the Sacae domain beyond the Jaxartes River. As for the Aspassi, they historically were to be connected with the Parthians who were also known as "Ashakens" and similar denominations. A similarly named people were to the east of Hara, in the region of the Kophen (Kabul in present-day Afghanistan) where the "Assakenoi" or "Assaka" were to be found. These were a part of the Sacae and were named after Isaac.

The Assakenoi were either identical with, or close neighbors of the "Aspioi" or "Aspaganoi" whose name was also to be rendered as "Isap" and "Ysuf-zi" meaning "Tribe of Joseph". In other words in both Kabul (Afghanistan) and in North Scythia were neighboring peoples who bore names with the roots Ask and Asep. Scythian peoples bearing names with the root Asc, Asek, Sak, etc. are fairly common and appear to be so called since they had once belonged to the "House of Isaac". Likewise, the Yasubi, Yasubgalli, Aspaganoi, Aspassi, Aspacarae, Suefs, Suobeni, all appear to have belonged to Scythian peoples, and all have names somehow connected to the same word root and probably received their appellations since they belonged to the tribe of JOSEPH.

Some scholars have claimed that some of these names derive from the Iranian "aspa" meaning horse but Irma HAYNMAN, ("The Syncretic Creed of Hellenized Jews From Tanais (Northern Black Sea Region)", Jerusalem 1994) has proven that the use of this root-name in ethnic connotations preceded the Iranian era and was of Semitic origin and cognate with the Hebrew name JOSEPH. The work of Haynman indicates that in the Scythian-and Parthian regions eponymous names derived from Asap were consciously equated with the Biblical Joseph! In "The Tribes" we mentioned the presence in the past in Central Asia and Afghanistan of quite a few groups (or offshoots of groups) that were later to move westward, e.g. "in both the Aspassi-and-Augalli region and by Gandhara were the THATAGYDES (Sattaguda) believed to be a combination of Thata and Goths".

Later, in the eastern Iranian area close to the Indus were the people of "Asapioi" who were also to be called "Isapoi" and "Ysufzi" meaning JOSEPH. The root "ASAP" in the Hebrew Scriptures is related to the birth of Joseph: "And she [i.e. Rachel] conceived, and bare a son; and said God hath taken away [in Hebrew: "ASAPH"] my reproach: And she called his name Joseph", Genesis 30:23-24). The name Joseph in the Iranian-Afghan region was renderable as "Jo-asaph"5 and at all events "ASAP" is a derivative in Semitic regions of Joseph6. Other Scythian peoples such as the Aspassi in Chorasmia and the Aspacarae (whose names bear the "ASP" root) in Serica were also descended from Joseph. The Aspacarae of Serica were identical to the Eastern-Sienbi or Suebi and in western Europe are sometimes referred to as SWEAF and represented by the eponymous figure of Svipdag. The Sweaf-Sienbi participated in the Anglo-Saxon invasions of Britain.


de Gobineau traced the Pathans to remnants of the Parthians whpo once controlled Persia and the Middle East. The Parthians werre overthrown by the Sassanians and de Gobineau suggests that groups of Parthian nobles fled to Afghanistan. As one of his proofs de Gobineau cites the presence of Jewish customs amongsts the Pathans. Many Parthians had taken an interest in both Judaism (some converted) and in Nestorian Christinaity that used many Jewish customs.

The Enigmatic Lion of Kashmir

The Lion is not the part of wild life in Kashmir. We have Snow Leopards, Leopards, and Panthers. However, there was only one “Lion of Kashmir”, Sheikh Mohammad Abdullah, a historical enigma-very difficult to fully understand! The tallest leader, who, according to Dr.Josef Korbel, rose like a morning star but fell like a meteor. There are many views about his personality. Some claim him to be the greatest leader of Kashmiris while as some pronounce him as a traitor who betrayed Kashmiris and sold them into Indian slavery. The story of his life is the greatest tragedy of Kashmir. He was a typical Kashmiri with all the failings which most of us have acquired over centuries of foreign occupation. He was bold and outspoken. A simple and straightforward person but had a much exaggerated ego. Like any other Kashmiri, he too had some human weaknesses. He gave a lead to the oppressed Kashmiris and took the autocratic Maharaja head-on. It was because of his lead in early thirties that the Kashmiris woke up from the slumber and started their freedom struggle. His towering personality gave the stature and momentum to the freedom movement. He suffered many incarcerations but did not give up.

 He had dreamt of restoring the ancient glory of Kashmir and in the heart of his hearts wanted it to be an independent country. However, he wanted to realise the fruits of his struggle in his own lifetime. It was probably because of this that he changed the Muslim Conference into National Conference to avoid a communal clash between the oppressed Muslim Kashmiris and the autocratic Hindu Maharaja.

 It was primarily the Muslims of Kashmir who had faced exactions at the hands of the Dogra rulers and changing the overall face of the movement was a tactical move. Jinnah may have understood Sheikh Abdullah’s moves better and both might have clicked but for the Sayeds, Maulanas, Sardars, and Chowdhrys who felt threatened by the Kashmiri domination. It is these vested interests who sabotaged the possible understanding between the two Muslim leaders. Moreover, Sheikh was wary of the Punjabis who called Kashmiris “Hathu”. In his simplicity he had, unfortunately for him, placed total faith in Nehru taking him to be a true nationalist. Ultimately it was Nehru who betrayed him and shattered all his dreams in 1953. More tragic for him was the stab in the back by Bakshi, his grass roots organiser. If Bakshi had not deserted him, he would have given a tough fight to India. His greatest act has been the momentous decision of giving the land to the tiller without any compensation to the land lords and freezing of all the debts of poor farmers, an action still without a parallel in the whole sub-continent. Sheikh had also introduced Kashmiri language in schools from the primary level. Without knowing and respecting one’s mother tongue, one can never be a true nationalist.

 Having been himself a teacher, he had the greatest regard for the educators. He had even initiated efforts for making Kashmir self-sufficient in food by instituting a number of stringent measures which had made him somewhat unpopular with the masses. However, Bakshi immediately on taking over reversed all these measures. It is alleged by some that Nehru from the very beginning had the idea of using Sheikh Abdullah to annexe Kashmir. He made and executed his plans accordingly and the Lion of Kashmir was taken for a ride due to his simplicity and a very bloated ego.

 As per Korbel and Alistair Lamb, the plans for annexing Kashmir were made and executed with a finesse by the powerful leaders of India with the connivance of the departing British and Sheikh Abdullah had no inkling of these but was simply used to legitimatise the same. Even the very basis of the accession has been questioned by some authors. A few go to the extent of claiming that the Maharaja, who was under tremendous pressure, never signed the instrument of accession! During his entire political career involving 22 years in prison, Sheikh made many goof ups and turn rounds. Most of these were overlooked and forgiven by the people who had an unshakeable faith in his leadership. However, in 1975 he made the worst blunder of his life by accepting the power. Nehru had only betrayed and incarcerated him but Indra Gandhi humiliated and totally destroyed him.

 She cut him down from being the tallest leader of Kashmir to a small time politician hankering after the loaves of office. Many say that he never wanted to compromise but the debacle of Bangladesh and the pressure of his family forced him to surrender. Others say that he was fatigued by a long struggle. This decision proved to be his nemesis. Indra Gandhi’s move ensured that instead of a colossal shrine thronged by people, his grave has to be protected by the security forces from the very people who loved and virtually worshiped him. Towards the last days of his life he was very sad and pathetic. He was regretting his decision and wanted to undo the wrong he had done to his people. According to some persons who were close to him, he would say that India has swallowed Kashmiris but they are stuck in its throat. They should try and ensure that it vomits them out. He would be sometimes very sad and would often break down and cry. In 1982 he got a booklet published under the signatures of one of his ministers which stated that India was trying to convert the Muslim majority into a minority and Kashmiris should beware of that. His attempt at introducing the Resettlement Act was a belated desperate measure to ensure the safe guarding of the interests of Kashmiris. His conscience was pricking him and he wanted to do something to redeem his mistakes but the advancing age with all his ailments did not give him a chance to do that. One would have expected his progeny to complete his unfinished agenda of redeeming his historical mistakes but they compounded these further instead. They did not even bother to celebrate his centenary. The most ungrateful act was from the Indian Government who did not even care to confer a posthumous award on him. They rather tried to gradually obliterate his memory and deliberately omitted mentioning his name. Kashmiris have always regretted why could not their Sheikh Abdullah have the strength and courage to be like Omar Mukhtar, the “Lion of the Desert” of Libya? What forced him to be instead a confused and a fatigued “Messiah”? History alone will judge it someday. Till that time he will continue to remain an enigma!

All Kashmiris Were Once Called B'nei Israel

In Kashmir, in an area which is on the border of Pakistan, called Yusmarg (Handwara), there lives a group which to this very day calls itself B'nei Israel meaning children of Israel. Many of the inhabitants of Kashmir say that this is the ancient name of all the people of Kashmir.

In Kashmir too, there is a strange tradition of a small community next to the Wallar Link who point out the grave of Moses.

The Ten Lost Tribes: Kashmir

Leaving Afghanistan and Pakistan where the Pathans live, when one goes east, it is the State of Kashmir in northern part of India which is west of Nepal. Kashmir consists of a very wide and beautiful valley, surrounded by tall mountains and I think it is one of the most beautiful places in the world.

There are 5 to 7 million people there. Generally speaking, they have clearer complexions and are different from the other citizens of India. An Interesting tradition is passed down among the Kashmir people regarding their ancestry from the Lost Tribes of Israel. This tradition is supported by extensive literature written by both the people of Kashmir and other scholars.

In Kashmir, various places are called with Israeli names, like Har Nevo, Beit Peor, Pisga, Heshubon. These are all the names in the land of the Ten Tribes of Israel. The same thing is true in the names of people, male names, female names, and names of village.

The people in Kashmir perform a feast called Pasca in Spring, when they adjust the difference of days between the lunar calendar and solar calendar and the way of this adjustment is the same as Jewish. Several books are published on this. The Udu language which is used in Kashmir includes many words of Hebrew.

Most of the people of Kashmir are Muslims. In spite of it, they are sympathetic towards Jews and Israel. It is evident that their origin has also led to their interest in the people of Israel.

The history of the Kashmiris is shrouded in mystery as is the history of other people in that region. Most Kashmir researchers are of the opinion that many inhabitants of Kashmir are descendants of the Lost Tribes who were exiled in 722 BCE. They wandered along the Silk Road into the countries of the East, Persia and Afghanistan until they reached the Kashmir valley and settled there.

Others say the wanderings began approximately 300 years later. The wanderers settled in Kashmir, kept their traditions until they were forced to convert to Islam when the spread of Islam reached the valley. The priest Kitro in his book, the General History of the Mughal Empire, said that the Kashmir people are the descendants of the Israelites.

The traveling Arab historian El Bironi in the 12th century wrote, "In the past, permission to enter Kashmir was given only to Jews."

The priest Monstrat said that in the time of Vasco da Gama in the 15th century, "all the inhabitants of this area who have been living here since ancient times can trace their ancestry, according to their race and customs, to the ancient Israelites. Their features, their general physical appearance, their clothing, their ways of conducting business, all show that they are similar to the ancient Israelites."

Names like Israelites in Kashmir

Recently Mr. Ikbal Chapri, the owner of a houseboat called Haifa (the same name as a big city in Israel) in Srinagar, Kashmir, has written about this topic in the local newspapers.

His article was about the names of the tribes and places of Kashmir which are exactly Hebrew. I have a copy of two pages of the list. For example, one of the tribes of Kashmir is called Asheriya which is Asher, the tribe of Dand is Dan, Gadha is Gad, Lavi is Levi. The Tribe of Shaul is the Hebrew name of King Saul. Musa is Moses, Suliamanish is Solomon. And you also have the tribe of Israel, the tribe of Abri which is the tribe of Hebrew, and the tribe of Kahana which is the word for Jewish priest.

Israelite Priest before entering the Tabernacle

There are also 50-75 names of places in Kashmir which are in fact the Hebrew names that ancient Israelites were very familiar with. There is a place called Samaryah which is Samaria. Mamre is Mamre, Pishgah is Pisgah, Nabudaal is Mt. Nevo, Bushan is Bashan, Gilgit is Gilgal, Heshba is Heshbon, Amunah is Amon, Gochan is Goshen, Median-pura is Midian, and Guzana is Gozan which is a place name in Assyria and the very place where the Ten Tribes of Israel were deported.

The name Israel is very common among them as it is among the Pathans, and this name is never used among the Muslims. They also light a candle for the Sabbath, have sidelocks, beards, and emblem or design of the Shield of David. 

In an area which is on the border of Pakistan, called Yusmarg (Handwara), there lives a group which to this very day calls itself B'nei Israel meaning children of Israel. Many of the inhabitants of Kashmir say that this is the ancient name of all the people of Kashmir.

In Kashmir there is a strange tradition of a small community next to the Wallar Link who point out the grave of Moses. There is yet another tradition in connection with King Solomon according to which even King Solomon reached the Kashmir Valley and through his wisdom aided the people of Kashmir by successfully regulating the Jalum river. This tradition is also connected to a place called Solomon's throne which is situated above the capital of Kashmir, Srinagar. Isn't it strange and fascinating that there are historical and even folkloristic tales of ancient Israeli heroes in these strange and exotic places?

These also resemble legends in Japan. There is the grave of Moses in Mt. Houdatsu, Ishikawa prefecture, and a legend says that many secret treasures of Solomon are kept in Mt. Tsurugi in Shikoku, Japan. 

The two primary historians of Kashmir, Mulla Nadiri, who wrote The History of Kashmir and Mulla Ahmad who wrote Events of Kashmir have established without a trace of doubt that the origins of the Kashmiri people are to be found in the people of Israel.

Kashmir (Kashmiri: کٔشِیر / कॅशीर; Hindi: कश्मीर; Urdu: کشمیر‎; Uyghur: كەشمىر‎; Shina: کشمیر) is the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent. Until the mid-19th century, the term Kashmir geographically denoted only the valley between the Great Himalayas and the Pir Panjal mountain range. Today, it denotes a larger area that includes the Indian-administered state of Jammu and Kashmir (which consists of Jammu, Kashmir Valley, and the Ladakh regions), the Pakistan-administered territories of Azad Kashmir and Gilgit–Baltistan, and the Chinese-administered regions of Aksai Chin and the Trans-Karakoram Tract.

Swami Vivekananda in Kashmir in 1898. In the first half of the 1st millennium, the Kashmir region became an important centre of Hinduism and later of Buddhism; later still, in the ninth century, Kashmir Shaivism arose. In 1349, Shah Mir became the first Muslim ruler of Kashmir, inaugurating the Salatin-i-Kashmir or Swati dynasty. For the next five centuries, Muslim monarchs ruled Kashmir, including the Mughals, who ruled from 1526 until 1751, and the Afghan Durrani Empire, which ruled from 1747 until 1820. That year, the Sikhs, under Ranjit Singh, annexed Kashmir. In 1846, after the Sikh defeat in the First Anglo-Sikh War, and upon the purchase of the region from the British under the Treaty of Amritsar, the Raja of Jammu, Gulab Singh, became the new ruler of Kashmir. The rule of his descendants, under the paramountcy (or tutelage) of the British Crown, lasted until 1947, when the former princely state became a disputed territory, now administered by three countries: India, Pakistan, and the People's Republic of China.

In 1819, the Kashmir valley passed from the control of the Durrani Empire of Afghanistan, and four centuries of Muslim rule under the Mughals and the Afghans, to the conquering armies of the Sikhs under Ranjit Singh of Lahore. As the Kashmiris had suffered under the Afghans, they initially welcomed the new Sikh rulers.

However, the Sikh governors turned out to be hard taskmasters, and Sikh rule was generally considered oppressive, protected perhaps by the remoteness of Kashmir from the capital of the Sikh empire in Lahore. The Sikhs enacted a number of anti-Muslim laws, which included handing out death sentences for cow slaughter, closing down the Jamia Masjid in Srinagar, and banning the azaan, the public Muslim call to prayer. Kashmir had also now begun to attract European visitors, several of whom wrote of the abject poverty of the vast Muslim peasantry and of the exorbitant taxes under the Sikhs. High taxes, according to some contemporary accounts, had depopulated large tracts of the countryside, allowing only one-sixteenth of the cultivable land to be cultivated. However, after a famine in 1832, the Sikhs reduced the land tax to half the produce of the land and also began to offer interest-free loans to farmers; Kashmir became the second highest revenue earner for the Sikh empire. During this time Kashmiri shawls became known worldwide, attracting many buyers, especially in the West.

The prevailing religions by district in the 1901 Census of the Indian Empire.

Earlier, in 1780, after the death of Ranjit Deo, the Raja of Jammu, the kingdom of Jammu (to the south of the Kashmir valley) was also captured by the Sikhs and afterwards, until 1846, became a tributary to Sikh power. Ranjit Deo's grandnephew, Gulab Singh, subsequently sought service at the court of Ranjit Singh, distinguished himself in later campaigns, especially the annexation of the Kashmir valley, and, for his services, was appointed governor of Jammu in 1820. With the help of his officer, Zorawar Singh, Gulab Singh soon captured for the Sikhs the lands of Ladakh and Baltistan to the east and north-east, respectively, of Jammu.

In 1845, the First Anglo-Sikh War broke out. According to the Imperial Gazetteer of India,

"Gulab Singh contrived to hold himself aloof till the battle of Sobraon (1846), when he appeared as a useful mediator and the trusted adviser of Sir Henry Lawrence. Two treaties were concluded. By the first the State of Lahore (i.e. West Punjab) handed over to the British, as equivalent for one crore indemnity, the hill countries between the rivers Beas and Indus; by the second the British made over to Gulab Singh for 7.5 million all the hilly or mountainous country situated to the east of the Indus and the west of the Ravi (i.e. the Vale of Kashmir)."

Drafted by a treaty and a bill of sale, and constituted between 1820 and 1858, the Princely State of Kashmir and Jammu (as it was first called) combined disparate regions, religions, and ethnicities: to the east, Ladakh was ethnically and culturally Tibetan and its inhabitants practised Buddhism; to the south, Jammu had a mixed population of Hindus, Muslims and Sikhs; in the heavily populated central Kashmir valley, the population was overwhelmingly Sunni Muslim, however, there was also a small but influential Hindu minority, the Kashmiri brahmins or pandits; to the northeast, sparsely populated Baltistan had a population ethnically related to Ladakh, but which practised Shi'a Islam; to the north, also sparsely populated, Gilgit Agency, was an area of diverse, mostly Shi'a groups; and, to the west, Punch was Muslim, but of different ethnicity than the Kashmir valley. After the Indian Rebellion of 1857, in which Kashmir sided with the British, and the subsequent assumption of direct rule by Great Britain, the princely state of Kashmir came under the suzerainty of the British Crown.

A Muslim shawl making family shown in Cashmere shawl manufactory, 1867, chromolith., William Simpson. Is this made after Joseph's coat of many colors?

In the British census of India of 1941, Kashmir registered a Muslim majority population of 77%, a Hindu population of 20% and a sparse population of Buddhists and Sikhs comprising the remaining 3%. That same year, Prem Nath Bazaz, a Kashmiri Pandit journalist wrote: "The poverty of the Muslim masses is appalling. ... Most are landless laborers, working as serfs for absentee [Hindu] landlords ... Almost the whole brunt of official corruption is borne by the Muslim masses." For almost a century until the census, a small Hindu elite had ruled over a vast and impoverished Muslim peasantry. Driven into docility by chronic indebtedness to landords and moneylenders, having no education besides, nor awareness of rights, the Muslim peasants had no political representation until the 1930s.

Ranbir Singh's grandson Hari Singh, who had ascended the throne of Kashmir in 1925, was the reigning monarch in 1947 at the conclusion of British rule of the subcontinent and the subsequent partition of the British Indian Empire into the newly independent Union of India and the Dominion of Pakistan. According to Burton Stein's History of India,

"Kashmir was neither as large nor as old an independent state as Hyderabad; it had been created rather off-handedly by the British after the first defeat of the Sikhs in 1846, as a reward to a former official who had sided with the British. The Himalayan kingdom was connected to India through a district of the Punjab, but its population was 77 per cent Muslim and it shared a boundary with Pakistan. Hence, it was anticipated that the maharaja would accede to Pakistan when the British paramountcy ended on 14–15 August. When he hesitated to do this, Pakistan launched a guerrilla onslaught meant to frighten its ruler into submission. Instead the Maharaja appealed to Mountbatten for assistance, and the governor-general agreed on the condition that the ruler accede to India. Indian soldiers entered Kashmir and drove the Pakistani-sponsored irregulars from all but a small section of the state. The United Nations was then invited to mediate the quarrel. The UN mission insisted that the opinion of Kashmiris must be ascertained, while India insisted that no referendum could occur until all of the state had been cleared of irregulars."

In the last days of 1948, a ceasefire was agreed under UN auspices. However, since the plebiscite demanded by the UN was never conducted, relations between India and Pakistan soured, and eventually led to two more wars over Kashmir in 1965 and 1999. India has control of about half the area of the former princely state of Jammu and Kashmir, while Pakistan controls a third of the region, the Northern Areas and Azad Kashmir. According to Encyclopædia Britannica, "Although there was a clear Muslim majority in Kashmir before the 1947 partition and its economic, cultural, and geographic contiguity with the Muslim-majority area of the Punjab (in Pakistan) could be convincingly demonstrated, the political developments during and after the partition resulted in a division of the region. Pakistan was left with territory that, although basically Muslim in character, was thinly populated, relatively inaccessible, and economically underdeveloped. The largest Muslim group, situated in the Valley of Kashmir and estimated to number more than half the population of the entire region, lay in Indian-administered territory, with its former outlets via the Jhelum valley route blocked."

The eastern region of the former princely state of Kashmir has also been involved in a boundary dispute. In the late 19th- and early 20th centuries, although some boundary agreements were signed between Great Britain, Afghanistan and Russia over the northern borders of Kashmir, China never accepted these agreements, and the PRC's official position did not change with the communist revolution in 1949. By the mid-1950s the Chinese army had entered the north-east portion of Ladakh.

"By 1956–57 they had completed a military road through the Aksai Chin area to provide better communication between Xinjiang and western Tibet. India's belated discovery of this road led to border clashes between the two countries that culminated in the Sino-Indian war of October 1962."

The region is divided amongst three countries in a territorial dispute: Pakistan controls the northwest portion (Northern Areas and 'Azad' Kashmir), India controls the central and southern portion (Jammu and Kashmir) and Ladakh, and the People's Republic of China controls the northeastern portion (Aksai Chin and the Trans-Karakoram Tract). India controls the majority of the Siachen Glacier area, including the Saltoro Ridge passes, whilst Pakistan controls the lower territory just southwest of the Saltoro Ridge. India controls 101,338 km2 (39,127 sq mi) of the disputed territory, Pakistan controls 85,846 km2 (33,145 sq mi), and the People's Republic of China controls the remaining 37,555 km2 (14,500 sq mi).

Jammu and Pakistan administered Kashmir lie outside Pir Panjal range, and are under Indian and Pakistani control respectively. These are populous regions. The main cities are Mirpur, Dadayal, Kotli, Bhimber Jammu, Muzaffarabad and Rawalakot.

The Gilgit–Baltistan, formerly called Northern Areas, are a group of territories in the extreme north, bordered by the Karakoram, the western Himalayas, the Pamir, and the Hindu Kush ranges. With its administrative centre at the town of Gilgit, the Northern Areas cover an area of 72,971 km² (28,174 mi²) and have an estimated population approaching 1 million (10 lakhs). The other main city is Skardu.

Ladakh is a region in the east, between the Kunlun mountain range in the north and the main Great Himalayas to the south. Main cities are Leh and Kargil. It is under Indian administration and is part of the state of Jammu and Kashmir. It is one of the most sparsely populated regions in the area and is mainly inhabited by people of Indo-Aryan and Tibetan descent.

Aksai Chin is a vast high-altitude desert of salt that reaches altitudes up to 5,000 metres (16,000 ft). Geographically part of the Tibetan Plateau, Aksai Chin is referred to as the Soda Plain. The region is almost uninhabited, and has no permanent settlements.

Though these regions are in practice administered by their respective claimants, neither India nor Pakistan has formally recognised the accession of the areas claimed by the other. India claims those areas, including the area "ceded" to China by Pakistan in the Trans-Karakoram Tract in 1963, are a part of its territory, while Pakistan claims the entire region excluding Aksai Chin and Trans-Karakoram Tract. The two countries have fought several declared wars over the territory. The Indo-Pakistani War of 1947 established the rough boundaries of today, with Pakistan holding roughly one-third of Kashmir, and India one-half, with a dividing line of control established by the United Nations. The Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 resulted in a stalemate and a UN-negotiated ceasefire.

In the 1901 Census of the British Indian Empire, the population of the princely state of Kashmir and Jammu was 2,905,578. Of these, 2,154,695 (74.16%) were Muslims, 689,073 (23.72%) Hindus, 25,828 (0.89%) Sikhs, and 35,047 (1.21%) Buddhists (implying 935 (0.032%) others).

Among the Muslims of the princely state, four divisions were recorded: "Shaikhs, Saiyids, Mughals, and Pathans. The Shaikhs, who are by far the most numerous, are the descendants of Hindus, but have retained none of the caste rules of their forefathers. They have clan names known as krams ..." It was recorded that these kram names included "Tantre", "Shaikh", "Bhat", "Mantu", "Ganai", "Dar", "Damar", "Lon", etc. The Saiyids, it was recorded, "could be divided into those who follow the profession of religion and those who have taken to agriculture and other pursuits. Their kram name is 'Mir.' While a Saiyid retains his saintly profession Mir is a prefix; if he has taken to agriculture, Mir is an affix to his name." The Mughals who were not numerous were recorded to have kram names like "Mir" (a corruption of "Mirza"), "Beg", "Bandi", "Bach" and "Ashaye". Finally, it was recorded that the Pathans "who are more numerous than the Mughals, ... are found chiefly in the south-west of the valley, where Pathan colonies have from time to time been founded. The most interesting of these colonies is that of Kuki-Khel Afridis at Dranghaihama, who retain all the old customs and speak Pashtu." Among the main tribes of Muslims in the princely state are the Butts, Dar, Lone, Jat, Gujjar, Rajput, Sudhan and Khatri. A small number of Butts, Dar and Lone use the title Khawaja and the Khatri use the title Shaikh the Gujjar use the title of Chaudhary. All these tribes are indigenous of the princely state and many Hindus also belong to these tribes.

The Hindus were found mainly in Jammu, where they constituted a little less than 60% of the population. In the Kashmir Valley, the Hindus represented "524 in every 10,000 of the population (i.e. 5.24%), and in the frontier wazarats of Ladhakh and Gilgit only 94 out of every 10,000 persons (0.94%)." In the same Census of 1901, in the Kashmir Valley, the total population was recorded to be 1,157,394, of which the Muslim population was 1,083,766, or 93.6% and the Hindu population 60,641.[34] Among the Hindus of Jammu province, who numbered 626,177 (or 90.87% of the Hindu population of the princely state), the most important castes recorded in the census were "Brahmans (186,000), the Rajputs (167,000), the Khattris (48,000) and the Thakkars (93,000)."

In the 1911 Census of the British Indian Empire, the total population of Kashmir and Jammu had increased to 3,158,126. Of these, 2,398,320 (75.94%) were Muslims, 696,830 (22.06%) Hindus, 31,658 (1%) Sikhs, and 36,512 (1.16%) Buddhists. In the last census of British India in 1941, the total population of Kashmir and Jammu (which as a result of the second world war, was estimated from the 1931 census) was 3,945,000. Of these, the total Muslim population was 2,997,000 (75.97%), the Hindu population was 808,000 (20.48%), and the Sikh 55,000 (1.39%).

The Kashmiri Pandits, the only Hindus of the Kashmir valley, who had stably constituted approximately 4 to 5% of the population of the valley during Dogra rule (1846–1947), and 20% of whom had left the Kashmir valley by 1950,[36] began to leave in much greater numbers in the 1990s. According to a number of authors, approximately 100,000 of the total Kashmiri Pandit population of 140,000 left the valley during that decade. Other authors have suggested a higher figure for the exodus, ranging from the entire population of over 150 to 190 thousand (1.5 to 190,000) of a total Pandit population of 200 thousand (200,000) to a number as high as 300 thousand (300,000).

The total population of India's division of Jammu and Kashmir is 12,541,302 and Pakistan's division of Azad Jammu and Kashmir is 2,580,000 and Gilgit-Baltistan is 870,347.

The Lost Ten Tribes are in both western Europe & Af-Pak

Just to name a few coincidences with other Israelite claims. Skande (Similar to Skandinavia or Skania, bearing the name of Isaac in their first consonants.), Ishakzai (Isaacson), Sakzai (Isaacson. In the Two-Houser movement they consider the Saxons to be Isaacsons. The Saxons were called anciently Saxoi, very close to Sakzai. The Two Housers believe the Saxons are the offspring of the Sakasunis & Sakas, the very ancestors of the Pashtuns. They quote different historians to support it like the celebrated Flavius Josephus), Swabi (The very name of an ancient Germanic tribe that settled Spain. Celts & most Germanic peoples like British, Swedes, Danes… are Israelites according to Two-Housers), Dotani (Datan, biblical personage), Kayan (It’s interesting that has the very name of the Karen or Kayan Israelites of Myanmar), Haro (Anything to do with the Igbo, Israelites too, clan called Aro that live in Nigeria? How about the Aro Gadites of the Bible?), Shakarzai (Ishakarson), Kabul (A Palestinian village has the same name), Lund is another toponym found in Scandinavia & Pashtunistan...

Durrani Empire

The Durrani Empire (Pashto: د درانیانو واکمني‎), also called the Sadozai Kingdom and the Last Afghan Empire, was founded in 1747 by Ahmad Shah Durrani with its capital at Kandahar, Afghanistan. The Durrani Empire at its maximum extent encompassed present-day Afghanistan, northeastern Iran, eastern Turkmenistan (including the Panjdeh oasis), most of Pakistan, and northwestern India, including the Kashmir region. Durrani's Pashtun soldiers also instigated the Sikh holocaust of 1762 when they killed thousands of Sikhs in the Punjab. With the support of various tribal leaders, Ahmad Shah Durrani extended Afghan control from Khorasan in the west to Kashmir and Delhi in the east, and from the Amu Darya in the north to the Arabian Sea in the south. In the second half of the 18th century, after the Ottoman Empire the Durrani Empire was very briefly the second-largest Muslim empire.

The Afghan army began their conquests by capturing Ghazni and Kabul from the local rulers. In 1749 the Mughal ruler ceded sovereignty over what is now Pakistan and northwestern India to the Afghans. Ahmad Shah then set out westward to take possession of Herat, which was ruled by Shahrukh Afshar. He next sent an army to subdue the areas north of the Hindu Kush and in short order all the different tribes began joining his cause. Ahmad Shah and his forces invaded India four times, taking control of the Kashmir and the Punjab region. Early in 1757, he sacked Delhi, but permitted the Mughal dynasty to remain in nominal control as long as the ruler acknowledged Ahmad Shah's suzerainty over the Punjab, Sindh, and Kashmir.

Flag of Herat & of the Durrani Pashtun empire

After the death of Ahmad Shah in about 1772, his son Timur Shah became the next ruler of the Durrani dynasty who decided to make Kabul the new capital of the empire, and used Peshawar as the winter capital. The Durrani Empire is considered the foundation of the modern state of Afghanistan, with Ahmad Shah Durrani being credited as "Father of the Nation".

Reign of Ahmad Shah Durrani (1747–1772)

In 1709 Mir Wais Hotak, chief of the Ghilzai tribe of Kandahar Province, gained independence from the Safavid Persians. From 1722 to 1725, his son Mahmud ruled Iran and declared himself as Shah of Persia. However, the Hotaki dynasty came to a complete end in 1738 after being toppled and banished by the Afsharids who were led by Nader Shah of Persia.

The year 1747 marks the definitive appearance of an Afghan political entity independent of both the Persian and Mughal empires. In October 1747 a loya jirga (grand council) concluded near the city of

Early victories

One of Ahmad Shah's first military action was the capture Ghazni from the Ghilzais, and then wresting Kabul from the local ruler. In 1749, the Mughal ruler was induced to cede Sindh, the Punjab region and the important trans Indus River to Ahmad Shah in order to save his capital from Afghan attack. Having thus gained substantial territories to the east without a fight, Ahmad Shah turned westward to take possession of Herat, which was ruled by Nader Shah's grandson, Shah Rukh of Persia. Ahmad Shah next sent an army to subdue the areas north of the Hindu Kush mountains. In short order, the powerful army brought under its control the Tajik, Hazara, Uzbek, Turkmen, and other tribes of northern Afghanistan. Ahmad Shah invaded the remnants of the Mughal Empire a third time, and then a fourth, consolidating control over the Kashmir and Punjab regions, with Lahore being governed by Afghans. He sacked Delhi in 1757, but permitted the Mughal dynasty to remain in nominal control of the city as long as the ruler acknowledged Ahmad Shah's suzerainty over Punjab, Sindh, and Kashmir. Leaving his second son Timur Shah to safeguard his interests, Ahmad Shah left India to return to Afghanistan.

The Durrani Empire at its greatest extent

Relations with China

Alarmed by the expansion of China's Qing Dynasty up to the western border of Kazakhstan, Ahmad Shah attempted to rally neighboring Muslim khanates and the Kazakhs to unite and attack China, ostensibly to liberate its western Muslim subjects. Ahmad Shah halted trade with Qing China and dispatched troops to Kokand. However, with his campaigns in India exhausting the state treasury, and with his troops stretched thin throughout Central Asia, Ahmad Shah lacked sufficient resources to do anything except to send envoys to Beijing for unsuccessful talks.

Third Battle of Panipat

The Mughal power in northern India had been declining since the reign of Aurangzeb, who died in 1707; In 1751-52, Ahamdiya treaty was signed between the Marathas and Mughals, when Balaji Bajirao was the Peshwa. Through this treaty, the Marathas controlled virtually the whole of India from their capital at Pune and Mughal rule was restricted only to Delhi (the Mughals remained the nominal heads of Delhi). Marathas were now straining to expand their area of control towards the Northwest of India. Ahmad Shah sacked the Mughal capital and withdrew with the booty he coveted. To counter the Afghans, Peshwa Balaji Bajirao sent Raghunathrao. He defeated the Rohillas and Afghan garrisons in Punjab and succeeded in ousting Timur Shah and his court from India and brought Lahore, Multan, Kashmir and other subahs on the Indian side of Attock under Maratha rule. Thus, upon his return to Kandahar in 1757, Ahmad was forced to return to India and face the formidable attacks of the Maratha Confederacy.

Ahmad Shah declared a jihad (or Islamic holy war) against the Marathas, and warriors from various Pashtun tribes, and 25,000 Baloch warriors from various Baloch tribes joined his army under the command of Khan of Kalat Mir Noori Naseeer Khan Baloch . Early skirmishes were followed by victory for the Afghans and Baloch against the smaller Maratha garrisons in Northwest India and by 1759 Ahmad and his army had reached Lahore and were poised to confront the Marathas. By 1760, the Maratha groups had coalesced into a big enough army under the command of Sadashivrao Bhau. Once again, Panipat was the scene of a confrontation between two warring contenders for control of northern India. The Third Battle of Panipat (January 1761), fought between largely Muslim and largely Hindu armies was waged along a twelve-kilometer front. Despite decisively defeating the Marathas, what might have been Ahmad Shah's peaceful control of his domains was disrupted by many challenges. As far as losses are concerned, Afghans too suffered heavily in the Third Battle of Panipat. This weakened his grasp over Punjab which fell to the rising Sikh misls. There were rebellions in the north in the region of Bukhara.


The victory at Panipat was the high point of Ahmad Shah's—and Afghan—power. His Durrani empire was the second largest Islamic empire in the world, behind the Ottoman Empire at that time. However, even prior to his death, the empire began to unravel. In 1762, Ahmad Shah crossed the passes from Afghanistan for the sixth time to subdue the Sikhs. He assaulted Lahore and, after taking their holy city of Amritsar, massacred thousands of Sikh inhabitants, destroying their revered Golden Temple. Within two years, the Sikhs rebelled again and rebuilt their holy city of Amritsar. Ahmad Shah tried several more times to subjugate the Sikhs permanently, but failed. Ahmad Shah also faced other rebellions in the north, and eventually he and the Uzbek Emir of Bukhara agreed that the Amu Darya would mark the division of their lands. A decade after the third Battle of Panipat, Marathas under the leadership of Mahadji Scindia entered and recaptured Delhi in 1771, cutting off Rohillas from the Durranis forever. Ahmad Shah retired to his home in the mountains east of Kandahar, where he died on April 14, 1773. He had succeeded to a remarkable degree in balancing tribal alliances and hostilities, and in directing tribal energies away from rebellion. He earned recognition as Ahmad Shah Baba, or "Father" of Afghanistan.

Other Durrani rulers (1772–1826)

Ahmad Shah's successors governed so ineptly during a period of profound unrest that within fifty years of his death, the Durrani empire per se was at an end, and Afghanistan was embroiled in civil war. Much of the territory conquered by Ahmad Shah fell to others in this half century. By 1818, the Sadozai rulers who succeeded Ahmad Shah controlled little more than Kabul and the surrounding territory within a 160-kilometer radius. They not only lost the outlying territories but also alienated other tribes and lineages among the Durrani Pashtuns.

Timur Shah (1772–1793)

Ahmad Shah was succeeded by his son, Timur Shah, who had been deputed to administer his fathers conquests in northern India, but had been driven out by the Marathas. Upon Ahmad Shah's death, the Durrani chieftains only reluctantly accepted Timur's accession. Most of his reign was spent fighting a civil war and resisting rebellion; Timur was even forced to move his capital from Kandahar to Kabul due to insurgency. Timur Shah proved an ineffectual ruler, during whose reign the Durrani empire began to crumble. He is notable for having had 24 sons, several of whom became rulers of the Durrani territories. Timur died in 1793, and was then succeeded by his fifth son Zaman Shah

Zaman Shah (1793–1801)

After the death of Timur Shah, three of his sons, the governors of Kandahar, Herat and Kabul, contended for the succession. Zaman Shah, governor of Kabul, held the field by virtue of being in control of the capital, and became shah at the age of twenty-three. Many of his half-brothers were imprisoned on their arrival in the capital for the purpose, ironically, of electing a new shah. The quarrels among Timur's descendants that threw Afghanistan into turmoil also provided the pretext for the intervention of outside forces.

The efforts of the Sadozai heirs of Timur to impose a true monarchy on the truculent Pashtun tribes, and their efforts to rule absolutely and without the advice of the other major Pashtun tribal leaders, were ultimately unsuccessful. The Sikhs became particularly troublesome, and after several unsuccessful efforts to subdue them, Zaman Shah made the mistake of appointing a forceful young Sikh chief, Ranjit Singh, as his governor in the Punjab. This "one-eyed" warrior would later become an implacable enemy of Pashtun rulers in Afghanistan.

Zaman's downfall was triggered by his attempts to consolidate power. Although it had been through the support of the Barakzai chief, Painda Khan Barakzai, that he had come to the throne, Zaman soon began to remove prominent Barakzai leaders from positions of power and replace them with men of his own lineage, the Sadozai. This upset the delicate balance of Durrani tribal politics that Ahmad Shah had established and may have prompted Painda Khan and other Durrani chiefs to plot against the shah. Painda Khan and the chiefs of the Nurzai and the Alizai Durrani clans were executed, as was the chief of the Qizilbash clan. Painda Khan's son fled to Iran and pledged the substantial support of his Barakzai followers to a rival claimant to the throne, Zaman's older brother, Mahmud Shah. The clans of the chiefs Zaman had executed joined forces with the rebels, and they took Kandahar without bloodshed.

Mahmud Shah (first reign, 1801–1803)

Zeman Shah's overthrow in 1801 was not the end of civil strife in Afghanistan, but the beginning of even greater violence. Mahmud Shah's first reign lasted for only two years before he was replaced by Shuja Shah.

Shuja Shah (1803–1809 and 1839–1842)

Yet another of Timur Shah's sons, Shuja Shah (or Shah Shuja), ruled for only six years. On June 7, 1809, Shuja Shah signed a treaty with the British, which included a clause stating that he would oppose the passage of foreign troops through his territories. This agreement, the first Afghan pact with a European power, stipulated joint action in case of Franco-Persian aggression against Afghan or British dominions. Only a few weeks after signing the agreement, Shuja was deposed by his predecessor, Mahmud. Much later, he was reinstated by the British, ruling during 1839–1842. Two of his sons also ruled for a brief period in 1842.

Mahmud Shah (second reign, 1809–1818)

Mahmud's second reign lasted nine years. Mahmud alienated the Barakzai, especially Fateh Khan, the son of Painda Khan, who was eventually seized and blinded. Revenge would later be sought and obtained by Fateh Khan's youngest brother, Dost Mohammad Khan.

Sultan Ali Shah (1818–1819)

Ali Shah was another son of Timur Shah. He seized power for a brief period in 1818-19.

Ayub Shah (1819–1823)

Ayub Shah was another son of Timur Shah, who deposed Sultan Ali Shah. He was himself later deposed, and presumably killed in 1823. The loss of Kashmir during his reign opened a new chapter in South Asian history.

"Timur Shah transferred the Durrani capital from Qandahar in 1775-76. Kabul and Peshawar then shared time as the dual Durrani capital cities, the former during the summer and the latter during the winter season."

The Ten Lost Tribes: Pathans

One subject of the Lost Tribes which has generally been ignored which I found to be personally fascinating are the tribe of the Pathans.

The Pathans are about 15 million people living mainly in Pakistan and Afghanistan as well as in Persia and India. They have a tradition of being of the Lost Tribes and have Israelite customs.

The Pathans have a custom of circumcision on the 8th day. This is a known Jewish custom, and is the oldest Jewish tradition. I myself witnessed and was present at a very joyous circumcision ceremony on the 8th day after birth. Muslims have custom of circumcision but it is not on the 8th day, and usually at the age of 12.

The Pathans have a sort of small Tallit called Kafan. This is a 4 cornered garment which they tie strings similar to the fringes (Jews call them Tzitzit) and is one of the oldest Jewish traditions going back to the Torah and it is a sign of their Israelite origin. They also have bigger Tallit which they call Joy-Namaz. It is a garment 2-3 meters sq., and it is made to cover the head and part of the shoulders, and is used for prayer by spreading on the ground in the Muslim fashion. It has no fringes.

The Pathans have a custom of the Sabbath. The Sabbath is considered a day of rest and they do not labor, cook or bake. The Pathans prepare 12 Hallot (traditional Jewish bread, Leviticus 24:5) in honor of the Sabbath as was done in the ancient temple. One of the significant indicators proving the Israelite origins of the Pathans is the lighting of the candle to honor the Sabbath. After lighting, the candle is covered usually by a large basket. The candle is lit by a woman past her menopause.

Pathans Live in Customs of Israelites

Pathans have a custom of Kosher, dietary laws same as Jews. Pathans do not eat horse or camel meat, which is most common in their area but of course forbidden to Jews. There is some evidence to their not eating meat and milk together which is also an ancient Israelite tradition. And they have a tradition regarding differentiating between pure and impure birds which means permitted and not permitted birds similar to the Torah.

Some still wear a small box which Jews call Tefillin (phylactery) containing a verse of the Bible. This box resemble Japanese Tokin of Yamabushi's forehead, too. This is an ancient custom of Israel. In the Jewish box there is the verse of Shema Israel, that is, "Hear, O Israel: The Lord our God, the Lord is one!" (Deuteronomy 6:4) This custom of Tefillin came from a verse of the Scriptures, "You shall bind them as a sign on your hand, and they shall be as frontlets between your eyes" (Deuteronomy 6:8).

It is interesting to note that the Pathans retain family names of the Lost Tribes such as Asher, Gad, Naphtali, Reuben and Manasseh and Ephraim. Among them there are people who are called by these names, which are of the Ten Lost Tribes of Israel. There are also people who are called Israel, Samuel, and so on, which are never found among the Muslims. There are also many areas as locations, neighborhoods and villages with names of places that are similar to names in the land of Israel.

The region has archeological finds testifying to a Hebrew past, and they also resemble Jews of the area and their language Pashtu surprisingly has many Hebrew words. The Pathans are also called Afghans, or sons of the Pashtu which is their language, were mostly called "Bani-Israel" meaning children of Israel even though they live today as devout Muslims.

The external appearance of the Pathans resemble the Jews of the area. Together with their ancient customs and other data there is a definite connection that can be made to the Tribes of Israel.

The Pathans number 6 to 7 million in Afghanistan and 7 to 8 million in Pakistan. They live in the border area between these two countries and about 2 million live as nomads. These Pathans desire for their independence, which is supported by Afghanistan and is a cause of constant tension in Pakistan which does not desire their independence.

Pathans' Law Resembles the Torah

Afghanistan is one of the least developed countries of Asia and the majority of the population is illiterate. They work primarily in farming and sheep-raising and other domesticated animals.

Most people still live in villages and some even live as nomads. It is a country that is ruled by Islamic religious law and more than 90 % of the population are Sunni Muslims. But whatever modernization has taken place, it has not reached the mountainous border areas. Here the Pathans continue their centuries old tribal life.

The legal system which is known as Pashtunwali, the law of the Pashtu, is very similar to the Torah, which is the holiest Jewish book and the book of ancient Jewish way of life. There are pages and even complete books among the pathans and they honor greatly what is called Tavrad El Sharif (the Torah of Moses), and they rise at the mention of the name of Moses even though it is not important in Islam.

The Pathans are very healthy, tall, and have strong light-skinned appearance. They are warriors and carry arms from a young age, they are hardworking, wise, truthful and extremely loyal and they also have a worldwide reputation for exemplary hospitality.

The ethnic origin of these Pathans has puzzled people for some time because they are different both externally and in the character traits from the other groups around them such as the Turks, the Mongolians, the Persians, or the Indo-Iranians. It is also difficult to trace their past history in a region in which tens of nations and major tribes of various origins have come and gone.

The personal identification of the Pathan Tribes with their Israelite origin is expressed in various ways. Besides the oral tradition related by the elders of the tribe, there are also interesting testimonies of keeping of scrolls of genealogy among the tribes, reaching back to the Fathers of the Jewish nation.

These scrolls are well preserved and some are written in gold on the skins of a doe. No less interesting and significant are the names of the tribes which bear close resemblance to the Tribes of Israel. The Rabbani Tribe is really Reuben, the Shinware Tribe is Shimon, the Lewani Tribe is Levi, The Daftani Tribe is Naphtali, and the Jaji Tribe is Gad, and the Ashuri Tribe is Asher, The Yusefsai Tribe is sons of Joseph, and the Afridi Tribe is really Ephraim. These are the names of the Ten Lost Tribes of Israel.

The Pathans themselves point out the differences between the original names of the tribes and their present names are because of the different dialects of the languages so that, for instance, Jaji was actually called Gaji for the tribe of Gad.

There are some Jews of Afghanistan today who count the Tribe of Israel among the Pathans. The physical similarity between the Pathans and other Jews is exemplified by the British ruled Afghanistan for a great length of time and called the Pathans Jews. When not wearing their traditional clothing Pathans are indistinguishable from other Jews of the area. Among the 21 nations of Afghanistan only the Pathans and the Jews have Semitic features, their faces are longer and lighter, and some even have blue eyes. Like the Jews of the area, Pathans grow beards and sidelocks which further serve to make them indistinguishable from Jews.

Israelite Features of the Pathans

The Pathans have many other features as descendants of Israelites.

Their wedding is like Jewish. Wedding ceremony with the Pathans includes a marriage canopy and rings similar to the Jewish custom.

Women of the Pathans keep laws similar to the Jewish laws regarding menstruation. During this time and for 7 days after, no contact is allowed with the husband. After this period, the woman immerses in a river or spring or in a bathhouse if a natural spring is not available. This is exactly the same as the Israeli tradition going back to the days of the Bible.

Pathans have custom of levirate marriage, which is the custom when a husband dies without children, his brother marries the widow to keep the name of the house. This custom no longer exists today, but was an ancient Israeli custom mentioned in the Bible (Deuteronomy 25:5-6).

The commandment to honor one's parent is kept in exemplary manner in these tribes. The son must obey the parents in all matters. When the father enters the room all stand and bow their heads in his honor. This was a Israeli tradition as well.

Pathans have custom of Yom Kippur. We know of some of the members of the Lewani Tribe who came to the Jewish synagogue on Yom Kippur each year in Afghanistan. He would stay there until sundown without uttering even one word. He spoke of the tradition of the Temple on this day and of the high priest and his work there.

One year he erred in his calendar and did not come, he wept bitterly for one week for missing the observance of this day.

The Pathans have custom of scapegoat. In ancient Israel there was the custom to put sins of the nation onto a goat and send the goat away to desert. This custom of scapegoat was done to atone the sins of the nation (Leviticus chapter 16). Similar custom is found even today among the Pathans.

The Pathans usually pray in mosque. However some pray towards Jerusalem which is most unusual. There are some very old synagogues in their area and Pathans come to these synagogues on special days in times of great stress or tragedies or for special prayers. The individual who seeks help comes there to touch the lock and to pray. There are those who say that these places once contained scrolls of the Torah. This is interesting because today they are actually devout Muslims.

At the time of plague the Pathans slaughter a sheep and sprinkle its blood on the doorpost of their homes. This is what the Israelites did in ancient Egypt during the plagues that occurred there.

An interesting testimony relates to the placing of a wrapped book of Psalms of the Bible under the pillow of the ill in order to heal that person.

There are those who have said that there are Amulets written in Hebrew. Some contain the phrase "Shema Israel" and it is secretly written by the head of the tribe and it is forbidden to open it.

And the symbol of Shield of David (Star of David) is found in almost every Pathan house. The wealthy make it out of expensive metals and the poor out of simple wood. It can be seen in towers, in schools and also in tools, bracelets, and jewelry. I saw it at least 20 times in a variety of places. In Minerajan, the center of Afghanistan, there are even schools that have the Shield of David on the door or in the stone above the door.

Barakzai Pashtuns

Bārakzai (Pashto: بارکزی‎, bārakzay, plur. bārakzī) is the name of a Pashtun tribe from present-day Afghanistan, Balochistan Province of Pakistan, Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Barakzai is also a name of Baloch Tribe Who live in Sistan and Baluchestan Province Iran. "Barakzai" is a common name among the Pashtuns and it means "son of Barak" in Pashto. There are seven distinct Pashtun tribes named Barakzai, with the Zirak branch of the Durrani tribe being the most important and largest tribe with over 4 million people

Another source prevails the unfolded truth of the Barakzai in which the name Barak (/ˈbɛəræk/ or /ˈbɛərək/; Hebrew: בָּרָק, Tiberian: Bārāq, "Lightning; Shine", Greek: βαρακ), Al-Burāq (Arabic: البُراق‎ al-Burāq "lightning") might have been derived from Barak the son of Abinoam from Kedesh in Naphtali, a military general in the Book of Judges in the Bible. He was the commander of the army of Deborah, the prophetess and heroine of the Hebrew Bible. Barak and Deborah are credited with defeating the Canaanite armies led by Sisera, who for twenty years had oppressed the Israelites.

According to Hyat Khan's history of Afghanistan, from their progenitor Bor Tareen, otherwise known as Abdal, are descended two main divisions: the Zirak and the Panjpai. The term Abdal, however, gradually superseded Bor Tareen and came into special prominence when Ahmad Shah Abdali, commonly known as Durrani, began his career of conquest. The Achakzi were once a branch of the large Barakzai tribe, but Ahmad Shah Durrani was worried over this large tribe as potential competition for control of Kabul’s throne and split the tribe into two separate components and since then the Achakzi have remained distinct and are a separate tribe today. Their original homeland was Maruf District, Kandahar Province.

Rachel's Tomb, near Bethlehem, 1891

Barakzai, are also sometimes counted to be as one of the Lost tribes of Israel and are sometimes associated with the Tribe of Benjamin (Hebrew: בִּנְיָמִין, Modern Binyamin Tiberian Binyāmîn). It's said that Barakzai are the descendants of "Afghana" (born ~ 1000 BC) the grandson of King Saul of the Tribe of Benjamin is considered in Afghan folklore a tribal chief or prince of Bani Israel (Israelite) origin and a progenitor of modern-day Pashtuns (ethnic Afghans), the largest ethnic group in Afghanistan and second largest in Pakistan. The ethnonym "Afghan" is believed to derive from his name.

Durrani tribe are their closest counters and then next closest to Yusuf Zi (Sons of Joseph) since Yūsuf was Binyāmîn's full brother, and Ephriti (Tribe of Ephraim) & Khattak (Tribe of Menashe) as their last closest in terms of the Lost Tribes of Israel and also in relations because Ephraim & Menashe were the sons of Yūsuf, which makes Ephraim & Menashe the nephew of Binyāmîn, who was the youngest son of Yaʿqūb with Raḥel. Even the name Barakzi and its most prominent & powerful sub tribe of Mohammadzi can be compared with the name of Ashkenazi, who are the Jews descended from the medieval Jewish communities along the Rhine in Germany from Alsace in the south to the Rhineland in the north. The term suffix - zi, the plural of Pashto zay, stands for "descendant", and in Avestan it is similar with zoi, "offspring", which is related to the English word "son". However, research towards validating such claims has been inconclusive.

The legend describes Afghana as the grandson of King Saul (Talut). Afghana was the son of Irmia (Jeremia), and Jeremia in turn was the son of King Talut. This name is mentioned in the form of Abgan in the 3rd century CE by the Sassanians and as Avagana in the 6th century CE by Indian astronomer Varahamihira.
History of Afghanistan principal ruling families. The figure shows the splitting of the Zirak line into the Popalzai, Alakozai, Achakzai and Barakzai branches.

It is mentioned that Afghana was orphaned at a young age, and brought up by King David. When Solomon became the king, Afghana was made commander-in-chief of the army. Afghana is also credited with the building of the first temple (also known as Bait ul-Mukaddas or the Temple of Jerusalem):

According to Tadhkirat al-Muluk, Afghana migrated to the place known as Takht-i-Sulaiman and generations later Qais Abdur Rashid a descendant of Afghana embraced Islam. Qais Abdur Rashid's pedigree ascended in a series of thirty-seven degrees to King Talut (Saul) through Afghana. The genealogy of the Royal Family of Afghanistan and the country's Mohammadzai Emirs & Kings who ruled it are Afghana's descendants and they strictly maintain the ethics and ways of the Pashtunwali.

Mohammadzai are the most prominent & powerful sub-tribe of Barakzai, they belong to the Zirak branch of the Durrani confederacy, and are primarily centered around Kandahar. They can also be found in other provinces throughout Afghanistan as well across the border in the Pakistan's Balochistan Province.

Earliest Pashtun photograph in which Emir Sher Ali Khan is sitting with Prince Abdullah Jan and the Afghan Malaks in 1869.

Musahiban also known as Sultan Muhammed Khel or the Yahya Khel. Descendants of Sultan Muhammed Khan, ruler of Peshawar, brother of Dost Muhammad Khan. Mohammadzai Barakzai are closely related to Amanullah Khan. The family of Nadir and Zahir Shah.

Payendah Khel are descendants of Payendah Khan, head of the Mohammadzai branch of the Barakzai tribe during the reigns of Timur and Zaman Shah, who became rulers with the decline of the Sadozai dynasty.

Genealogy of the Barakzai rulers of Afghanistan from the Barakzai dynasty.

The Tarzi family is a branch of the Mohammadzai of Afghanistan. Although a smaller branch of the Barakzai ruling dynasty, the Tarzi family has produced some of the most famous and affluent members. The founder of Tarzi family was Ghulam Muhammad Tarzi.

Muslims of Israelite Descent

I spoke at a number of venues in America during my three and a half months stay there. At the conference, I presented a paper on the “Traditions of Israelite Descent Among Certain Muslim Groups in India”, viz., the Kashmiri in Jammu and Kashmir, most of whom are Muslim, and the three Muslim groups in India’s most populous state, Uttar Pradesh, viz., the Qidwai/Kidwai in Barabanki; the Pashtun/Pathan in Malihabad (District Lucknow), Qayamganj (District Farrukhabad), Shahjahanpur and Rampur (also found elsewhere in India); and the Bani Israil in Sambhal (District Moradabad) and Aligarh.

All of these groups have had traditions of Israelite descent for centuries. Two of them, the Kashmiri and the Pashtun/Pathan, trace their descent from the lost tribes of Israel. The Pashtuns/Pathans in India have largely lost their traditions of Israelite origin, yet it is still very strong in their native places, Afghanistan and the Federally Administered Tribal Areas of the North West Frontier Province of Pakistan.

By the way, Pathans, Pashtuns, Pakhtuns and Afghans are names which are often used interchangeably. To be precise, those who inhabit plains and open plateaus are entitled to the name Afghan, which has a far wider connotation than just being a subject of the modern state of Afghanistan, founded only in 1747. The northern highlanders call themselves Pakhtuns, while the southern highlanders are known as Pashtuns. Unfortunately, Pashtuns/Pathans are the same people who largely fill the ranks of the Taliban today.

While the Qidwais/Kidwais trace their geneaology from a Sufi of Jewish descent, Qazi/Qadi Qidwatuddin of Rum (modern Turkey), who settled in India in 1191 CE, the members of the Bani Israil clan of Sambhal (District Moradabad) and Aligarh claim descent from a Jewish sahaabi (companion of Muhammad), Abdullah Ibn-i-Salaam. According to them, their ancestors settled in India a millennium ago to propagate and preach Islam.

Pashtun tribal structure

Pashtun tribes are divided into four tribal groups: Sarbans, Batani, Gharghasht and Karlanri or Karans. The oral tradition of the Pashtuns holds that these are descended from the four sons of Qais Abdur Rashid, the mythical ancestor of the Pashtun people.

There are several levels of organisation of Pashtun tribes: the ṭabar (tribe) is subdivided into kinship groups, each of which is a khel. Khel subtribes are further divided into plārina or plārganəi, each of which consists of several extended families or kahol.

"A large tribe often has dozens of sub-tribes whose members may see themselves as belonging to each, some, or all of the sub-tribes" in their family tree depending upon the social situation: co-operative, competitive, or confrontational.

Ṭabar splits the tribe into two or more, made of more than one tribes. The tribes then are divided into sub tribes also called khel or zai. Zai in Pashto means descendant, and in Avestan it is similar with zoi, "offspring", which is related to the English word "son".

William Crooke said that khel is from an Arabic word meaning "association" or "company". However, it is suggested that khel comes from the Avestan khuail, meaning "uncountable" or "over populated" such as counting of stars or counting grain of rice. In Persian dictionary, the word has been recorded as kheleh meaning "lots" or "too much". In usage the word khel is placed after the name of the common ancestor or leader; thus, "Piya Khel" would be the followers or descendants of Piya. Similarly, subtribes have also given their names to settlements; thus, "Haidar Khel" is not only the name of a subtribe, but also of a settlement. A khel is often based in a single village, but it may also be based on a larger area including several villages, or part of a town.

Plārina is related to the Bactrian impression of Plār, which derives from Old Iranian piðar (in Bactrianand Pashto, Old Iranian /ð/ usually yields /l/), and is related to Sanskrit pidar and English "father". The plural form of plār is plārina. A Plārina is considered only when the 7th offspring is born, meaning the father of many layers (kahol). Usually the 7th forefather is assumed to take from one and a half century to two centuries. The Plārina is considered to have 10,000 to 15,000 offsprings.

Kahol is the smallest group of Afghan tribal system, meaning father of 1. zāmən (children), 2. lmasi (grandchildren), 3. kaṛwasi (great grandchildren), and 4. kawdi (great great grandchildren). Once the third offspring is born, it would be labelled as family, or kahol in Pashtun tribal organifgation. Their number may be from 70–100 depending on number of children.

Afghan names of Hebrew and Biblical Origin

Afghans, more precisely Pakhtuns, are descendants of the Assyrian exile from Ancient Israel thus called the Bani Israel or the Children of Israel. This is a basic statement that is ubiquitously observed from texts, scrolls and books from as far back as Herodotus in the 5th Century BC to internet articles today.The multitude of places, names, facts, rituals, customs and ancient references from Morocco to Ceylon collectively point towards an undeniable plausibility.

In short any of these facts viewed separately can be the result of random occurrences. More likely however, from their sheer number, existence within a concise narrow region, references from the cultures around them and their own oral and written history indicates towards an oft overlooked mystery of human history. The Afghans or more precisely the Paktuike within the Karlani Tribes are most probably the children of the Assyrian Exile that never repatriated with their homeland. In a region marred by continuous warfare between countless civilizations, it is not surprising that the most lasting history of the Afghans is their own Oral Traditions carefully preserved from father to son like echoes of the past.

Many sources have different conclusions as to what happened to the Assyrian Exiles after their flight out of Israel and centuries of captivity. All are conflicting. The more reliable point to a general migration towards modern day Afghanistan. Others, towards the South of the Caspian, the Caucasus, South Eastern Europe.

A point to remember here is that, these exiles were treated even less than slaves as rebels, deprived of basic citizenship and education the mere adherence to their old religion was considered an act of treason. Israelite Monotheism was a great heresy to the ancient Assyrians.

Also, only a small fraction of this exile living in the western parts of the empire ever relocated back to Israel and that too after years of struggle went badly for the Assyrians. The major part of the exile however was exiled to the furthest reaches of the empire, the mountains beyond western media which is modern day Afghanistan and Pakistan.

A convincing reference to this fact comes from Herodotus.

Afghana is a Hebrew word for valor and represents bravery.

The Maḫzan-e Afġān’ by Nematullah, written in 1612 at the Mughal Empire (Mughal court), traces the Afghan or Pakhtun origin from the super-Patriarch Abraham down to one named King Talut or Saul. It states that Saul had a son Irmia (Jeremia), who had a son called Afghana. Upon the death of King Saul, Afghana was raised by David, and was later promoted to the chief command of the army during the reign of King Solomon. The progeny of Afghana multiplied numerously. Some four centuries after Afghana, in the sixth century BCE, Bakhtunnasar, or Nebuchadnezzar, the king of Babil, attacked the Kingdom of Judah and exiled the descendants of Afghana to Ghor located in the center of what is now Afghanistan.

However, Neither Afghana nor Jeremia son of Saul figure in the Hebrew Bible.

According to several scholars such as Vladimir Fedorovich Minorsky (V. Minorsky, W.K. Frazier Tyler and M.C. Gillet), the word Afghan first appears in the 982 AD Hudud ul-‘alam, where a reference is made to them as: Saul (somewhere in Ghowr and Ghazni), a pleasant village on a mountain. In it live Afghans

In the writings of the 17th-century Pashto poet Khushal Khan Khattak, the equation of ”Afghan” and ”Pashtun” is further confirmed: Pull out your sword and slay any one, that says Pashtun and Afghan are not one! Arabs know this and so do Romans: Afghans are Pashtuns, Pashtuns are Afghans.

Regarding the modern Sovereign state|state of “Afghanistan’, the Encyclopaedia of Islam states: Afghanistan  has borne that name only since the middle of the 18th century, when the supremacy of the Afghan race (Pashtuns) became assured: previously various districts bore distinct apellations, but the country was not a definite political unit, and its component parts were not bound together by any identity of race or language. The earlier meaning of the word was simply “the land of the Afghans”, a limited territory which did not include many parts of the present state but did comprise large districts now either independent or within the boundary of Pakistan.

Zabulon’ or ‘Zaboules’, was, according to the Book of Genesis and Book of Number:[Genesis 46:14] [Numbers 26:26] the sixth son of Jacob and Leah, and the founder of the Israelites (Israelite Tribes & Tribe of Zebulun).

Zabul is the Pushto & Arabic form of the Hebrew Zebulon. ‘Zabul’ (زابل ) is also a historic province of modern day Afghanistan.

Zabulistan (Pashto & Arabic زابلستان ),  also spelled Zabolestan, is a historical region in the border area of today’s Iran,  Afghanistan and Pakistan.

Babur records in his Babur-Nama that Ghazni Province  is also known as Zabulistan.

The word Pathan is the written form of the original word Pathan from The Torah (Divrei Hayomin/Kings 2), noting their ancestor from the line of Saul ben Qish, the first King of Israel, who was King David’s father in law.

Oxford Companion to Military History: describes Pathans: Pathans is a name given to speakers of Pashtu (Pakhtu) living in Afghanistan and Pakistan.

    The Pathans are noted as fierce fighters, and throughout history they have offered strong resistance to invaders. The British attempted to subdue the Pathans in a series of punitive expeditions in the late 19th and early 20th cent. but were finally forced to offer them a semiautonomous area between the border of British India and that of Afghanistan.

    After the creation of Pakistan in 1947, the new nation annexed the Pathan border regions, and a Pathan independence movement, called the Redshirts, was born. In the early 1950s, Afghanistan supported Pathan ambitions for the creation of an independent Pushtunistan (also called Pakhtunistan or Pakhtoonistan) in the border areas of West Pakistan. Several border clashes and ruptures of diplomatic relations between Afghanistan and Pakistan ensued. In the early 1970s thousands of armed Pathan tribespeople pressed for increased autonomy within Pakistan, even demanding independence after the secession of Bangladesh (East Pakistan).

Greater Khorasan ( Persian/ Pashto خراسان باستان یا خراسان بزرگ ) (also written ”Khurasan”) is a historical region spanning northeastern Iran, northern Afghanistan, and the southern parts of Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan.

    Khorāsān, also spelled Khurasan, historical region and realm comprising a vast territory now lying in northeastern Iran, southern Turkmenistan, and northern Afghanistan. The historical region extended, along the north, from the Amu Darya (Oxus River) westward to the Caspian Sea and, along the south, from the fringes of the central Iranian deserts eastward to the mountains of central Afghanistan. Arab geographers even spoke of its extending to the boundaries of Hindustan (India).

In pre-Islamic and early Islamic times, the term “Khurassan” frequently had a much wider denotation, covering also parts of what are now Soviet Central Asia and Afghanistan; early Islamic usage often regarded everywhere east of western Persia, sc. Djibal or what was subsequently termed ‘Irak ‘Adjami, as being included in a vast and ill-defined region of Khurasan, which might even extend to the Indus Valley and Sind.

The name “Khorasan” is derived from Middle Persian ”khor” “sun” + ”asa” “literally, like or akin to, but usually meaning arising from”, hence meaning “land where the sun rises”. The Persian word ”’Khāvar-zamīn”’ (Persian خاور زمین ), meaning “the eastern land”, has also been used as an equivalent term.

According to Brittanica: Khorāsān, also spelled Khurasan, historical region and realm comprising a vast territory now lying in northeastern Iran, southern Turkmenistan, and northern Afghanistan. The historical region extended, along the north, from the Amu Darya (Oxus River) westward to the Caspian Sea and, along the south, from the fringes of the central Iranian deserts eastward to the mountains of central Afghanistan. Arab geographers even spoke of its extending to the boundaries of India.

In the times of the Prophet Muhammad PBUH, the term Khurasan was used for the region comprising of modern day Afghanistan, the North Eastern parts of Iran, the Western parts of Pakistan and parts of Uzbekistan and Tajikistan.

Arab geographers spoke of its extending to the boundaries of India as far as the Indus River (Indus valley) in what is now Pakistan.

Early Islamic usage often regarded everywhere east of western Persia, or what was subsequently termed ‘Irak ‘Adjami, as being included in a vast and ill-defined region of Khorasan, which might even extend to the Indus Valley and Sindh.

However, sources from the 14th to the 16th century report that Kandahar, Ghazni and Kabul in Afghanistan formed the frontier region between Khorasan and Hindustan.

In referring to the place of exile of the tribe of Ruben and Gad and half of the tribe of Manasseh, the book of I Chronicles 5:26 states that:

    “Pul … and Tiglath-pileser king of Assyria carried them away… and brought them to Halah and Habor, and Hara and to the river Gozan.”

The text of II Kings 17:6 also speaks of Gozan as a river: “… the king of Assyria took Samaria and carried Israel into Assyria, and placed them in Halah and in Habor by the river Gozan and in the cities of the Medes”

Similarly II Kings 18:11. In II Kings 19:12 Rabshakeh speaks: in the name of Sennacherib: “How the gods of the nations have delivered them which my fathers have destroyed; (as) Gozan, and Haran

In Isaiah 37:12 Gozan can be understood as a region or a people of a region. The correct translation of II Kings 17:6 and 18:11 is: “in the confluence of the river Gozan.”

Biblical scholars looking for the place of exile of the tribes of Israel by Tiglath Pileser, and then of all the tribes of Israel by Sargon upon the fail of Samaria, decided that the river’s name was Habor and Gozan was the region. This is a violation of the texts. They identified Habor with the confluent of the Euphrates mentioned in Ezekiel 1:3: “The word of the Lord came … unto Ezekiel” in the land of the Chaldeans by the river Chebar.

The spellings Habor and Chebar are different, and the river Khvoz (Chebar) is not Habor, and the latter is not a river at all.

When the exiles of Judah arrived in Babylonia ca. 138 years after the inhabitants of Israel were removed from their land, they did not find the Israelites in Chebar (Khvoz). It is also said that the Lord removed Israel out of his sight—or to a country far away and without communication with the motherland.

The Assyrians spread their dominion to the south as far as Ethiopia and Aden (Eden). The Assyrians crossed the Caucasus—this is known from Assyrian inscriptions themselves.

Rabbi Benjamin of Tudela, the Spanish Jewish traveller claimed to have found the Ten Tribes in the regions beyond then Persia in Medes and Arachosia. Even to the extent that this region upto distant Scythia abounds in Assyrian relics of the seventh century B.C.E.

2 Kings 17:6: In the ninth year of Hoshea the king of Assyria took Samaria, and carried Israel away to Assyria, and placed them in Halah, and on the Habor, the river of Gozan, and in the cities of the Medes.

2 Kings 18:11: The king of Assyria carried Israel away to Assyria, and put them in Halah, and on the Habor, the river of Gozan, and in the cities of the Medes,

2 Kings 19:12: Have the gods of the nations delivered them, which my fathers have destroyed, Gozan, and Haran, and Rezeph, and the children of Eden that were in Telassar?

1 Chronicles 5:26: The God of Israel stirred up the spirit of Pul king of Assyria, and the spirit of Tilgath Pilneser king of Assyria, and he carried them away, even the Reubenites, and the Gadites, and the half-tribe of Manasseh, and brought them to Halah, and Habor, and Hara, and to the river of Gozan, to this day.

Isaiah 37:12: Have the gods of the nations delivered them, which my fathers have destroyed, Gozan, Haran, Rezeph, and the children of Eden who were in Telassar?

    Thence it is four days’ journey to Tibet, the country in whose forests musk is found.

    Thence it takes twenty-eight days to the mountains of Nisabur by the river Gozan. And there are men of Israel in the land of Persia who say that in the mountains of Nisabur four of the tribes of Israel dwell.

The territory mentioned -Jn.2 Kings lies northeast of ancient Nineveh in present-day southern Afghanistan. The River Gozan lies in northern Afghanistan.

Flavius Josephus’ Antiquities of the Jews described the location of the ten tribes.

   He also substitutes Oxus for Gozan. In the Middle Ages the Oxus was known under that name. In each of the localities Benjamin was told that river (Oxus) was called Gozan.

Hara is the ancient name for Herat Afghanistan.

A large and famous city, hub of economic activity for more than two millenia.

Ancient name which represents the root  Khyber. Alternately spelled as Chebar, Chebor, Havor or Habor.

Khyber is the modern usage of the word Habor, Havor or Chebar. Khyber is the historical and famous mountain pass between Pakistan and Afghanistan.

Khyber is of Hebrew origin meaning fort.

Afghan tribes that inhabit the region are called Khybaris. These include Afridi, Khattak, Shinwari, Yusufzai, Mohmand and the Orakzai.

In the past, Khyber has also been referred to as Qilla Yahudi (Yahoodi), which literally means Citadel of the Jews. This was a term used solely by the Mughals because of their contempt for the Khybaris (Khattak, Yusfzai and Afridi Tribesmen) who looted and plundered Mughal convoys and supply lines. It was a reference to the Afghan’s stock belief of being the Bani Israel (Children of Israel).

Pesh means after or beyond and Habor means Khyber. Pesh Habor means the city beyond the Khyber pass which is the ancient biblical city of Peshawar. Peshawar was founded almost three millenia ago around 3000 BCE.

Modern usage and name for Pesh Habor or Pesh Havor.

Kohath [Genesis 46:11] [Exodus 6:16,18] [Numbers 3:17,19,27,29,30,][Numbers 4:2,15,18,34,37] [Numbers 7:9,] [Numbers 10:21,] [Numbers 16:1,] [Numbers 26:57,58,] [Joshua 21:4,5,10,20,26] [1 Chronicles6:1,2, 16,18,22,33,38,54,61,66,70] [1Chronicles9:32,] [1Chronicles15:5 ][1Chronicles23:6,12]

References from the bible as well as the multitude Hebrew names and the legend of the Afghans as the Bani Israel represent one origin while another claim states it to be the name of a Hindu Raja. The two compared however, the former theory hold more weight.

Yusuf means Joseph and Yusufzai means children of Joseph. They also call themselves Bani-Israel meaning children of Israel. Their tradition is that they were carried away from their ancient homeland, and through the ages eventually settled into what is now Pakistan, Afghanistan and some other countries.

Israeli Tradition in Afghan Royal Family

The Afghan Royal Family has a well known tradition placing its origin in ancient Israel, they came from the Tribe of Benjamin.

First of all, many Afghani people claim this to be so. Rabbi Avraham Hacohen, president of the Jewish community in the Afghan city of Harath, testified that he heard former Afghani king Habib Allah Han proclaim: “I am from the tribe of Benjamin.” In similar testimony, an immigrant to Israel recalls his childhood memory of King Habib Allah’s horseback tour of Harath (Herat): “The Jewish dignitaries of the city gathered, among them my father. My father coerced me to join in greeting the king. The King asked the Jews, ‘What tribe are you from?’ ‘We have no tradition regarding that, so we don’t know, O King,’ answered the head of the delegation. ‘Well, we do know,’ said the king. ‘We, the Mahmad Zei family, are all descendants of the tribe of Benjamin from the seed of King Saul, from the sons of Yonatan Afghan and Pithon.’”

The  former  monarchy  in  Afghanistan  has  a  widely-spread tradition according  to which  their origin was  from  the  tribe of Benjamin  and  the  family  of  King  Saul.  According to this tradition, Saul had a son called Jeremiah and he in turn had a son called Afghana.  Jeremiah  died  at  about  the  same  time  as Saul  and  the  son  Afghana  was  raised  by  King  David  and remained in the royal palace during the reign of Solomon too. About 400 years later, in the days of Nebuchadnezzar, the Afghana family fled to the Gur region (Jat in our times). This is in  central  Afghanistan  and  here  the  family  settled  down  and traded with  the people of  the area.  In  the year 622, with  the appearance  of  Islam, Muhammad  sent  Khalid  ibn Waleed  to the  ‘sons  of  Ishrail’  to  spread  the  word  of  Islam  among  the Afghanistan  tribes.  He  succeeded  in  his mission,  returned  to Muhammad  with  seven  representatives  of  the  residents  of Afghanistan  and  with  76  supporters.  The leader of these people was ‘Kish’ (or Kesh or Qais).

According to the tradition, the emissaries succeeded in their assignment and Muhammad praised them for this. He (the Prophet) gave the name Abdur Rashid to Kesh, announced that Kesh was from the Royal line of the House of Israel and that through his seed God will strengthen his religion.

Afghan Tribal Names

Gadoon – Gad (also Jaji – Gad) Rabbani – Reuben Abdali or Naftali – Naphtali ( also Daftani – Naphtali) Shinwari – Simeon or Shimon Zamand – Zebulun Levani – Levi Afridi – Ephraim Ashuri – Asher Yusufzai – Tribe of Joseph Khattak – Manasseh

The Pushtuns (or Pukhtuns) themselves point out that the differences between the original names of the tribes and their present are because of the differences in dialect, accents and local languages, so that, for instance, Jaji was actually called Gaji for the tribe of Gad and so on.

For a great part of two hundred years, the mainstream representation of the Karlani Paktuike tribes was represented by the Khattaks. These were the times of the downfall of the Mogul Empire and beginning of the British Raj. However it is interesting that being a prototype for the most probable descendants of the Assyrian Exiles, the Khattaks have not retained a more familiar tribal biblical name.

Referring to the Khattaks and Afridis, Sir Olaf Caroe The Pathans 550BC to 1957AD expresses: This is not to assert that the ethnic or linguistic stock can be necessarily traced through to tribes of similar names today. The case would be rather that these were sub-stratum agglomerations of people who, through contact with later-comers, modified their language and were assimilated to later cultures, but retained in the more inaccessible places sufficient of their older selves to boast their original names. The theory does at least give a starting-point to Pathan history & the stock belief in the Bani Israel.

Ancient references to a Gandriori Nation states that the children of Isreal chief among them the sons of Joseph were living in Ghor. It is as this time that the 4 original Karlani tribes, namely Yusufzai, Khattaks, Afridis and the Zdazdi settled together as the Assyrian exile in Ghor. This is referenced by the account of Herodotus and the Darius Satrapies.

From the two accounts, it is deducible that either the Khattak might me a modified form of the tribe of Gad or the name might be a derivative title from the people of the original tribe. Herodotus refers to them as the Guddai or the Satta Guddai.

Pathan a derivative of the Hebrew personal name Pithon is both the collective name of the ethnic Afghans (Pashtuns/Pakhtuns) and also an alias of their legendary ancestor Kish/Kysh (Qais Abdur Rashid).
In the lineage of Qais Abdur Rashid, Pithon is also the name of a descendant of Prophet Yaqoob (Jacob / Israel).

The occurrence of pure Hebrew names among the Pushtuns is common place, even though; such names being those of the ancient prophets of Israel, and common to both Jews and Muslims are nowhere to be found among other Muslims. Of these, the specifically Pushtun kept include, Israel, Zabul (from Zebulon or Zabulon), Afghan (Afghana), Amran etc.

Similarly, whereas other Muslims usually prefer names of the Prophet Muhammad and his companions, the usage of more Hebrew prophets is predominant among the Pushtuns. Hebrew names that are thus commonly used both by the Pushtuns and other Muslims include: Salman (Persian version of Shlomo or Solomon), Musa (Moses), Ibraheem (Avraham), Aazar, Yaqoob (Jacob), Yusef (Joseph), Shoaib (Jethro) etc.. One name, exclusively Pushtun is Natha; as in Natha paired with Khan, which may have its origins in the same root from which Nathan is derived.

There are also many Pushtun areas & locations, neighborhoods and villages, with names reminiscent of ancient Israel, the Torah and Hebrew origins. Infact, these are so common place and in all the regions of the Pushtuns (a great region spread over many countries and thousands of square miles) that their occurrence only in the Pushtun homeland and in all its entirety is more than pure coincidence.

The mountains the Pathan’s have been living in after the exile, are called by them, the Suleiman (Solomon) mountains.

The popular places that trace their origin in Hebrew include:

- Koh-e-Suleiman – Solomon Mountains
– Takht-e-Suleiman – Throne of Solomon (the highest peak in the Solomon mountains)
– Afghanistan – Afghana (the grandson of King Saul)
– Kohat – or Kohath, a city in NWFP, Pakistan, means assembly in Hebrew and it is also the name of the second son of Levi and the father of Amram or Amran.
– Zabul – A province in present day Afghanistan and in the days of Mahmood Ghaznavi the whole region of Afghanistan was known as Zabulistan – Zebulon was one of the sons of Prophet Jacob (AS).
– Khyber – a place near the Pakistan/Afghanistan border. In the time of Prophet Muhammad PBUH, Khyber was an ancient Jewish Citadel city near Yathrab (present day Medina).

- Peshawar – The Capital of NWFP province of Pakistan – PESH means the Pass and HAWAR means City i.e. The City after the Pass. Peshawar is a short drive from Khyber Pass. A Place named Habor or Havor is mentioned in Torah as the place of the exile of the tribes. The city of Havor is, they say, peh-Shauor (Pash- Havor’) which means  ‘Over Havor’.

According to the Bible (Kings 02:17:06, Kings 02:18:11, Chronicles 01:05:26)

The ten tribes were exiled to Halah and Havor and the river Gozan and to the cities of Maday.  According  to  the tradition  of  the  Jews  of  Afghanistan and old Afghan historical texts, the river Amu in entirety was called Gozan. Therefore Historian Saadia Gaon states:     River Gozan ” is the river north of the city of Balach in the north of Afghanistan. The river is known today as the “ Amu Darya ”, and is the border between Afghanistan and Russia. Afghanistan tradition states that the whole river was once known as the Gozen River.

“Habor” is located in the pass between Afghanistan and Pakistan , and is called Pesh-Habor in Afghani (Pesh means Pass) after the city of the pass. The city is known today as Peshawar.

“Hara” is the city of Harat near the Persian border. It is the third largest city in Afghanistan . The prophecy of Isaiah states that the exile will bring the tribes to the land of Sinim”: “Behold , these shall come from far, and , lo, these from the north and from the west, and these from the land of Sinim “ [( Isaiah 49:12).]

Eldad Hadani

In the year 1165, about 300 years after the travels of Eldad Hadani, Benjamin ben Jonah departs from Tudela on a journey in search of Jewish communities. In 1171 he returns to Spain and writes his memoirs, the famous “Journeys of Benjamin of Tudela.”

Regarding the tribes of Dan, Zevulun, Asher and Naftali he writes: “…And it is said that in the Nasbor cities there are four tribes of Israel, Dan, Zevulun, Asher and Naftali… and the distance of their land is twenty days, and they have provinces and cities. On the one side they are surrounded by the river Gozan, and the yoke of the non-Jews is not upon them, and among them are scholars, and they sow and reap and go to war in the Land of Cush through the deserts.”

The area describes by Rabbi Bejamin, as the home of the Ten Tribes, is a mountainous area, divided by steep valleys. The cities of Nisbor are found in northeastern Iran, close to the border with Afghanistan. Rabbi Saadia Gaon in the 9th century and Moshe ben Ezra in the 11th century mention Afghanistan – then known as Khorasan – as the home of the Ten Tribes.

The Different places described by Benjamin are:

Nisbor – Nishapour (Iran)

Gozan – Oxus or Jehoon (Afghanistan)

Land of Cush – Kish or Qais Abdur Rashid in Zhob, Balochistan (Pakistan).

The historical name of Amu River in Afghanistan, hence the Torah says: The God of Israel stirred up the spirit of Pul King of Assyria, and the spirit of Tilgath Pilnesser King of Assyria, and he carried them away, even the Ruebenites, and the Gadites, and half the tribe of Manasseh, and brought them to Halah, and Habor, and Hara and to the river of Gozan to this day. [Kings II, 17 and 18; Chronicles 1:5:26)]

A City in Jordan and another in NWFP (Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan), the ancient home of the Khattak tribe.

A province in Afghanistan and a localized form of a famous Jewish family name.

In Hebrew Cab means dirty and Bul means city hence a dirty city, whereas others suggest, it means Cain and Abel.

The pearl of Khurasan – a city in Afghanistan, Hara is one of the places of the exile along with Habor and Gozan.

Name of numerous personalities in Chronicles of Hebrew Bible – and a Dasht-e-Kash north of Helmand, a City of Kash mentioned in map of Afghanistan 1912 of the Library of Congress. There is also a Kash Rod in Nimroz Province of Afghanistan.

Kish is also the Biblical form of Qais Abdir Rashid (or Rasheed) the legendary Afghan leader during the time of the Holy Prophet Muhammad P.B.U.H.

Dasht-e-Yahoodi (Yahudi)

The Jewish Plain – a famous place in Mardan district of NWFP, Pakistan. Killa Yahoodi (Yahudi) or Jewish Fort – a place on Afghanistan Pakistan border.

Pashtun clue to lost tribes of Israel

Genetic study sets out to uncover if there is a 2,700-year-old link to Afghanistan and Pakistan

Israel is to fund a rare genetic study to determine whether there is a link between the lost tribes of Israel and the Pashtuns of Afghanistan and northern Pakistan.

Historical and anecdotal evidence strongly suggests a connection, but definitive scientific proof has never been found. Some leading Israeli anthropologists believe that, of all the many groups in the world who claim a connection to the 10 lost tribes, the Pashtuns, or Pathans, have the most compelling case. Paradoxically it is from the Pashtuns that the ultra-conservative Islamic Taliban movement in Afghanistan emerged. Pashtuns themselves sometimes talk of their Israelite connection, but show few signs of sympathy with, or any wish to migrate to, the modern Israeli state.

Now an Indian researcher has collected blood samples from members of the Afridi tribe of Pashtuns who today live in Malihabad, near Lucknow, in northern India. Shahnaz Ali, from the National Institute of Immuno haematology in Mumbai, is to spend several months studying her findings at Technion, the Israel Institute of Technology, in Haifa. A previous genetic study in the same area did not provide proof one way or the other.

The Assyrians conquered the kingdom of Israel some 2,730 years ago, scattering 10 of the 12 tribes into exile, supposedly beyond the mythical Sambation river. The two remaining tribes, Benjamin and Judah, became the modern-day Jewish people, according to Jewish history, and the search for the lost tribes has continued ever since. Some have claimed to have found traces of them in modern day China, Burma, Nigeria, Central Asia, Ethiopia and even in the West.

But it is believed that the tribes were dispersed in an area around modern-day northern Iraq and Afghanistan, which makes the Pashtun connection the strongest.

´´Of all the groups, there is more convincing evidence about the Pathans than anybody else, but the Pathans are the ones who would reject Israel most ferociously. That is the sweet irony,´´ said Shalva Weil, an anthropologist and senior researcher at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem.

The Pashtuns have a proud oral history that talks of descending from the Israelites.
Their tribal groupings have similar names, including Yusufzai, which means sons of Joseph; and Afridi, thought by some to come from Ephraim. Some customs and practices are said to be similar to Jewish traditions: lighting candles on the sabbath, refraining from eating certain foods, using a canopy during a wedding ceremony and some similarities in garments.

Weil cautioned, however, that this is not proof of any genetic connection. DNA might be able to determine which area of the world the Pashtuns originated from, but it is not at all certain that it could identify a specific genetic link to the Jewish people.

So far Shahnaz Ali has been cautious. ´´The theory has been a matter of curiosity since long ago, and now I hope a scientific analysis will provide us with some answers about the Israelite origin of Afridi Pathans. We still don´t know what the truth is, but efforts will certainly give us a direction,´´ she told the Times of India last year.

Some are more certain, among them Navras Aafreedi, an academic at Luck now University, himself a Pashtun from the Afridi tribe. His family trace their roots back to Pathans from the Khyber Agency of what is today north-west Pakistan, but he believes they stretch back further to the tribe of Ephraim.

´´Pathans, or Pashtuns, are the only people in the world whose probable descent from the lost tribes of Israel finds mention in a number of texts from the 10th century to the present day, written by Jewish, Christian and Muslim scholars alike, both religious as well as secularists,´´ Aafreedi said.

The implications of any find are uncertain. Other groups that claim ­Israelite descent, including those known as the Bnei Menashe in India and some in Ethiopia, have migrated to Israel. That is unlikely with the Pashtuns.

But Weil said the work was absorbing, well beyond questions of immigration. ´´I find a myth that has been so persistent for so long, for 2,000 years, really fascinating,´´ she said.

Lucknow Pathans have Jewish roots

´´Malihabad in Lucknow district is the only Pathan, or Pashtun, territory safely and easily accessible to those interested in the probable Israelite origins of Pathans. It is certainly not possible to collect DNA samples in Afghanistan or the Federally Administered Tribal Areas of the North-West Frontier Province of Pakistan, where most of the Pathans or Pashtuns live,´´ Aafreedi said.

India has only a sprinkling of Pathans, primarily at places like Malihabad near Lucknow and Qayamganj in Farrukhabad, predominantly of the Afridi tribe. But these were the only Pathans, said Aafreedi, who could be approached for academic purposes.

According to Aafreedi, the Afridi Pathans in India, even though they claim Israeli origin, are just as hostile and antagonistic towards Israel as Muslims anywhere else in the world.

Israelis and Taliban Separated at Birth

Israel´s foreign ministry is funding research into whether members of the ethnic tribe from which the Taliban draws its manpower have Jewish ancestors.

Pashtuns are the largest ethnic community in Afghanistan. It is widely believed they are an offshoot of the Pathans whose members are scattered across northern India and Pakistan. Both are today exclusively Muslim. Neither has any sympathy for modern Israel.

Scientists are now trying to determine whether the Pathans themselves are directly descended from the tribe of Ephraim which was exiled from the land of Israel by the invading Assyrians in 721 B.C. Pathan folklore and culture are filled with references to an Israelite past.

The last king of Afghanistan Zahir Shah who reigned in Kabul until 1973 reportedly claimed his family was descended from what he called the tribe of Benjamin.

The Taliban spare no effort in expressing their hatred for Israel. Any genetic link they may have with people of Jewish descent would be a dark irony.

Last year, a Persian blog item set off rumors suggesting that Iran´s president, Mahmoud Ahmadinejad is of Jewish descent. Several global news outlets picked up the story and examined the notion of a Jewish Ahmadinejad, rooted in the claim that his original family name of ´´Sabourjian´´ links him to weavers of the Jewish prayer shawl.

But Meir Javednafar, an Iranian Jewish scholar on the Middle East, dismissed the idea, telling ABC News that the political vetting process would make it nearly impossible for someone to reach the post of president of the Islamic Republic without solid Muslim credentials.

Until now the supposed link between Pathans and Jews has only been discussed on the fringes of the academic and anthropological worlds. But now Shahnaz Ali, an Indian researcher from the National Institute of Immunohaematology in Mumbai has received a grant from Israel to test the theory with DNA samples she collected from Pathans in India. She will conduct her research at the prestigious Technion Institute in Haifa.

Are Taliban descendants of Israelites?

In his 1957 The Exiled and the Redeemed, Itzhak Ben-Zvi, Israel´s second president, wrote that Hebrew migrations into Afghanistan began ´´with a sprinkling of exiles from Samaria who had been transplanted there by Shalmaneser, king of Assyria (719 BC).´´

Zahir Shah, the last king of Afghanistan, when asked about his ancestors, claimed that the royal family descended from the tribe of Benjamin.

On the academic level, British researcher Dr. Theodore Parfitt has been conducting research on genetic effects and chromosome Y among numerous tribes around the world. In India he is assisted by a young researcher from the University of Lucknow - Dr. Navras Afreedi - who claims that his ancestors were Afreedi, descendants of the tribe of Efraim, and that many of the Pathans and other tribes are descendants of the Ten Tribes. Afreedi did his post-doctoral work at Tel Aviv University, titled ´´Indian Jewry and the Self-professed Lost Tribes of Israel in India.´´


Afghana (born ~ 1000 BC), also known as Malak Afghana was according to Afghan (Pukhtun/Pashtun) tribal traditions a Bani Israel (Israelite) prince and is the legendary progenitor of the Pashtun people (Afghans).

The word Afghan is considered to be derived from his name.

House of King Saul [Hazrat Talut]

According to the Tanakh, Saul was the son of Kish (Bible), of the family of the Matrites, and a member of the tribe of Benjamin, one of the twelve [12 Tribes of Israel].

[ bibleverse |1|Samuel|9:1-2|, |1|Samuel|10:21|, |1|Samuel|14:51|, |Acts|13:21|]

He came from Gibeah.

Saul married Ahinoam, daughter of Ahimaaz. They had four sons and two daughters. The sons were Jonathan (Samuel), Abinadab, Malchishua and Ish-bosheth. Their daughters were named Merab and Michal.

[bibleverse|1|Samuel|14:51|] lists three sons – Jonathan, and Ishvi, and Malchi-shua – and the two daughters. But see also [bibleverse|2|Samuel|2:8| & |1|Chronicles|8:33|]

Saul also had a concubine named Rizpah, daughter of Aiah, who bore him two sons, Armoni and Mephibosheth. [bibleverse|2|Samuel|21:8|]

Saul was slain at the Battle of Mount Gilboa [bibleverse|1|Samuel|31:3-6|, |1|Chronicles|10:3-6|], and was buried in Zelah, Judea, in the region of Benjamin in modern-day Israel.[bibleverse|2|Samuel|21:14|] When Saul first became king, he followed Samuel’s bidding. Eventually, as Saul disobeyed God, God told Samuel to anoint a new king.

Afghan oral traditions, legends and Historian and scholars especially Muslim writers suggest that King Saul [Talut] had five sons not four. The fifth being Irmia (Jeremia).

Afghana always referred to as Malak (Hebrew for leader or king). Malak Afghana was the grandson of king Saul (Talut). Afghana was the son of Irmia (Jeremia), and Irmia (Jeremia) in turn was the son of Saul (Talut).

It is mentioned that Afghana was orphaned at a young age, and brought up by king David. When Solomon became king, Afghana was promoted as the commander-in-chief of the army.

Additionally, he is also credited with the building of the first temple [Beyt/Bayt al Muqaddis].

Malak Afghana, grandson of Malak (King) Saul (Talut) who was King Solomon’s Commander-in-Chief, and builder of his temple in BC 1005.

Rabbinic literature state that the First Temple stood for 410 years and, based on the 2nd-century work [Seder Olam Rabbah], place construction in 832 BCE and destruction in 422 BCE. [Missing years (Jewish calendar) 165 years later than secular estimates].

The son of Berkia was Afghan (or Afghana), and the son of Irmia was …Afghana made frequent excursions to the mountains, ….

According to Tadhkirat al-Muluk, Malik Afghan sought refuge and safe haven in the place known as Takht-i-Sulaiman and generations later, Qays ‘Abd al-Rashid a descendant of Malik Afghan embraced Islam.

Qais Abdur Rashid

Qais Abdur Rashid (575 – 661) also known as Kesh, Qesh and Imraul Qais is the legendary ancestor of the Afghan (Pashtun) race, the first Ethnic Pashtun who travelled to[Mecca and Medina in Saudi Arabia during the early days of Islam.

Qais Abdur Rashid’s pedigree ascended in a series of thirty-seven degrees to King Talut (Saul) through Afghana.


According to legend, Malak Afghana after his death was buried in Ghowr, Afghanistan.

In other folklore however, Qais Abdur Rashid in his old age, when he felt his time was near, asked his sons, to bury him in the Sulaiman Mountains (Zhob) at the spot where his ancestor Malak Afghana was buried.

Background and Exile from ancient Israel
According to the Bible (Kings 02:17:06, Kings 02:18:11, Chronicles 01:05:26), the ten tribes were exiled to Halah and Havor and the river Gozan and to the cities of Maday (Media). According to the tradition of the Jews of Afghanistan, the river Gozan is ‘rod jichan’ (river in Persian is rod), one of the tributaries of the Emo-daria, which descends in the vicinity of the town of Maimane (current day Afghanistan). The city of Havor is, as they say, peh-Shauor (Pash-Havor’) which means ‘Over Havor’, and today serves as the centre of the Pathans of Pakistan. This whole area populated the ancient Assyrian Exile.

There are researchers who claim that all the Jews living in southern Russia and Central Asian states, along the Emor-daria’ are the descendants of the ten tribes – the Bucharins, etc.

As we know, a group of ”B’nei Yisrael’ some of whom settled in Israel, is also found in India, Pakistan and Afghanistan.

The existence of the Pathan tribes is therefore in the heart of the area in which the ten tribes are found.

Around 722 BC, Israeli civil war and changing strategic interests forced Assyria to deport ten tribes to the east, towards Persia (Iran). A hundred years later, the Babylonians deported the remaining tribe of Yehudah and some Benjaminites to Babylon (Iraq). The Yehudah returned to Israel with the help of Cyrus the great of Persia, but the other ten tribes never retuned.

The search for the “T en tribes of Israel” is a very controversial issue because their descendants lost most of their Israelite traditions and do not possess the T almud (Oral T orah similar to the hadith of the Muslims). Perhaps the focal point which has dissuaded Israelites from searching openly for their brethren is the Israelite civil war after King Solomon’s reign, which pitted Yehudah (Judah) against all the other tribes and eventually brought their collective downfall. Hence the descendants of the “Lost Tribes” have lived and spread in the lands east of Israel which are now known as Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Kashmir, India, Burma and even western China.

Rabbinic literature on the subject

Of various accounts on the subject, only rabbinic literature provides direct and indirect references on the subject before the conversion of the Pashtun people to Islam.

The Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal describes referencing the Book of Tobit:

“The Jews at this time followed the advice of the prophet tobit escaped from Nineveh by stealth where could they have found a more secure retreat than towards the east in the direction of the mountain tracts now inhabited by the Afghans.”

According to the Tanach, after the destruction of the Northern Kingdom (circa 722 B.C.E.), several of the tribes that made up the Ten Lost Tribes, arrived in the region of the Gozan, the Hebrew pronunciation for the River Oxus and according to some for the Afghan city of Ghazni.

“…the Assyrian Exile were brought into Halah (modern day Balkh), and Habor (Pesh Habor or Peshawar), and Hara (Herat), and to the river Gozan (the Ammoo, also called Sehoon)…”.

[Tamerlane and the Jews, By Michael Shterenshis, Page xxiv.]

“ Hara (Bokhara) and to the river of Gozan that is to say, the Amu, called by Europeans the Oxus….”.

Rabbi Saadia Gaon (892—942), writer of the Bible’s Tafsir in Arabic considered the Assyrian Exile to be in modern day Afghanistan, Pakistan and parts of Iran.

Rabbi Benjamin of Tudela cites many large Jewish (Bani Israel) settlements in Media, Arachosia and Khurasan (Afghanistan).

Yahuda b. Bal’am, a noteworthy Rabbi and scholar of biblical knowledge put the “ten tribes” into Khorasan.

Tanchum Jerushalmi (thirteenth century) explains II Kings, 18, 11 by saying “these are the cities in the land of Khorasan.

Links between Afghanistan and the Holy Land

Moshe Gil writes in A history of Palestine: “People from distant Khurasan also reached Jerusalem.”

Adele Berlin writes in Biblical poetry through Medieval Jewish eyes: “Jacob as gaon of Sura, while Saadia conferred the exilarchate on David’s brother Hasan (Josiah; 930). Hasan was forced to flee, and died in exile in Khorasan ;”

Historical texts also indicate that Khurasan contributed heavily to tithes to the Holy Land.

The biblical places of the refuge and exile of the Ten Lost Tribes in Media and Arachosia are therefore the regions which lie between Herat, Peshawar and the Oxus River. Hara is Herat, Gozan is the river Oxus or Jehoon & Havor or Habor is Pesh-Havor or Peshawar.

These are exactly the ares which i modern day Afghanistan and Pakistan are the home and heartland of the Afghan (Pashtun/Pukhtun) people.

Hebrew and Israelite traditions and customs of the Afghans (Pashtuns/Pukhtuns)

The ethnic origin of the Afghans (also Pushtun; Pukhtun or Pathan) has always puzzled ordinary people, scholars and historians alike, but not the Pathans or Afghans themselves. They are different both externally and in their character traits and traditions from other groups around them, such as the Turks, the Mongols, the Chinese, or the Indo-Aryans. The word Pathan is a Pashto derivative of the original word Pithon, the great grandson of King Saul. [10. Chronicles I, 8:35, Book of Samuel, Hebrew Bible and Old Testament.]

It is also difficult to trace their past history in a region that has seen the passage of numerous nations and peoples throughout history and which has always been a focal point in history’s great conflicts. That is why; definitive clues to their true origins can be traced from the old customs and traditions or oral history that has been handed down from generation to generation. This is not surprising, since the transmission of such oral traditions and familial heritage has always stood the test of time in a region that has always been marred by war and constant change, where borders and kingdoms change every few years or so.

The Pashtuns or Pukhtuns have been living in the Afghanistan area for more than 2,000 years. Their language Pashtu/Pukhto borrows widely from the Arabized Persian of their neighbors (now Iran), yet it was a purely spoken dialect. There was no formal Pukhto/Pushto written script, the first Pushto book appearing about the 1500s. Hence the traditions, customs, tribal genealogy and law orally transferred from father to son. The first book on Pashtun genealogy, the Makhzan-al-Afghani was written in 1613, and contained for the first time a printed table of descent from Abraham to the Pashtun tribes.

From their ancient customs, one can point to a connection between the Pathans and the Jewish people. They make up about half of the population of Afghanistan, in the region called Pashtunistan, on the eastern border of Afghanistan. Over ninety per cent of the inhabitants are Sunni Muslims. Later modernization has penetrated into this State, and even less in the hilly areas near the border. In these places, the Pathans continue to live in the tribal framework as their fathers and forefathers did. The legal system operates according to the Pashtunwali,” the Pashtun Laws, parts of which are similar to the laws of the Torah.

The Pathans Are An Extremely Troublesome Race Because They Are Lost IsraelThey are evil. One reason why is because they are generation after generation following their parent's wicked traditions. Their only way for them to redeem is by following their Messiah's teachings. The Pathans are the Chosen People of Israel after all. They are the flesh & blood of Jacob, Isaac & Abraham.

The Pathans are perhaps the most criminal society on the face of the planet nowadays and have been for since long. The people are extremely proud and boastful about their negative "dangerous" qualities, extremely jealous, grasping and malintentioned, bellicose and vindictive and can nurse the pettiest of slights and grudges for years, ending in explosive results.

When the British ruled here for a century, there was a semblance of order and justice, but after 1947 the area quickly started reverting to its protean tribal lawlessness, and following the Afghan revolutionary upheavals of 1978 the reversion was complete, if not more intense than ever before. Government exists here only as a verneer on paper; even that is made up of the obsolete rules the British colonialists had drawn up.

Those "elders" in power and authority are bandits and things get done through favour and patronage and contacts. Nobody is ashamed of this. For a Pathan, its "normal living". Drugs and smuggling make up their economy, robbing the state treasury makes up their top officials' salaries and no taxes are paid.

Of course, when the top dogs indulge themselves thus, everybody else feels they have a right to do the same, here... There is no public or civic life, and one's safety and survival are dependent on the jungle law, survival of the fittest (or the cunning). Public works suffer for lack of money or planning. "Justice" is meted out by informal gatherings of toughs and "social influentials" known as "jirgas".

Jewish Shepherds rushing to see the Messiah. The Pathans look alike.Thus the place is rundown and ramshackle like an American frontier town's scenario from the 19th century Wild West, where rude, boorish macho tribesmen rule the day. It is the home base of the Taliban and Islamic extremist terrorism. Here the only women you can be relaxed with are your mother and sisters. Sex is only "permissible" in marriage, and for that you have to send a party of relatives over to a person's house to choose and "reserve" his daughter for you. If a man tries meeting a "stranger" female normally, he and the woman risk getting shot dead by her father/brother(s)/ cousin(s) for violating their family's "honour". (Women here are objects of honor for their tribe and family. They are there only to be given or sold to husbands at their males' liking. With due apologies to gays, Pathan men are normally bisexual, and society doesn't bat an eyelid about it).

The police treats such killings as "honor killing" between the two parties involved, and leaves it to a "jirgah" to mete "justice", usually settled by payment of blood money or yet another forced marriage, known as "swarrah". Of course in reality, Pathan women are among the most oversexed and "hottest", but all liaisions are strictly "underground".

I was born a Pathan - from Charsadda district - and because of various constraints am still living here. But in spirit, I'm a normal human being, not a Pathan. In short, this is a society beyond redemption. The Pathan spirit refuses to change in any aspect. And they try to prevent others who want changes from doing so to.

The Israelite Source of the Pathan Tribes

Who are the Pathans? They are also called Afghans or Pishtus after their language. They identify themselves with their former name ‘sons of Israel’, even though nowadays they live as Muslims. In Afghanistan they are said to number six to seven million, and in Pakistan seven to eight million. Two million of them live as beduins. Outwardly, the Pathans are similar to the Jews.

From their ancient customs, one can point to a connection between the Pathans and the Jewish people. They make up about half of the population of Afghanistan, in the region called Pushtunistan, on the eastern border of Afghanistan. Over ninety per cent of the inhabitants are Sunni Muslims. Later modernisation has penetrated into this State, and even less in the hilly areas near the border. In these places, the Pathans continue to live in the tribal framework as their fathers and forefathers did. The legal system operates according to the Pashtunwali," the Pashtun Laws, parts of which are similar to the laws of the Torah.

The Pathans are known for their physical strength. They are tall, light-coloured and handsome, good soldiers and for the most part bear arms from a young age. They are diligent and intelligent, faithful to an exemplary degree and are known in the world as outstanding hosts.

What is the Ethnic Origin of the Panthim?

The Panthim are not similar in their outward appearance or in their character to any of the ethnic groups which populate this environment: the Indian group-Iranians, Mongolians, Turks or Persians. Most of the researchers are of the opinion that the origin of the Pathans is indeed Israelite. The aliyah to Israel of Afghanistan Jews and the volume of evidence heard from them on this subject about the customs of the Pathans corroborate this idea.

Relationship to the Tribes of Israel

There is interesting evidence about the preservation among the tribes of family trees on their origin, and on their relationship to the fathers of the Israelite people.

 These family trees are well preserved. Some of them are penned in golden lettering on deerskin. The names of the tribes speak for themselves: the tribe of Harabni (in the Afghan tongue) is the tribe of Reuben, the shinwari is Shimeon, the Levani – Levi, Daftani – Naftali, Jaji – Gad, Ashuri – Asher, Yusuf Su, sons of Josef, Afridi – Ephraim, and so on.

The former monarchy in Afghanistan has a widely-spread tradition according to which their origin was from the tribe of Benjamin and the family of King Saul.

Saul had a son called Jeremia and he in turn had a son called Afghana. Jeremia died at about the same time as Saul and the son Afghana was raised by King David and remained in the royal palace during the reign of Solomon too. About 400 years later, in the days of Nebuchadnezer, the Afghana family fled to the Gur region (Jat in our times).

According to the Bible (the second Book of Kings, Chronicles 1 and 2), the ten tribes were exiled to Halah and Havor and the river Gozan and to the cities of Maday. According to the tradition of the Jews of Afghanistan, the river gozan is ‘rod jichan’ (river in Persian is rod), one of the tributaries of the Emo-daria, which descends in the vicinity of the town of Maimane. The city of Havor is, they say, peh-Shauor (Pash-Havor’) which means ‘Over Havor’ in Afghanistan, and today serves as the centre of the Pathans on the Pakistan that the whole area populated the ancient Assyrian Exile.

The British, who ruled Afghanistan for a long time, found it difficult to distinguish between the Pathans and the Jews, and called the Pathans ‘Juz’ - Jews. The Jews, too found it hard to distinguish between themselves and the Pathans when the latter are not wearing traditional dress. Afghanistan has about 21 peoples and languages and only the Pathans, apart from the Jews, look clearly Semitic; their countenance is lighter than that of other peoples and their nose is long. Some of them also have blue eyes. Since most of them grow beards and sidelocks like Jews, this also adds difficulty to an attempt to distinguish between them and the Jews.

Even though the Pathans accepted Islam voluntarily and forcibly, they maintain Jewish customs preserved from the recesses of their past.

Let us note the customs in headline form only: sidelock, circumcision within eight days, a Talith (prayer shawl) and four fringes (Tsitsit), a Jewish wedding (Hupah and ring), women’s customs (immersion in a river or spring), levirate marriage (Yibum), honouring the father, forbidden foods (horse and camel food), refraining from cooking meat and milk, a tradition of clean and unclean poultry, the Shabbat (preparation of 12 Hallah loaves, refraining from work), lighting a candle in honour of the Shabbat, the Day of Atonement (Yom Kippur) prayer (some of them pray turned in the direction of Jerusalem), blood on the threshold and on the two Mezzuzot (in times of plague or trouble), a scapegoat, curing the ill with the help of the Book of Psalms (placing the Book under the patient’s head), a Hebrew amulet (Kamia), Hebrew names (also. for neighbourhoods and villages), Holy Books (they especially honour ‘the Law of Sharif’ which is the Law of Moses), and rising when the name of Moshe is mentioned.

As for the Pathan law, they have laws similar to the Jewish law. The Magen David symbol is found in almost every Pathan house on an island in the Pehshauor district. The rich make it of expensive metals, the poor from simple wood. The Magen David can be seen on the towers of schools and on tools and ornaments.

In the ‘Dar el amman’ museum in Kabul, the capital of Afghanistan, there is a black stone found in Kandahar, on which is written in Hebrew.

When the Bolsheviks rose to power in Russia, they divided the large area of the southern part of central Russia into smaller districts such as Tanjekistan, Turkemanistan, Kazchastan, etc. In Tanjekistan, which is in northern Afghanistan, there was a village by the name of Dushme. When Stalin gained power, he called the village in his name, Stalinabad. It started to develop and grow and many Jews then began to stream into Tangekistan. They found that the Tanyakis light candles on Friday evening. When the Jews went to visit them, they revealed that they eat a dish made of meat stuffed with rice called Pacha, which is characteristic of the Bucharian Jews and is eaten on Friday night. When they asked them what it was, the Tajiks replied that this is an ancient traditional food of theirs and its name is Pacha. They also said that they have a tradition that they were once Jews.

Rabbi Saadia Gaon discussed at length with the Hacham Hivay Habalchi and in the opinion of the speaker, in that period (10th century) the Jews were inclined to assimilate into Islam and it was about this that they were arguing.

The scholar Ibn Sina, born in Buchara, also lived at the time. The teacher Tajiki said that he, too, belongs to the Jews who were forced to convert, assimilated into Islam and are called Tchale. As recounted, the meaning of his name is Even Sina – son of sinal (and up to this day in many languages, and also in Hebrew, the words are similarly pronounced – Sinai, Sin Sina) and perhaps this is why he called himself Ben Sinai, in other words, son of the Torah which came forth from Sinai.

The Maharaja of Mardan was a scholar who completed his studies at the University of London and would often visit the converts of Mishhad who lived in Pehshaurf. He also visited a Jew called Carmeli, who told Mr Hiya Zorov that the Maharaja always said the day would come when they would learn to distinguish the origins of all people and then they would know that all the peoples in the vicinity of Afghanistan were once Jews. The Maharaja published a book in English and wrote of this in the introduction to the book. But the book was lost. There was a time when the author Hiya Zorov, with late President Ben-Tsvi, who considered it of great importance, tried to find the book, but in vain.

Some of the Bucharian Jews have a tradition that they are among the people of the First Temple possibly from the Ten Tribes, but he doesn’t know about this and afterwards they were joined by Jews from the Second Temple Exile.

Malkals Pashtuns

The word Malkal might be derived from Malka, queen in Hebrew. The Balkar people of the Caucasus (considered to be Israelites as well) have a legend of Malkar from which their name likely derives & Malkar & Malkal are pretty much the same because the r & the l are close sounds. Since both Pashtuns & Malkars are considered to be Israelites it's possible that Malkals & Balkars where ones the same clan but became too as one part stayed & the other migrated. One of the leading clans of the Tikriwals, a division of the Cis-Indus Swatis, of the eastern spurs of the Black Mountain of Hazara, majority of them residing North of Agror.

Majority of Malkals are based in Town of Tikri (This name might have been an evolved form of Tikrit, city of current Iraq or former Mesopotamia, the are area of sojourn of the Israelite captives), Tehsil & District Batagram in Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Ethnically, Pakhtun tribe, Malkal, furthermore is divided into many other sub-casts such as Nikrozais (the largest and biggest),Sherkhanis Jalalis, Usmanees, Dawar Khanees, and many others.

Nikrozais are divided into one other castes such as Pirazores or Peerzais etc.


The Tanoli were counted among the martial races, an ideology based on the assumption that certain ethnic groups are inherently more militarily inclined than others. It was a term originally used by the British, who observed that the Scottish Highlanders were more fierce in battle than others in Britain, and extended this concept to India. They have many Pashtun customs and take much pride in their dress, language and appearance.

The Tanolis support themselves almost exclusively by agriculture, and their principal food is unleavened bread (Did this come from ancient Israel?) with buttermilk and butter; but fowls, eggs, fish, and game are also articles of diet.

Of those who live in the hills, many are as fair as Dutch, with eyes of light hazel or greyish blue, and frequently brown hair and reddish beards. Those who live on the low-lying lands near the Indus are darker. All are stout and active men, and have the reputation of being good soldiers.

They are hardy and simple in their habits, generally free from the vices of thieving and debauchery; but credulous, obstinate, and unforgiving.

Religiously, they are overwhelmingly Muslims of the Sunni sect.

Niazi Pashtuns

The Niazi (PashtoنيازيNiāzīIPA: [niːˈɑːziː]), or Niyazi, is a branch of Lohani Pashtun tribe originating in Pakistan and eastern Afghanistan.

Niazi (Pashto: نیازی) is a major Pashtun tribe, a branch of the Povindah Pashtuns of Afghanistan and Pakistan. The word Niazi is derived from Niazai, like the other forms of Pashtun tribes, such as Yusafzai and Orakzai. In the Pashtun tribal hierarchy Niazi is one of the most respected tribe.

The Niazis originally lived in the Salghar area of modern day Afghanistan. The Niazis migrated eastwards, and settled in Tank. For several generations, they lived there as traders and carriers along with their cousins, the Marwats, whom they had allied with. In the later 15th century, the Niazis expanded northwards towards the present-day Lakki Marwat, and settled on the banks of the Kurram and Gambila rivers south of Bannu Eventually, the Niazis migrated across the Kurram river towards Isakhel and Kamar Mushani, and then settled in Mianwali District. after expelling the Awans they found there, and reducing the miscellaneous Jat inhabitants to quasi-serfdom.

Niazis were incredibly dominant in the northern parts of the country even before the Emperor Akbar presented it in jagir to two of their local chiefs. During the civil commotions of Jahangir's reign, the Niazis drove away the Ghakars across the Salt Range, and though in the following reign the latter recovered their position, still their hold on the country was unstable, and came to an end about the middle of the 18th century. The remains of Muazam Nagar, their local capital, were visible on the left high bank of the Indus about six miles south of new Mianwali until 1857 AD, when the site was eroded by the river. The Niazis thus established themselves in Essa Khel about 500 years ago, but their Sarang branch did not finally obtain their possessions in Mianwali until nearly 150 years later. The acquisition of their cis-Indus possessions was necessarily gradual, the country having a settled though weak government, and being inhabited by Awans and Jats.

Isa Khan Niazi (Pashtoعیسی خان نيازي) was a Pashtun noble in the court of Sher Shah Suri and his son Islam Shah Suri, of the Sur dynasty, who fought the Mughal EmpireIsa Khan Niazi was a prominent member among the Ruling family. Being in the same tribal unit of nobels like Ibrahim LodhiSher Shah Suri .Similarly Haibat Khan Niazi was The Governor of The Punjab Province during Suri's Reign.The large part these families was attached with Delhi Derbar.

However, a large number of the Niazi tribe still lives in parts of Afghanistan, mainly in Qalaye Niazi, Gardez, Logar and Paktia province. A considerable number have also settled in Karachi and other major Pakistani cities such as Multan, Lahore, Islamabad and Quetta.

The Niazis in Pakistan mainly live in Mianwali (Mianwali although included in Punjab lies at the confluence of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Punjab), Multan, Dera Ismail Khan, Bannu, Lakki Marwat, Chakwal District, Swabi, Mardan, Bajaur Agency, Peshawar, Hangu, Quetta, Tank, Pishin, Loralai, Khanewal, Faisalabad, Kohat and Bhakkar. Across the Durand Line, a large number of the Niazis still lives in parts of Afghanistan, mainly in Qalaye Niazi, Khost, Laghman, Kandahar, Ghazni, Gardez, Logar and Paktia provinces. A considerable number have also settled in Karachi and other major Pakistani cities such as Lahore, Islamabad, Rawalpindi and Peshawar.

Many Niazis are also found in the United Kingdom where some descendants live.

The Niazis living in Afghanistan speak Pashto, as do those inhabiting the districts of Hangu, Kohat, Swabi, Mardan, Peshawar, Bajaur Agency, Lakki Marwat and Bannu. However, most of the Niazis of Mianwali have adopted Saraiki, while in other parts of Punjab, most Niazis have adopted Hindko and although most of them still speak Pashto.

Some Niazis are the Pathans of Punjab (Punjabi/Saraikiپنجابی پٹھانPashtoد پنجاب پښتانه; also called Punjabi Pathans or Saraiki Pathans depending upon region of Punjab) are originally Pashtun people (Pathans) who have settled in the Punjab region of Pakistan and India. These Pashtun communities are scattered throughout the Punjab and have over time assimilated into the Punjabi identity, both culturally and linguistically. On the other hand, those who settled in the southern parts of Punjab have gradually assimilated into Saraiki culture.

These non-frontier Pathans are usually known by the town or locality in which they are settled, e.g., Kasuri Pathans or Multani Pathans. They should not be confused with the Hindkowan people, mostly comprising several Indo-Aryan groups from the same region who are a distinct yet closely related group to the Pathans, albeit there are some Hindko language speaking clans who also have ethnic Pathan roots.

Pashtun tribes

The Pashtun people are the largest ethnic group in Afghanistan and the second largest in Pakistan. Pashtun (also called ethnic Afghan or Pathan) tribes are divided into four supertribal confederacies: the Arbanee (Sarabani), Betanee (Baitani), Gharghasht, and Karlanee (Krai, Kerlani).

Traditionally, according to folklore, all Pashtuns are said to have descended, at the time of the introduction of Islam, from the tribe of Qais Abdur Rashid, who died in 662 CE, and his three sons: Saraban, Batan and Ghurghusht. Karrān or Karlān was said to be the ancestor of the fourth branch. Estimates of the number of Pashtun tribes and clans range from about 350 to over 400.

Khattak, Afridi, Alizai, Atmaanzai (Utmanzai), Badrakhi, Babar, Bannusi, Barais (Barech), Bangash, Daudzai, Jalwaanai, Gagyanai, Gandapur, Gharshin, Harifal, Hassan Zai, Balailzai (Panni), Kasi Tribe, Khalil, Kheshgai (Khaishagi), Lawoon, Lodi, Maako, Mallagori (Mullagori), Mandanr, Mohammadzai (Zirak), Musakhel (Bail khel - Laharzai), Mohmand (Momand), Nasar, Noorzai, Niazi (Ghilzai), Oriakhill, Ormur, Popalzai, Raanizai, Sadozai, Saakzai, Salarzai, Swati, Shirani, Shilmani,Shinwari, Tareen (Tarin), Tanoli (Tanokhel), Tarkanri, Yousufzai, Gamaryani, Zadran, Zeranai...

Afridi Pathans

I next spoke at the third-oldest Jewish congregation in America, Mickve Israel in Savannah, Georgia, on the “Theory of the Israelite Origin of Afridi Pashtuns/Pathans.” Numerically, Afridi is one of the biggest, and politically one of the most influential, of the 60 Pashtun/Pathan tribes found in eastern Afghanistan and northwestern Pakistan. The Afridi population was estimated to be around 275,000 in 1962, and according some estimates, their present population is 315,000. This is part of the total Pathan/Pashtun population of 20 million, as estimated in 1986, of which about 1 million live in Pakistan, and the remainder in Afghanistan. A sprinkling of Afridi Pashtuns/Pathans is also found in India, in Malihabad and Qayamgan, cities being marketed as international Jewish tourist destinations by Shai Bar Ilan Geographical Tours and Eretz Ahavati Nature Tours of Israel (the first tour to these exotic locations is scheduled for November 2008).

Afridis settled in India mostly between the years 1748 and 1761. Their tradition of Israelite origin finds mention in a number of texts dating from the 10th century till the present day, written by Jewish, Christian, and Muslim scholars alike. Even modern scholars like the Israeli Shalva Weil consider them the “best candidates” for the status of the descendants of the lost tribes of Israel. Jewish immigrants from Afghanistan testify to the prevalence of many Jewish rituals and customs among them, viz., the lighting of candles on Shabbat, keeping of long sidelocks, wearing of shawls resembling the tallith, circumcision on the eighth day after birth, and Levirate marriage.

Lodi Pashtuns

Lodi (Pashto: لودي) is a group of tribe mainly found in Afghanistan and parts of Pakistan. The Lodi's were the first Pashtun tribe to rule India.

They were part of a wave of Pashtuns who pushed east into what is today eastern Pakistan. Often accompanying the Timurids who invaded Northern India. Legend has it that the tribe derives from a descendent of Qais Abdur Rashid (the legendary patriarch of all Pashtuns). The term Lodi is said to have evolved from the Pashto word loy da (meaning honored person).

Members of this tribe established the Lodi dynasty, which ruled over the Delhi Sultanate and included the prominent ruler Ibrahim Lodi.

The Lodi's who migrated to Pakistan after partition speak Urdu and Pashto. Lodi Pashtuns (Pathan) are predominantly an Eastern Iranian people, who use Pashto as their first language, and live in Afghanistan and Northern Pakistan.

Pashtun nationalism emerged following the rise of Pashto poetry that linked language and ethnic identity. Pashto has national status in Afghanistan and regional status in neighbouring Pakistan. In addition to their native tongue, many Pashtuns are fluent in Dari, Persian, Urdu and English. Throughout their history, poets, prophets, kings and warriors have been among the most revered members of Pashtun society. Early written records of Pashto began to appear around the 16th century.

Today, Lodi are mainly found in Afghanistan and some parts of Pakistan (mainly Northern Pakistan).

There's a city called Lodi in Lombardy, northern Italy, founded by the Gallian (Celts). The Two-Housers, also called British Israelites, believe that the Celts, Germans (Lombards, Longobards, Angles, Saxons, Franks... were Lost Israelites, so their offspring [Dutchmen, British, Irish, Americans, Frenchmen, Kiwis...] would be Lost Israelites too). Many of them, but not all, don't believe the Pashtuns are Israelites. Perhaps that's why, they are waging war agains the Afghan Pashtuns. This war is an Israelite civil war (between western Israelites & eastern Israelites) for other Two Housers that recognize the Israelite origin of Pashtuns. After this explanation would be easy to understand why a city founded by Israelites, the Celts, would have the name of a fellow Israelite clan of Pashtuns. There was a Pashtun monarchy with the name Lodi that rulled a large chunck of the Indian subcontinent too. There's always a question that comes to mind about Pashtuns: "why Pashtuns say they are not Jews?". Because the Jews came from the kingdom of the south or kingdom of Judah, from which the word "Jew" derives. The Israelites came from the kingdom of the north or kingdom of Israel. Therefore the Pashtuns, as well as the western Israelites (French, British, Swedish, Norwegians...) are not Jews, but Israelites. Of course many Jews, Israelites unaware of their real identity & gentiles don't know that the Jews are only one of the twelve Israelite tribes or at most the population of one of the two Israelite biblical kingdoms. Even many Jews "dissappeared" with their Israelite fellows. These are the ones that never came back to the Promised Land to rebuild their temple. There was once a United Kingdom of Israel, but a dispute caused its division into two. Later on the Children of Isrel would be called People of the Covenant (or British in Hebrew), Galut (Diaspora in Hebrew. The word GaLuT would give name to the CeLTs: GaeL, GaLlian, CaLeDonian...), Children of iSaaC (From which we got the words: SaCae, SaKasuni, SaXons... All of them being altered versions of the name Isaac. The SaCae were ancestors of the Pashtuns.)... Of course this is not an exhaustive list of Israelite names, but simply a summary to check the Israelite bonds between western Europeans & Afghans & Pakistanis. It's obvious that nowadays you will find other etymologies, other histories, other sciencies (as the fable of evolution & others found in the scriptures: 2 Timothy 4:4, 1 Timothy 4:7...) to discredit God's power & His blessings to His people. These people wanna discredit or alter the Bible in order to dominate humankind, but He is faithful so His words & promises will be accomplished.

Mangal Pashtuns 

The Mangal (Pashto: منګل‎) are a Pashtun tribe, residing in Southeastern Paktia and adjacent Khost provinces of Afghanistan. The Mangals descent from Karlanri Pashtun lineage, which is much smaller compared to other Pashtun clans like Durrani and Ghilzai.

Mangals are original Pashtuns of Afghanistan, known for brave and independent nature, they have resisted the taliban and other infiltrators. Majority of Mangals are spread across Afghanistan who among other Afghans are attached to professions such as politicians, military commanders, teachers and scholars specializing in Pashto literature. The Mangal leaders are most recognized for settling tribal disputes and have founded unwritten code known as (nerkh) which the Pashtun tribes still use as a tool to resolve conflict among each other. A small number of Mangals residing in the present day Bannu District around 1500 AD along with Honi tribe. Most of these Mangals live as Hamsaya in Bannu and in Kurma Pakistan which borders the Mangal province of Paktia in Afghanistan.

The Mangal tribal militia was one of the various militias assisted Mohammad Nader Khan to topple the Tajik King, Habibullah Kalakani. Consequently Nadir Khan owed much to the tribes of Paktia, these tribal leaders were granted vast war booty and power by the new administration. In fact, the entire greater Loya Paktia region was exempt from mandatory military service, which the rest of the nation (regardless of ethnicity, region, or family) endured.

The Mangal tribal militia was deployed in Northern Afghanistan shortly before Nadir Khan's assassination to oust an Uzbek Muslim resistance fighter, Ibrahimbeg Laqqai, who was using ethnic kin support in Northern Afghanistan against Soviets in his homeland across the Oxus river. Laqqai had been successfully battling Soviet troops, who had taken over his homeland of modern day Uzbekistan, in what is now known as the Basmachi Movement. During Kalakani's short rule as king, Laqqai was given support in the Northern Tajik and Uzbek communities and thus he recruited locals to fight across the river against the Soviets. Mohammad Nader Khan worried by this, summoned the Mangal tribe, amongst others, armed them with Soviet-supplied weaponry and motivated them by promises of war booty, to being dispatched to the north. Within a few months, with Soviet support and systematic terror against Tajik and Uzbek locals, the Basmachi Movement were brutally crushed in Afghanistan and eventually in Central Asia and driven him back across the Amu river, where Ibrahimbeg Laqqai was subsequently captured and hanged by the Soviets.

The Mangals also played a notable role in the late 20th century history of Afghanistan. The son and grandson's of the Mangals who toppled Habibullah Kalakani were recruited in the Afghan Army and educated in Soviet Military Academies. Consequently, they came back as idealogical Communists who eventually joined military corp of the KHALQ faction and overthrew the Monarchy.

Mangal tribe is also found in Pakistan's Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa province mainly in area of Thall Vally and also in District Hangu and Orakzai Agency of FATA. A small group of Mangal's are living in the valley of kurram agency's areas such as Teri, Kutri, Gonazana, Gidu, Sarsarang, Piwar tangi and Shalawzan Tangi.

It’s interesting that one of the members/ancestors of the Mangals is called KUKI, the very name of part of the Shinlung, an ethnic group in border between Myanmar, India & Bangladesh. This is a clear link between Pashtuns & Bnei Menashes, bot having Israelite claims.

Sakzai Pathans

Sakzai (Pashto: سکزی‎), also called Sakazai, Sagzai, Sagzi and Sijzi (Arabic: سجزي‎), are a historical Pashtun tribe of Afghanistan located within the locales of Nimroz, Ghor, Helmand and Farah. The Sakzai are 24 subtribes and 95 or 96 clans with an approximate population of over 4.9 million people. Their name suggests a connection with the historic East Iranian Saka tribes of Central Asia.

Popalzai Pathans

Popalzai or Popalzay (Pashto: پوپلزی ‎ - also known as Popal) are Durrani (formerly called Abdali or Bor Tareen) Pashtuns.

According to Hyat Khan's history of Afghanistan, from their progenitor Bor Tareen, otherwise known as Abdal, are descended two main divisions: the Zirak and the Panjpai. The term Abdal, however, gradually superseded Bor Tareen and came into special prominence when Ahmad Shah Abdali, commonly known as Durrani, began his career of conquest. The Achakzais are strictly a branch of the Barakzai (meaning litterally, Barak son. Barak was a biblical personage) but Ahmad Shah Durrani, himself an Abdal Tareen, fearing the growing numbers of the Barakzai, separated them from the parent stock, since which time they have remained distinct.

There are thousands of Popalzai living in Pakistan as well, mainly in the city of Peshawar.

According to scholars and popular sources, the Popalzai clan consists of approximately 7.5 million individuals and still growing, living on almost every continent in the world. Ethnographers have classified Abdalis as peripatetic tribes. Abdal is a well known peripatetic tribe in Turkey.

Sarbans Pathans

Sarbans or Sarbani are the largest tribal group of Pashtuns. They are situated in Afghanistan and Pakistan. The Sarbans include many Pashtun tribes, among whom the most numerous are the Durrani, Shinwari, Yusufzai, Mohmand, Kasi, Khalil, Tareen, Miani and Ormur tribes. The Pashtun nation class themselves as the descendants of Saraban through his two sons, Sharjyun and Khrishyun. From Sharjyun there sprung five clans, the principal of which is called Sheordni. From Khrishyun there sprung three clans, namely, Kand, Zcamand, and Kansi.

According to the research of Henry Walter Bellew and Ibbetson Denzil, the Pashtun genealogist took the term Saraban for their ancestors from Suryabans which was the distinctive race title of the Rajput people among whom the Pashtuns had become absorbed, and it was also a title held in high respect among the people of the country at that time. Further, as it included a large and important population, it was a convenient term to adopt as an ancestral title.

The name Sarban is evidently a corrupted, or perhaps a natural variant form of Suryabans the solar or royal race now represented in India by the Rajput. Similarly the names of the Saraban's sons Khrishyiin and Sharjyun, and of his grandson Sheorani, are clearly changed forms of the common Rajput and Brahman proper names Krishan, Surjan, and Shivaram or Sheoram.

The name itself is similar (or identical) with the name of an historical tribe on Caucasus that was also named Sarbani (the Caucasian tribe was recorded under this name in the 10th century). According to some opinions, these Caucasian Sarbani are identified with Serbs. Pashtuns are believed to be of Scythian descent and their language is classified as East Scythian (Sarmatian language is also grouped within Scythian branch).

The origin of the Sarbans, might be connected with Hephthalites, who had a large nomadic confederation that included present-day Afghanistan and Pakistan in the 5th-6th centuries AD, as well as with Scythians, who are known to have settled where most of Pashtuns live today.

The Durrani Empire that existed in the 18th-19th centuries and that was centered in the territory of present-day Afghanistan was founded by the Ahmad Shah Durrani, an Afghan military commander under Nader Shah of Persia and chief of the Abdali Sarban tribe. Since that time, the Abdali tribe is known as Durrani.

It's possible for the name Serbia (Is this why Serbia gets along with Israel without even knowing?) to have originated from the name Sarban and for the Serbians to have originated from the Sarban tribes before coming to ancient White Serbia in Poland or the Caucasus region. Alternatively, both the Sarbans and the Serbs could have originated from the same Eastern Iranian Sarmatian tribe of Serboi, who could have split into two groups taking opposite paths, where one group went east and the other west.

Similarly, a theory also traces the origin of the Croats, another South Slavic ethnic group, to ancient Arachosia, a region in present-day Afghanistan where various Sarban tribes are settled. Since Croatia became an independent state in 1991, the Iranian theory gained more popularity, and many scientific papers and books have been published. Some researches state there are linguistic, cultural, agrobiological and genetic ties between the Eastern Iranian inhabitants of Arachosia and the South Slavic Serbians and Croats.

In Afghanistan, Sarbans mainly inhabit the western part of the country, notably the provinces of Kandahar, Zabul, Uruzgan, Helmand, Nimroz, Farah, Herat, Badghis, Balkh, and Kunduz, as well as provinces Nangarhar and Kunar in the eastern part.

In Pakistan, Sarbans are situated in the northern parts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Federally Administered Tribal Areas regions, as well as in the northern part of Balochistan.

Some Balochi-speaking tribes of Iran trace their origin to the Sarbans, including the Sadozai and the Barakzai of Sistan and Baluchestan Province.

Sarbani tribes

There are 105 Sarbani tribes, including: Babar, Durrani, Kasi, Khalil, Miani, Mohmand, Ormur, Sherani, Shilmani, Shinwari, Tareen, Yusufzai.

Oriakhill Pashtun

Oriakhill or Oryakhel or Oriakheil (Pashto: اوریا خېل‎) is a large Pashtun tribe located mainly in northern Kabul in Qarabagh and Paghman, as well as Laghman province, Zurmat in Paktia province, and Baghlan province of Afghanistan. There is also an entire place named Oriakhail. This tribe has the bloodlines of a very respected knight who was knighted by the King many years ago. In today's society Oriakhail's are all around the world many of them also have the last name "Orya" for short.

Nurzai Pashtuns

The name Nurzai (They're probably related to the Nuristanis), liguistically, is a combination of Arabic and Pashto meaning son of the light. The word "nūr" derives from the Arabic word for the light. While the word "zai" derives from the Pashto word for son or son of. Zai affixed to the end of Pashtun tribal names is the Pashto equivalent of the popular Persian "zada" often affixed to the end of names belonging to indigenous Persian peoples.

The Nurzai that is actually spelled as "Noorzai" is the largest ethnic group in Afghanistan. A clan of Durani Pashtuns and they are almost majority in provinces of Kandahar, Urozgan, Helmand, Nimroz, Herat, Badghis, Farah,and also they are living as a minority in provinces of Faryab, Ghor, jozjan, kunduz, Baghlan, Khost and Kabul city. The toal population of Noorzai tribe is almost 6 million persons, Noorzais make 1/5 of the entire Afghanistan's population. Noorzais are historically known to be tough warriors and the guardians of Afghanistan's southern and Western borders. Among all pashtuns Noorzais are recognized as very generous and hospitable people.

Have them any relation with Skandinavians? The aDiNzai (Odinson?) with Dan & the Samizai with the Samis? Sam, Samuel & Shmuel are Hebrew names from which the Samis / Lapons & Samizais may come. The language doesn't have anything to do with the ethnic group.

Paktia Province

Paktia (Pashto: پکتيا‎ - Paktyā), is one of the thirty-four Provinces of Afghanistan, in the east of the country. Its capital is Gardēz. The population is predominantly Pashtun.
Districts of Paktia.

Paktia is basically Pashtia (پښتیا). Some Pashtun scholars are claiming that the word Pashtu has been stemmed from Pashtia (پښتو = پښتیا). Paktia used to be a unified province with Khost and Paktika, these three provinces are now referred to as Loya Paktia, meaning "Greater Paktia". Paktia came to prominence during the 1980s, when a significant portion of Afghanistan's leadership originated from the province. Some of the more notable leaders include: Najibullah Ahmadzai, a former President of AfghanistanMohammad Aslam WatanjarShahnawaz Tanai, and Sayed Muhammad Gulabzoi.More recently, Paktia was the site of heavy fighting between Taliban and NATO forces following the 2001 invasion of Afghanistan. Paktia was one of the last redoubts of organized Taliban resistance; much of Operation Anaconda took place in Zurmat, one of Paktia's larger districts.

Paktia borders the Pakistani-ruled tribal areas of North WaziristanBannu and Kurram Agency. Like most of the traditional Pashtun areas of Afghanistan, the Durand Line that marks the border with Pakistan is "drawn on water", and residents move freely between the two countries. Within Afghanistan, it borders Logar ProvinceGhazni ProvincePaktika Province, and Khost Province, in counterclockwise order.

Paktia is a largely mountainous province, with most of the population living in the central valley stretching from Ahmad Khel in the east down through Zormat and into neighboring Paktika province. The eastern part of the province, particularly Chamkani and Dand wa Patan, is a second valley leading into Pakistan. Jaji and Jani Khel districts are largely mountainous with much smaller inhabited valleys.

Dand Aw Patan is one of Pactia’s districts as seen above. Does its name come from the name of Dan? Shwak is another, but does it have any relation with Isaac? How about Zazi having a relation with the Zazas? The Zazas are usually considered Kurds & the Kurds are considered to be Israelites in origin. Many Kurds have Pathan ancestry. Even DNA confirms the relation between Kurds & Jews.

Important geographical features

  • Shah-i-Kot Valley (Any relation with the Levitic Kohats?)
  • Tera Pass, the mountain pass linking Paktia with Logar Province to the north (Tera was Abraham’s father)
  • Khowst-Gardez Pass, the mountain pass linking Paktia with Khowst Province to the south
  • Gardez, the geographic and cultural center of the province
  • Pakthas

Paktika Province

Paktika is the southernmost part of a historical region known as Greater Paktia (Pashto: لویه پکتیا, Loya Paktia), that was once a unified province including PaktiaKhost and parts of Ghazni and Logar. The tribes that reside in this area were mentioned by the Greek historian Herodotus, who called them the "Pactyans" as early as the 1st millennium BCE.

In the 1970s, the provincial capital of the largely undeveloped and remote province of Paktika was moved from the town of Urgun to Sharana due to its proximity with the main highway, connecting it to the larger cities and commercial centres of Kabul, Ghazni and Kandahar.

Paktika was the site of many battles during the Soviet occupation of the country and the lawless years that followed.

The Siege of Urgun took place between 1983 and 1984.

The population of Paktika province is 413,800, which is a multi-ethnic tribal society. According to the Naval Postgraduate School, the ethnic groups of the province are as follows: PashtunTajikArabPashai, and other various minority groups. Other sources mention that ethnic Pashtuns make up around 96% of Paktika's population. Around 15,000 people (1.8%) are ethnic Uzbeks; and about 5,000 people speak some other languages. These are most probably Hazaras or Baloch. There is also a small Tajik community in Urgun.

The overwhelming majority of Paktika's population (around 99%) live in rural districts. The capital city, Sharana, has around 54,400 inhabitants. The majority of Pakikta's Districts have between 25,000 and 55,000 inhabitants. Only two districts, Nika and Turwo have less than 20,000 inhabitants, with a little more than 15,000 apiece. Two of the least mountainous districts, Urgun and neighboring Barmal have nearly 90,000 inhabitants each. There are around 115,000 households, with eight members apiece, in the Province.

Most of the Population is Sunni Muslim, and belongs to the Hanafi School.

The Sulaimankhel are one of the largest sub-tribes of the Ghilzai Pashtuns. The Sulaimankhel tribe is mainly located in the southern and eastern portions of Afghanistan; however, they also have a strong presence in the northern and western portions of Afghanistan. The second largest Sulaimankhel population is located in Pakistan. Not only are they located in the province of Baluchistan and the North-West Frontier Province, but also located in Karachi and other parts of Pakistan.

The Kharoti and Suleimankhel tribes are traditional rivals, although they co-exist together in several districts. The larger, influential and more powerful Suleimankhel have historically had the upper hand in this rivalry.

The Wazir, Kharoti, Bangash and Tajiks are involved in a land dispute. There is often ethnic tension, especially in multi-ethnic districts like Barmal, where both the Kharotis, Bangash and the Wazir tribes live. This rivalry is one of the most violent amongst all Pashtuns.

                                                                    Districts of Paktika.

The name of the district of Sharana may have derived from Sharon, a toponym from the Holy Land while the names of the districts of Yahyakhel Yusufkhel mean John’s family & Joseph’s family.

Nattu Zai Pashtuns

Nattu Zais are part of the Gandapur tribe. Most of them live in Kulachi city but are scattered in the city and there is no Mohallah (Sector) after their name.

An interesting anecdote about their origin quite popular in the Kulachi city is that they are not part of the original tribe of Gandapur and are rather the descendant of a Hindu Nathu Ram (Nattu being the local Pashto variant of Nathu). Nathu (or Nattu) Ram later embraced Islam and was so close with the Gandapur tribe that the elders of Gandapur tribe allocated him and his family share in the lands of Kulachi. The veracity of this claim cannot be verified and further research is required in this regard.

They are now part and parcel of the Gandapur tribe.

Medieval Persian References to the Putative Israelite Origin of Afridi Pashtuns/Pathans

A number of medieval Persian texts written by Muslim scholars refer to the Israelite origin of Afridi Pashtuns/Pathans, who mainly inhabit the hill country from the eastern spurs of the Safed Koh to the borders of the Peshawar district in Pakistan. They occupy about one thousand square miles of the hill country south and west of Peshawar, believed to be the area where Osama bin Laden has found asylum.

A sprinkling of them are also spread out in certain parts of India like Malihabad (District Lucknow) and Qayamganj (District Farukhabad) in Uttar Pradesh, where they settled in the mid-eighteenth century. Afridi, whose population was estimated to be 275,000 in 1962, is one of the most prominent tribes of the warlike Pashtuns/Pathans/Afghans, whose total population was estimated to be 20 million in 1986. Sadly Pashtuns/Pathans/Afghans are the same people who largely fill the ranks of the Taliban today.

The ethnic and etymological origin of the name Afridi is obscure. But there are those who connect it with the Persian afridan, which means ‘newly arrived’, indicating that they were immigrants in the land from where they originally got this name. Some find its origin in the name of Afrata, a great intellectual and wife of Hisron (eighth in descent from the Biblical character David). The derivation of the name Afridi in the Hayat-i-Afghani of Muhammad Hayat Khan from afrida (a creature of God) is evidently a modern fabrication.

According to the legend, in ancient times a Governor of the province of Peshawar summoned certain members of the Afridi tribe to his court. With native pride, one such Afridi, took his seat at the entrance to the royal court, and as the Governor paused to ask him who he was, he exclaimed Zah sok yam? (Who am I?); and replied with solid indifference, Zah hum Afrida yam… (I am also a creature of God). Afrida means a created being in Persian (Farsi). From then on, the tribe were known by the name Afridi.

One of the oldest manuscripts in the world is Abu Suleman Daud bin Abul Fazal Muhammad Albenaketi’s Rauzat uo Albab fi Tawarikh-ul-Akabir wal Ansab (The Garden of the Learned in the History of Great Men and Genealogies) written in AH 717, in which the author traces the ancestry of the Afghans to the Israelites.

A number of Pathan/Pashtun/Afghan historians subscribe to the theory of the Israelite origin of the Pathans/Pathans/Afghans. The first among them to trace the genealogy of the Pathans/Pashtuns/Afghans to Israel (an alternative name of the Biblical character Jacob) in a methodical manner was Khwaja Neamatullah.

Neamatullah sent five historians, viz., Qutb Khan, Sarmast Khan Abdali, Hamza Khan, Umar Khan Kakarr and Zarif Khan, to the Afghan/Pashtun/Pathan territories in AH 1030/1621 CE to investigate the descent of Afghans. This eventually led to the compilation of Mirat-al-Afghani, according to which Afghans/Pashtuns/Pathans are Israelites.

According to Mirat-al-Afghani, after their expulsion from their native land of Israel by Bakhtnasr (Nebuchadnezzar), they took refuge in Kohistan-e-Ghor and Koh-e-Firozah, and were later converted to Islam by Khalid-ibn-al-Waleed, who was of the same racial stock as the Afghans. He is said to have invited his fellow Afghans/Pashtuns/Pathans to Arabia to embrace Islam. Led by Qais/Kais, the Afghans reached Arabia and after prolonged deliberations ultimately accepted Islam. Kais/Qais married Khalid’s daughter Sara, and fathered three sons from her – Sarban, Ghorghusht and Baitan. Numerous accounts forwarded by Afghan historians tend to favour this theory. Hafiz Rahmat Khan has presented genealogies showing descent from Talut – a prominent figure in the annals of Bani Israil (Children of Israel) in his Khulasat ul-Ansab.

Completed at Burhanpur, it gives an account of the Afghans, particularly the Lodis and the Surs. Naematullah was the first historian to present a systematic genealogical table of Pathans/Pashtuns/Afghans from Israel/Jacob. However he can’t be given credit for propounding the theory of their Israelite origin. Less than ten years before the compilation of Tarikh-e-Khan-e-Jahani, another scholar Akhund Darwiza had declared the Afghans/Pashtuns/Pathans to be Israelites in his Tadhkirat al-Abrar (an account of his adventures in Afghan territories) in 1611 CE.

Sheikh Mali of the Yusufzai tribe wrote in Pushto a book on the Israelite descent of the Afghans/Pashtuns/Pathans between AH 816/1409 CE and AH 828/1412 CE. Another work in Pushto on the same subject is ascribed to Khan Kaju, written in circa AH 900/1493 CE. Upon these two works were based Tarikh-e-Hafiz Rahmat and Khulasat al-Ansab of Hafiz Rahmat Khan. Minhaj-i-Siraj Jurjari, who had close contact with the Ghurids and held posts of qazi (qadi), khatib, sadr-i-jahan and principal of the Nasiriya Madrassa, wrote in his Tabaqat-i-Nasiri (1259-60 CE), “In the time of the Shansbani dynasty there were people called Bani Israel living in Ghor,” and that “some of them were extensively engaged in trade with the neighbouring countries.”

Mirza Ghulam Ahmad, founder of the Ahmadia Movement of Islam, draws upon Tabaqat-e-Nasri in his book Jesus in India (1899), where it is mentioned that during the Shabnisi rule there lived a tribe called Bani Israel, some members of which were good traders. He further records that in 622 CE during the prophet Muhammad’s lifetime, his military chief Khalid ibn-al-Waleed converted about half a dozen chiefs of the Jewish tribes to Islam. Qais or Kish was their leader. As neo-Muslim zealots, they fought bravely a number of battles for spreading Islam. As an expression of his appreciation, Muhammad showered gifts upon them and predicted that they would attain even greater victories. He decreed that the chief of the tribe would always be known as Malik and conferred the title of Patan upon Qais (Kish). Patan is a Syriac word meaning rudder. Since the newly converted Qais was a guide to his people, like the rudder of a ship, he was awarded this title. And since then, his descendants have been called Pathan.

Another theory is that whenever people asked the Pathans/Pashtuns/Afghans about their nationality, they replied in Hebrew phasq or phasht. Phasq means “to liberate”, “to make free”, “to split”, while phasht means “to spread”. The word Pashtun seems to have been derived from this very word. In Hebrew, Pasht is the name of a deity and also of a city in Egypt. In the Pashto language Pastu means an inner room with just one entrance, which indicates that they might have migrated from Israel to their present mountainous country and called themselves Pusht after a village in Israel. Some believe that Pathans got their name from Jonathan’s great-grandson Pithon.

Some Afghans/Pashtuns/Pathans believe that they descended from Bibi Qatoora, wife of Hazrat Ibrahim (Abraham). According to them, after the death of Bibi Sara, Ibrahim married Bibi Qatoora, from whom he had six sons. After distributing all his possessions among his sons, Ibrahim sent them towards the East. They settled down in Turan in the north-west of Iran, where they were soon joined by their brethren exiled by King Talut. All of them established themselves in Pasht. Pasht is identified with Parthia, which later came to be known as Tabaristan. Their settling down in Pasht earned them the name Pashtin followed by Pashtun, and Pashtaneh.

According to Pashtun/Pathan/Afghan genealogies, Kish married the daughter of Khalid ibn al-Waleed, from whom he had three sons – Sarban, Bitan and Ghurgasht, Sarban in turn had two sons – Sacharj Yun and Karsh. As per the tradition, the descendants of Yun are Afghans/Pashtuns/Pathans.

It is noteworthy that the people of Asia Minor and Muslim historians call the Afghans/Pathans “Sulaimanis”, after King Sulaiman (Solomon).

There is a tribal tradition that the Pashtuns originated in Israel in the days of King Saul, from whom they claim descent through a son, Irmia (Jeremiah), and a grandson, Afghana, from whom the name Afghanistan is derived, with its inhabitants called Afghans. Pashtuns/Pathans/Afghans maintain that they grew great in Israel, where they were favourites of Daud (David) and Sulaiman (Solomon); and where the latter assigned them to guard the temple from the assaults of jealous demons. To aid them in this task, Sulaiman (Solomon), master of djins and afreets, taught the Afghans/Pashtuns/Pathans the language of hell. At this time there appeared a wicked magician, Bukht-ud-Nasir (Nebuchadnezzar), who scattered the tribes of Israel and sent the Afghans, as the most obstreperous, far to the east, to the land of Sham or Syria. From there they migrated to the mountains of Ghor in western Afghanistan, and settled down, adhering to monotheism, although surrounded by countless idolaters and polytheists. As the legend goes, in the time of Muhammad, an Afghan/Pashtun/Pathan, Qais or Kish, visited Mecca and embraced Islam, receiving the name Abdul Rasheed. He returned to Afghanistan to convert his people, and all the Pashtuns/Pathans/Afghans are the progeny of his two sons, Sarban and Ghurghusht, and daughter Bibi Matto.

Fareed-ud-Din Ahmad tries to prove the Israelite descent of Pashtuns/Pathans/Afghans from King Talut in his Risal-i-Ansab-i-Afghana.

The Pashtuns or Pathans are the world’s only claimants of Israelite descent whose claim is backed by so many medieval references, spanning hundreds of years.

Pathans, Pashtuns, Pakhtuns and Afghans are names which are often used interchangeably. There is nothing wrong in this usage, but each name has its own meaning. Those who inhabit plains and plateaus are entitled to the name Afghan, which has a far wider connotation than just being a subject of the modern state of Afghanistan, founded only in 1747. The northern highlanders call themselves Pakhtuns, while the southern highlanders are known as Pashtuns. The appellation Pathan is the Indian variant of Pakhtanah, the plural of Pakhtun.

The "lost tribes of Israel" are the Muslims of Afghanistan and Kashmir -- Proved from the Bible and History -- Afghan and Kashmiri cities mentioned and documented

The purpose of this essay is to show how some of the prophecies with regards to the ‘lost tribes of Israel’ from the Old Testament as well as the New Testament were fulfilled through the Prophet Muhammad. That the ‘lost tribes of Israel’ are Muslim today has important implications, and serves well to support Islam’s case. The Old Testament prophesied that the Promised Prophet, or ‘that one’ in the New Testament, would unite the lesser and fragmented tribes of Israel. Our Christian friends, I’m sure, overlook this point and are quite content not knowing what happened to these tribes, because to discover that these men are today Muslims, would imply that Muhammad was that prophet, and not Jesus.

There had been only two kings who are called kings of Israel: David and Solomon. After Solomon, in the time of his son Rehoboam, the Israelites broke into two pieces. Only the two tribes of Judah and Benjamin remained under the suzerainty of Rehoboam, whereas the remaining ten tribes rose up in revolt and went over to Jeroboam, who was, during the lifetime of Solomon, his building-engineer. The ten tribes of Israel, were cut off and forever separated from the Israelites and were immersed into idolaters and they again began to worship the Golden Calf. They raised their own kingdom in Samaria.  In contrast to Judah and Benjamin, they constituted a much bigger fraternity among the Children of Israel.  Their rule lasted for 200 years; and then the King of Syria (ancient Assyria) defeated them in 722 BC, scattering and dispersing them.  Where this huge horde went is a puzzle that has baffled and bewildered the writers of history. Some surmise, that by means of a tunnel in the earth they reached China; others presume they reached Mongolia and settle there; yet another hypothesis is that they went to some place in Europe. From the Encyclopedia Americana, under the heading 'Lost Ten Tribes':

"It was formerly one of the puzzles of history to know what became of the ten tribes.  There were several theories, because of the fact that some Jewish monuments were found in China, some writers tracked them to that land.  Others found their descendants in India...  The general consensus of scientific opinion, however, is that the tribes became absorbed, as subsequent vanished traces have, in neighboring nations, and thus were not lost in the real significance of the term..  Dr. Giles Fletcher (1548-1611) identified the Tartars with the lost 10 tribes; consult his 'The Tartars' printed in 'Israel Redux,' edited by S. Lee (1667).   Dr. Francois Bernier (1620-1688), French physician for 12 years to the Great Moghul of India, in 'Les voyages de Bernier contenant la description des Etats du Grand Mogul de l'hindoustan' (1699), speculates on the Kashmiris as descendants of the lost 10 tribes from certain customs and rites, and the prevailing type of facial features, as also of the neighboring Afghans and the Tajiks of Badakhshan, being distinctly Hebraic." (The Encyclopedia Americana, 1956 ed., art. ‘Lost Ten Tribes’. Vol. Xvii, p. 632.)

So, according to Dr. Bernier, the people of Kashmir and Afghanistan are the same ten lost tribes of the house of Israel. Dr. Francois Bernier, who had been for a long time in the court of the Moghul Emperor Aurangzeb of India, writes in his book Travels in the Moghul Empire:

“There are however many marks of Judaism to be found in this country. On entering the Kingdom after crossing the Peer-Punchal Mountains, the inhabitants in the frontier villages struck me as resembling Jews. Their countenances and manners, and that indescribable peculiarity which enables a traveler to distinguish the inhabitants of different nations, all seemed to belong to that ancient people. You are not to ascribe what I say to mere fancy, the Jewish appearance of these villagers having been remarked by our Father, the Jesuit, and some other Europeans long before I visited Kashmir.” (F. Bernier, Travels in the Moigul Empire, trans. Irving Brock, London, 1981, p. 432).

The Jesuit father mentioned here was Catrou. He wrote his General History of the Moghal Empire in 1708 C.E. and stated that “the Kashmiris are descendants of the Jews.” (F. Catrou, General History of the Moghul Empire, (trans. Alex. Moore), London, John Murray, 1836, p. 195)

George Forster, in his famous Letters on a Journey from Bengal to England, described his visit to Kashmir: “On first seeing the Kashmirians, in their own country, I imagined from their garb, the cast of their countenance which was long and of a grave aspect, and the forms of their beards, that I had come among a nation of Jews.” (George Forster, Letters on a Journey from Bengal to England, London, 1808, vol. 2, p. 20)

H.H. Wilson writes: “The physical and the ethnic character, which so sharply marks off the Kashmiris from all surrounding races, has always struck observant visitors to the valley and they have universally connected them with the Jews.” (H.H. Wilson, Travels in the Himalayan Provinces…, London, 1841, p. 129. Reprinted by Sagar Publications, New Delhi, 1971)

Lieutenant-Colonel H.D. Torrens: “On legends… a supposition that the Kashmiris are descendants of the Jews has been built – a supposition which is borne out by the personal appearance of the race, their garb, the cast of their countenance, and the form of their beards.” (H.D. Torrens, Travels in Ladak, Tartary and Kashmir, London, 1862, p. 268)

Sir Younghusband, who for many years was the Representative of the British Crown to the Court of the Maharaja of Kashmir, wrote: “Here may be seen fine old patriarchal types, just as we picture to ourselves the Israelitish heroes of old. Some, indeed, say… that these Kashmiris are the lost tribes of Israel and certainly, as I have already said, there are real Biblical types to be seen everywhere in Kashmir and especially among the upland villages. Here the Israelitish Shepherd tending his flocks and herds may any day be seen.” (Sir Francis Younghusband, Kashmir, London, 1909, p. 112)

These lost tribes, while living as neighbors to Hindu idolaters, adopted their customs and habits.  These Jews believed in the Unity of God, and this Unity in the terminology of scholars of religion is called Henothism, i.e. the belief that "our God is one, but other nations have their own Gods; our God is exclusively our own, having nothing to do with other peoples."   In this basis they hold that as long as they live in the land of their Lord, Jehovah, they should render obedience to Him, but when they immigrate to another place and take up their residence among other people, they should worship and adore the God of that land.

Our final evidence is to show that the people of Kashmir are Israelites is that the names of cities of Afghanistan and Kashmir have the same names as places mentioned in the Bible; i.e. they are Hebrew names.  They have 'Gilgit' for the Biblical 'Golgotha', and 'Poonch' for 'Phenice.'  The meaning of 'Kabul (the capital of Afghanistan)' in the Hebrew language (Cabul) is a 'dirty city', or alternatively ‘displeasing city. There is also Chah-i-Babel (the well of Babylon) near Islamabad; and Takht-i-Sulaiman (the Throne of Solomon) in the vicinity of the math (temple) of Shankaracharya.

‘Kashmir’ is a Hebrew Word:

Furthermore, Kashmiri or Kashahmiri is a Hebrew word and an attributive name of the Israelites. The root is Kas(h)ah, similar to the Arabic kashiya. In Hebrew it means fleshy and plump, and the Bible itself has conferred this name on the Israelites, and in the idiomatic tradition of the Bible, ‘becoming fat’ means to ‘become an idolater’ – see Deuteronomy, 31:20, Nehemiah 9:25-26, 1 Samuel 2:29-30 for reference. In the same place in the Bible, the Israelites have also been called Yeshurun or Jeshurun, and both these names indicate two contradictory qualities of the Israelites. Yeshurun has been derived from the yashar or yashar, which means the follower of truth or worshipper of the One True God. The following texts of the Bible may read in this connection:

“But Jeshurun waxed fat, and kicked; you waxed fat, you grew thick, you became sleek; then he forsook God who made him, and scoffed at the Rock of his salvation.” (Deuteronomy 32:15)

Yeshurun or Jeshurun, in this text, is the name of the Israelites and signifies here a person who worships the One True God (Gesenius and Brown, A Hebrew and English Lexicon.) But this Jeshur or Yashar had been called Ka(s)ha or Kashyapa when he began to worship, instead of Lord God Jehovah, other gods and idols of the Hindus, and coming into foreign countries thought no more of and forgot Jehovah.

The fundamental question that this article raises, is how is it possible that theis promised son and his tribe could become non-existent and extinct?

God sent His prophet, Jesus, to seek and find them, and bring them back to the religion of their fathers. In what a forceful language Jesus is reported to have said:

"What do you think?  If a man has a hundred sheep, and one of them has gone astray, does he not leave the ninety-nine on the hills and search of the one that went astray?  And if he finds it, truly, I say to you, he rejoices over it more than over the ninety-nine that never went astray." (Matthew 18:12-13)

"For the Son of man came to seek and save the lost." (Matthew 15:24 see also John, 11:49-52; Matthew 10:5-6)

"And I have other sheep, that are not of this fold; I must bring them also, and they will heed my voice. So there shall be one flock, one shepherd." (John 10:16)

According to Greek idiom, emphasis lies on the them in this verse. It is thus necessary that Jesus should go all the way to Kashmir to seek and save the lost tribes of Israel.Jesus' main mission was to give glad tidings of a Messenger who was to come after him.   Jesus' success lies in the fact that he persuaded and prepared these tribes of Israel who had been dead to the religion of their fathers, to return to the faith of Abraham and Jacob.

Ezekiel's Prophecy:

The Promised David, the resurrector of dry bones:

“The hand of the Lord was upon me, and he brought me out by the Sprit of the Lord, and set me down in the mids of the valley; it was full of bones. And he led me around among them; and behold, there were very many upon the valley; and lo, they were very dry. And he said to me, ‘Son of man, can these bones live?’ And I answered, ‘O Lord God, thou knowest.’ Again he said to me, ‘Prophesy to these bones, and say to them, O dry bones, hear the word of the Lord. Thus says the Lord God to these bones: Behold, I will cause breath to enter you, and you shall live. And I will lay sinews upon you, and will cause flesh to come upon you, and cover you with skin, and put breath in you, and you shall live; and you shall know that I am the Lord.’ So I prophesied as I was commanded; and as I prophesied, there was a noise, and behold, a rattling; and the bones came together, bone to its bone. And as I looked, there were sinews on them, and flesh had come upon them, and skin had covered them; but there was no breath in them. Then he said to me, ‘Prophesy to the breath, prophesy, son of man, and say to the breath, Thus says the Lord God: Come from the four winds, O breath, and breathe upon these slain, that they may live.’ So I prophesied as he commanded me, and the breath came into them, and they lived, and stood upon their feet, an exceedingly great host. Then he said to me, ‘Son of man, these bones are the whole house of Israel.’” (Ezekiel 37:1-11)

Prophets Jeremiah and Ezekiel were contemporaries who lived 600 years before Christ.This prophecy consists of two parts. The first was fulfilled exactly after a hundred years, but the other part found its perfect fulfillment after a thousand years. Vidyarthi claims that this book is highly corrupt and obscure, but goes on to detail the prophesy for what information we can get out of it. It is argued that the desolate and deserted valley through which Ezekiel had to pass, is Jerusalem. The Babylonian King, Nebuchadnezzar, ravaged and destroyed it, and drove the Children of Israel from their homes into exile. Ezekiel, who was the High Priest at Jerusalem, was also taken prisoner and put under restraint in the suburbs of Babel. Jeremiah an dEzekiel both have lamented and deplored this destruction of Jerusalem. But whatever was done to the Children of Israel was, in fact, the chastisement of heaven inflicted on them for their sinful deeds and transgressions. The significance of the valley’s tumbling into ruins is that they had been made the recipient of this punishment on account of the vice and misconduct of their priests and religious divines, and that the punishment had been ordained and decreed by the Most High God. As in the first part of the above prophecy, when Jeremiah and Ezekiel wept and cried before the Most High God, He assured them, saying that the sacred city and its Temple would be reubuilt after a hundred years, provided the Children of Israel and their divines would fulfill the covenant of God and bear obedience to His commandments. Hence, this prophecy was accomplished 536 years before Christ, and 65 years after the destruction of Jerusalem when Cyrus, the King of Persia, defeated the Babylonian King, and set the Children of Israel at liberty. However, there were still 35 years for the Word of God to be fulfilled, and neither Cyrus’s command nor his gold could revive the Sacred Temple; and the people who obstructed this work, were the Jewish tribes themselves. They counteracted and opposed each other, and wrote to the King to baffle and defeat their plans, until Cyrus died. So it was later, in the time of Prophet Ezra, when the Children of Israel took up a fresh and firm resolve to pay obedience ot the Divine commandments and walk in the way of His pleasure (Ezra Ch. 5-6), that the promise of the reconstruction and revival of the Sacred Temple came to be fulfilled exactly after a hundred years, in the reign of Darius Hystaspes. But it relates only to the 2 tribes of Israel, Judah and Benjamin. The 10 lost tribes are in Afghanistan and Kashmir. The Jews therefore believed it was an event to be completed in the future. In the Book of Zechariah:  “Wo! Wo! Flee from the land of the north, says the Lord; for I have spread you abroad as the four winds of the heavens, says the Lord.” (Zechariah 2:6). “And Those who are far off shall come and help build the temple of the Lord; and you shall know that the Lord of hosts has sent me to you.” (Zechariah 6:15).

The dry bones were the Children of Ephraim, the promised son of Joseph, and other tribes of Israel who, having merged into the Hindus, had become divested of faith and the spirit of Divine unity. Islam breathed into them the breath of life “from four winds”. Vidyarthi holds that its meaning is that Islam conferred on them the Holy Quran, which is the quintessence of all Revealed Books of the world.

Vidyarthi argues that the spirit is the Holy Quran, which exists in every house in Kashmir and Afghanistan, and quickens life into them. After this, verse 16 deserves reconsideration:

“Son of man, take a stick and write on it, ‘For Judah, and the children of Israel associated with him’; then take another stick and write upon it, ‘For Joseph (the stick of Ephraim) and all the house of Israel associated with him’; and join them together into one stick… say to them, Thus says the Lord God: Behold, I am about to take the stick of Joseph (which is in the hand of Ephraim) and the tribes of Israel associated with him; and I will join with it the stick of Judah, and make them one stick, that they may be one in my hand.” (Ezekiel 37:16-19)

The Pashtuns are an Israelite people

The Pashtuns claim that the title of Khan originated from Kahn (sometimes spelled Cahn), a traditionally Jewish name derived from the Hebrew name Cohen or Kohen or Cohn, denoting priestly/noble lineage.

The 2nd President of Israel, Itzhak Ben-Zvi wrote "The Exiled and the Redeemed" in 1957.  He stated that Hebrew migrations into Afghanistan began with a few exiles from Samaria transplanted there by the King of Assyria, Shalmaneser, in 719 BC.

There are references in the "Book of Esther" to the 127 dominions of King Ahasuerus of Persia, and that eastern Afghanistan could have been one of them.

Though they are Muslim today, they still have the tradition of descending from the 10 Tribes.They maintained correspondence with the Arabian Jews. When some of the latter were converted by Mohammed, one Khalid wrote to the Afghans and invited them to embrace Islam. Several Afghan nobles went to Arabia under one Ḳais, who claimed to trace his descent through forty-seven generations from Saul. He was accordingly greeted by Mohammed by the title of "malik," in deference to this illustrious descent.

 Abraham Farissol identifies the River Ganges with the River Gozan, and assumes that the BeniIsrael of India are the descendants of the Lost Ten Tribes. The Ganges, thus identified by him with the River Sambation, divides the Indians from the Jews. The confusion between Ethiopia and Farther India which existed in the minds of the ancients and medieval geographers caused some writers to place the Lost Ten Tribes in Abyssinia.

Josephus, the Jewish-Roman historian of the first century CE, describes Israelite Tribes living beyond the Euphrates river in inaccessible lands to the East. Research shows a relationship between Afghan (Pashun) and Jewish (Ashkenazi, Sephardic, Mizrahi).

 Also that Afghan DNA is 2nd closest (68.1) to Ashkenazi DNA after Irani and Iraq Jews (67.9). Most of this research used Yusufzai, Afridi or Khattak samples from Pakistan and India.

Benjamin of Tudela, Spain 1165

"There are men of Israel in the land of Persia who say that in the mountains dwell four of the tribes of Israel, namely, the tribe of Dan, the tribe of Zevulun, the tribe of Asher, and the tribe of Naphtali.

"They are governed by their own prince, Joseph the Levite. Among them are learned scholars. They sow and reap and go forth to war as far as the land of Cush, by way of the desert. They are in league with the Kofar-al-Turak, pagan tribesmen who worship the wind and live in the wilderness."

"You are my battle-ax and sword," says the LORD

Jeremiah 51:20 "You are my battle-ax and sword," says the LORD. "With you I will shatter nations and destroy many kingdoms. (Israelites: British, Pashtuns...)

Corresponding Israelite tribes among the Pashtuns/Pathans

It is well known that many Israelites came to reside in Afghanistan. The Pathans are still divided into Israelite tribal identities: Afridi= Ephraim, Asheri=Asher, Gadun=Gad, Shimwari=Shimon and Lewani=Levi. As with the ancient Israelites they are led by the House of Joseph. The most powerful Pathan tribes are the Yusef Zai= The Sons of Joseph and the Afridi being the Ephraimites both groups descend from the Prophet Joseph. Just prior to the deportation of the Israelites in 722 B.C.E. many Israelites led by the Ephraimites settled in Nubia and Arabia. From there they moved westward settling in Morocco where they became known as the Banu Ifran (Ephraimites).

A good question is wether the name Pathan & Parthian have any relation. In fact Parthian is one the people whose origins are related to the lost tribes of Israel. Pathan culture and practices reflect much of Judaism, but they are most reluctant to do dna testing.  They say they know the facts and that's it. One Pathan male has tested and is very close to my father's Q1b1a Ydna, which is most exciting for me.  It connects us somewhere on the timeline. " Scholars believe the 10 tribes were resettled in the region now embracing parts of Kurdistan, Afghanistan, northern Syria and Iran. “Can we really assume that in all these years they didn´t move?” The northern Ten Tribes of Israel (also referred to as Ephraim, Samaria or Joseph) that were taken away by force were "prophesied to be scattered through the nations and become like Gentiles ("not My people").  Hosea 1-3 puts this most clearly."  Knowing that this has happened and was prophesied gives goose pimples of awe!

In end times is the restoration of all Israel to the land which means the recovery of the Lost Ten Tribes to both their identity and their destiny as Israelites or as we say today, as Israelis.  This is found in "dozens of chapters in Hebrew Prophets, beginning with Jeremiah 30-31, Ezekial 37; Hosea 1-3; and Isaiah 11."

The Roman name Africa came from the IFRAN and thus Africa actually means Ephraim. The root Afri in Africa is the same as the root Afri as in Afridi the Pathan tribe of Ephraimites in Afghanistan. The Ephraimites of Morocco were also known as the Bafar tribes which included the Mande tribes of Ghana,Mali and Songhai being the ” Black Moors ” . Some of the Ephraimites moved to Nigeria where as BIAFRANS(AFRAN) they became the leaders of the Igbo-Israelite tribes. This is why the Igbo tribal leaders(Chiefs) wear the Moorish Red Fez. The Ephraimites in Nigeria established the Igbo divination system of EFA(Ephraim) which amongst the Yoruba is known as IFA(EPHRAIM). In 1993 an Igbo named Chima petitioned the Israeli Government for recognition of the Igbo as members of the tribe of Ephraim.

A community known as the Bene-Ephraim were found to be living in the Ondo district of Yorubaland. They spoke a dialect which contained many Moroccan Arabic words which verified their tradition of coming from Morocco and Mali. Just as we must come to understand the origins and whereabouts of the true Israelite tribesmen, we have to understand the fullness of their religious history and beliefs which includes the Prophets Moses, Jesus(Isa) and Muhammad.

Kabul is a Palestinian (Israelite) village. Is it a coincidence?

Intro of Muslim Israel

Afghan is the name of an ethnic group of people living in the country most appropriately represented by the word Khurasan.

Authors desscribe their origins as shrouded in mystery, however this mystery is only the result of confusion that has arisen as result of the continuous wars in this region and what these wars have brought to Khurasan, i.e. ravage, ruin, destruction. Almost all major powers of the word at one time or another have passed through this region. Each in their attempt to subjugate the Afghans imposed their culture, none succeeded. What did succeed was the enduring Afghan spirit that never accepts surrender. Their eternal motto; give us freedom or give us death.

As a result, fragments, symbols, even genes of these different would be invaders are spread in Khurasan and its people.

It is this complex set of different variables, none related and some related that have molded the modern Afghan. It creates confusion, conflict and yet also some semblance of symmetry. This is the unique nature that defines Afghans.

Undoubtedly, Afghans began as one select and few tribes, descended probably from the Ten Lost Tribes, The Assyrian Exile that never repatriated. An event that happened almost 2,700 years ago. Over the long ages, they integrated from their surrounding cultures, languages, traditions even religions. However, even now, after more than 2,700 years, if one looks closely enough, it is evident they have not lost their soul.

This soul, which is unique, noble, outstanding, standing apart from all the rest. I believe from what I see and have researched, that, without any doubt, this nobility comes from their Bani Israel Heritage. Over the course of more than a decade, what I have collected, researched, sorted and sifted, I want to share with my fellow Afghans and every one else.

Ever since I was a child, my grand parents would tell me about the Bani Israel Heritage of the Afghans. For a great part of that time, I didnt understand what this meant. Even when I could understand, I never paid it much credence. It seemed to me like an elusive fairy tale, a folklore of old, from the hearts of our fathers, one generation to the next, in the bed time stories of our grand mothers.

Even when I was in school, my friends, unique in that, they in themselves represented more or less all the different Afghan Tribes, had also told me of the same traditions. That of Afghans from the Ten Lost Tribes. All this only re enforced by strange customs, names, places, and the familiar faces that seemed to be from same Holy Land that many Sephardic and Ashkenazis are.

It was also very intriguing and strange to the point of bewilderment as when an Afghan faced with this proposition, of being called Jewish would be perturbed but who a moment later would himself concede to his Bani Israel heritage. I have always find this very interesting. Afghans, do not like to be called Jews, but the consider it as an honor to be Bani Israel. For those not familiar with Afghan history and traditions, I must say that, this seemingly hateful act is not so hateful in actuality. One has to look at Muslim Jewish History to come to terms with it. The Jews did resist the Holy Prophet in their own right, even though many of them respected and considered him to be far more affirming to the Laws of the Torah than the Christians, who would eat pork and deny in their assertion many other commandments. Additionally, the last 60 years of our relationship vis a vis Palestine have also not been very pleasant.

I have firm belief, that had these two very minor difference not been as they are, Afghans would have undoubtedly felt very close to Spehardics and Ashkenazis. A line that only leads to love and better under standing. For after all, if what the research has revealed, they are indeed cousins.

One of the recent clues, and one undoubtedly my favorite is Genetics and DNA, which confirms in many ways, though a more wider statistical base for the samples would be appreciated, is that, Afghan DNA, is indeed second closest to modern Spehardic and Ashkenazi DNA. Second only after Iranian and Iraqi Jews.

However, like Ghani Khan, I am a skeptic, I am a scientist and a researcher first. Irrespective of the truth, I have always wanted to reach and discover the underlying facts. Whichever way they lead us is irrelevant. In this regard, we must be careful of their interpretations. Different researchers have different biases, or opinions, and if fact are to be know, these pre determined ends have to be sifted carefully and removed.

My blog is only an endeavor, to know the truth. One among many, that Afghans and others have sought. What conclusions you draw from the vast banks of data is your own right of choice. My only request, not to initiate this journey with pre dispositions or biases, but with an open rational calculating and logical mind.



Pashtunistan (Pashto: پښتونستان‎, Pax̌tūnistān; also called Pukhtunistan, or Pathanistan, meaning the "land of Pashtuns") is the geographic region inhabited by the indigenous Pashtun people of modern-day Afghanistan and Pakistan. Alternative names historically used for the region included "Afghānistān" and "Pax̌tūnkhwā" (for present Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province specifically, since at least the 3rd century CE onward).

 Pashtunistan borders the Punjab region to the east, Persian-speaking regions to the west and north, Kashmir to the northeast, and the Balochistan region to the south.

For administrative division in 1893, Mortimer Durand drew the Durand Line, fixing the limits of the spheres of influence between King Abdur Rahman Khan and British India. This porous line that runs through the center of the Pashtun region forms the modern border between Afghanistan and Pakistan. Roughly, the Pashtun homeland stretches from areas south of the Amu River in Afghanistan to west of the Indus River in Pakistan, mainly consisting of southwestern, eastern and some northern districts of Afghanistan, and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, the Federally Administered Tribal Areas and northern Balochistan in Pakistan.

The name used for the region during the middle ages and up until the 20th century was Afghanistan and Pakhtunhawa (for present Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province specifically), which has been mentioned by Ahmad Shah Durrani in his famous couplet, by 6th-century Indian astronomer Varahamihira, 7th-century Chinese pilgrim Hiven Tsiang, 14th-century Moroccan scholar Ibn Batutta, Mughal Emperor Babur, 16th-century historian Firishta and many others.

"The men of Kábul and Khilj also went home; and whenever they were questioned about the Musulmáns of the Kohistán (the mountains), and how matters stood there, they said, "Don't call it Kohistán, but Afghánistán; for there is nothing there but Afgháns and disturbances." Thus it is clear that for this reason the people of the country call their home in their own language Afghánistán, and themselves Afgháns. But it occurs to me, that when, under the rule of Muhammadan sovereigns, Musulmáns first came to the city of Patná, and dwelt there, the people of India (for that reason) called them Patáns—but God knows!"—Ferishta, 1560-1620

The name Pakhtunistan (Pashto: پښتونستان‎ (Naskh)), or in the soft Pashto dialect, Pashtunistan, evolved originally from the Indian word "Pathanistan" (while Pathandesh is also an acceptable word)(Hindustani: پٹھانستان (Nastaleeq), पठानिस्तान (Devanagari)). The very concept of Pashtunistan was taken from the old word "Pakhtunkhwa". The British Indian leaders and some of the Khudai Khidmatgars started using the word "Pathanistan" to refer to the region, and later on the word "Pashtunistan" became more popular.

The native or indigenous people of Pashtunistan are the Pashtuns (also known as Pakhtuns, Pathans and historically as ethnic Afghans). They are the largest ethnic group in Afghanistan and the second largest in Pakistan. The Pashtuns are concentrated mainly in the south and east of Afghanistan but also exist in northern and western parts of the country as a minority group. In Pakistan they are concentrated in the west and northwest, inhabiting mainly Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA), and northern Balochistan. In addition, communities of Pashtuns are found in other parts of Pakistan such as Sindh, Punjab, Gilgit-Baltistan and in the nation's capital, Islamabad. The main language spoken in the delineated Pashtunistan region is Pashto followed by others such as Balochi, Hindko, Gojri, and Urdu.

The Pashtuns practice Pashtunwali, the indigenous culture of the Pashtuns, and this pre-Islamic identity remains significant for many Pashtuns and is one of the factors that have kept the Pashtunistan issue alive. Although the Pashtuns are politically separated by the Durand Line between Pakistan and Afghanistan, many Pashtun tribes from the FATA area and the adjacent regions of Afghanistan, tend to ignore the border and cross back and forth with relative ease to attend weddings, family functions and take part in the joint tribal councils known as jirgas.

Depending on the source, the ethnic Pashtuns constitute 42-60% of the population of Afghanistan. In neighboring Pakistan they constitute 15.42 percent of the 190 million population, which includes the Hindkowans and Pathans. In the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province of Pakistan, Pashto speakers constitute above 73 percent of the population as of 1998.

Since the 2nd millennium BC, the region now inhabited by the native Pashtun people have been influenced by Ancient Iranian peoples, the Medes, Achaemenids, Greeks, Mauryas, Kushans, Hephthalites, Sassanids, Arab Muslims, Turks, and others. In recent age, people of the Western world have nominally explored the area.

Arab Muslims arrived in the 7th century and began introducing Islam to the native Pashtun people, some of the Arabs settled in the Sulaiman Mountains and slowly became Pashtunized over time. The Pashtunistan area later fell to the Turkish Ghaznavids whose main capital was at Ghazni, with Lahore serving as the second power house. The Ghaznavid Empire was then taken over by the Ghorids from today's Ghor, Afghanistan. The army of Genghis Khan arrived in the 13th century and began destroying Persian cities in the north while the Pashtun territory was defended by the Khilji dynasty of Delhi. In the 14th and 15th century, the Timurid dynasty was in control of the nearby cities and towns, until Babur captured Kabul in 1504.

Delhi Sultanate and the last Afghan Empire

During the Delhi Sultanate era, the region was ruled by Turkic dynasties from Delhi, India. An early Pashtun nationalist was the "warrior-poet" Khushal Khan Khattak, who was imprisoned by the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb for trying to incite the Pashtuns to rebel against the rule of the Mughals. However, despite sharing a common language and believing in a common ancestry, the Pashtuns first achieved unity in the 18th century after being under foreign rule for many centuries. The eastern parts of Pashtunistan was ruled by the Mughal Empire, while the western parts were ruled by the Persian Safavids as their easternmost provinces. During the early 18th century, Pashtun tribes led by Mirwais Hotak successfully revolted against the Safavids in the city of Kandahar. In a chain of events, he declared Kandahar and other parts of what is now southern Afghanistan independent. By 1738 the Mughal Empire had been crushingly defeated and their capital sacked and looted by forces of a new Iranian ruler; the military genius and commander Nader Shah. Besides Persian, Turkmen, and Caucasian forces, Nader was also accompanied by the young Ahmad Shah Durrani, and 4,000 well trained Pashtun troops from what is now Afghanistan and North-west Pakistan.

After the death of Nader Shah in 1747 and the disintegration of his massive empire, Ahmad Shah Durrani created his own large and powerful Durrani Empire, which included Pashtunistan, and most of nowadays Pakistan, among other regions. The famous couplet by Ahmad Shah Durrani describes the association the people have with the regional city of Kandahar:

"Da Dili takht herauma cheh rayad kam zama da khkule Pukhtunkhwa da ghre saroona". Translation: "I forget the throne of Delhi when I recall the mountain peaks of my beautiful Pukhtunkhwa."

Coronation of Ahmad Shah Durrani in 1747 by a 20th-century Afghan artist, Abdul Ghafoor Breshna.

The last Afghan Empire was established in 1747 and united all the different Pashtun tribes as well as many other ethnic groups. Parts of the Pashtunistan region around Peshawar was invaded by Ranjit Singh and his Sikh army in the early part of the 19th century, but a few years later they were defeated by the British Raj, the new powerful empire which reached the Pashtunistan region from the east.

The area during 500 B.C. was recorded as Arachosia and inhabited by a people called the Pactyans.

European influence

Following the decline of the Durrani dynasty and the establishment of the new Barakzai dynasty in Afghanistan, the Pashtun domains began to shrink as they lost control over other parts of South Asia to the British, such the Punjab region and the Balochistan region. The Anglo-Afghan Wars were fought as part of the overall imperialistic Great Game that was waged between the Russian Empire and the British. Poor and landlocked, newly born Afghanistan was able to defend its territory and keep both sides at bay by using them against each other. In 1893, as part of a way for fixing the limit of their respective spheres of influence, the Durand Line Agreement was signed between Afghan "Iron" Amir Abdur Rahman and British Viceroy Mortimer Durand. In 1905, the North-West Frontier Province (today's Khyber Paskhtunkhwa) was created and roughly corresponded to Pashtun majority regions within the British domain. The FATA area was created to further placate the Pashtun tribesmen who never fully accepted British rule and were prone to rebellions, while the city of Peshawar was directly administered as part of a British protectorate state with full integration into the federal rule of law with the establishment of civic amenities and the construction of railway, road infrastructure as well as educational institutes to bring the region at par with the developed world.

During World War I, the Afghan government was contacted by the Ottoman Turkey and Germany, through the Niedermayer-Hentig Mission, to join the Central Allies on behalf of the Caliph in a Jihad; some revolutionaries, tribals, and Afghan leaders including a brother of the Amir named Nasrullah Khan were in favour of the delegation and wanted the Amir to declare Jihad.

Kazim Bey carried a firman from the Khalifa in Persian. It was addressed to "the residents of Pathanistan." It said that when the British were defeated, "His Majesty the Khalifa, in agreement with allied States, will acquire guarantee for independence of the united state of Pathanistan and will provide every kind of assistance to it. Thereafter, I will not allow any interference in the country of Pathanistan." (Ahmad Chagharzai; 1989; PP: 138-139). However the efforts failed and the Afghan Amir Habibullah Khan maintained Afghanistan's neutrality throughout World War I.

Similarly, during the 1942 Cripps mission, and 1946 Cabinet Mission to India, the Afghan government made repeated attempts to ensure that any debate about the independence of India must include Afghanistan's role in the future of the NWFP. The British government wavered between reassuring the Afghan to the rejection of their role and insistence that NWFP was an integral part of British India.

The Khudai Khidmatgar were a non-violent group, and Ghaffar Khan claimed to have been inspired by Mahatma Gandhi. While the Red Shirts were willing to work with the Indian National Congress from a political point of view, the Pashtuns as a people desired independence from India. When the decision for independence was announced, it included the condition of a referendum being held in the North West Frontier Province because it was ruled by the Khudai Khidmatgar-backed Congress government of Dr. Khan Sahib. The inhabitants of the province were given two choices: the choice to join either Pakistan or India. On 21 June 1947, Khudai Khidmatgar leaders met under the presidency of Amir Mohammad Khan at Bannu and believed that a referendum was inevitable and that the participants would declare that Pakhtuns did not accept India or Pakistan and announced a boycott of the referendum. When the vote was completed, the vast majority of the residents of province voted in favour of Pakistan and the region was subsequently incorporated into the new country with full civic amenities and rights.

Independence of Pakistan in 1947

Since the late 1940s with the dissolution of British India and independence of Pakistan, some rigid Pashtun nationalists proposed merging with Afghanistan or creating Pashtunistan as a future sovereign state for the local Pashtun inhabitanits of the area. At first, Afghanistan became the only government to oppose the entry of Pakistan into the United Nations in 1947, although it was reversed a few months later. On July 26, 1949, when Afghanistan–Pakistan relations were rapidly deteriorating, a loya jirga was held in Afghanistan after a military aircraft from the Pakistan Air Force bombed a village on the Afghan side of the Durand Line. As a result of this violation, the Afghan government declared that it recognized "neither the imaginary Durand nor any similar line" and that all previous Durand Line agreements were void. During the 1950s to the late 1960s, Pashtuns were promoted to higher positions within the Pakistani government and military, thereby integrating Pashtuns into the Pakistani state and severely weakening secessionist sentiments to the point that by the mid-1960s, popular support for an independent Pashtunistan had all but disappeared.

Ayub Khan, President of Pakistan from 1958 to 1969, belonged to the Pashtun Tareen tribe of Abbottabad.

"An important development in Pakistan during the Ayub period (1958-1969) was the gradual integration into Pakistani society and the military-bureaucratic establishment. It was a period of Pakistan's political history which saw a large number of ethnic Pashtuns holding high positions in the military and the bureaucracy. Ayub himself was a non-Pashto speaking ethnic Pashtun belonging to the Tarin sub-tribe of the Hazara district in the Frontier. The growing participation of Pashtuns in the Pakistani Government resulted in the erosion of the support for the Pashtunistan movement in the Province by the end of the 1960s."—Rizwan Hussain, 2005

Zazi (Pashtun tribe)

Zazai (Pashto: ځاځی dzādzai; plur. ځاځي dzādzi‎. Any relation with the Zazas? They are sometimes counted as Kurds, so they're considered Israelites.), also spelled Dzadzi, Jaji, is a Karlan Pashtun tribe. Zazai is a sub-tribe of Khogyani which falls under the Karlan tribe of the Pashtuns. They are found in Paktia and Khost provinces of Afghanistan, but they have a small population in Kabul city and Baghlan province of Afghanistan as well. A large number of Zazis also reside in the Kurram Agency of North-West Frontier Province, Pakistan. The Zazi are divided into nine wands: 1(Hashim Kehil),2(Lehwani), 3(Ada Khel), Petla (combined with the Allisemgeh), Hussain Khel, Karaia Ahmad Khel, Ahmad Khel (combined with the Bayan Khel), Ali Khel, and the Jamu Khel.

Davi (Pashtun tribe)

Daavi (also spelled as Dawi, Daavi or Daway. Any relation with Daud, David in Arabic? There's a Davi in northern Iran, a Davijan or Davan in western Iran & another Davan, Dawan or Dovan in south western Iran. These are areas were the Lost Ten Tribes were taken captive or bordered their dwellings of captivity. The last of the Davans happens to be an important archaelological site of the Parthians, an ethnic group considered to be part of the Lost Ten Tribes. The PaRThians have the PRT consonants interchangeable with BRT of covenant in Hebrew. They are considered the People of the Covenant, anmae applied to Israelites. There's an ethnic group in Insulindia called Dawan or Atoni & it happens to be considered Israelite as well.) is a Gharghasht Pashtun tribe and the brother of the Kakar tribe. Both are the sons of Gharghasht tribe. The populastion of Daavi tribe is almost equal to Kakar tribe but apparently it looks lessor than kakar, the main reason behind this is close ties of both tribes because they intermingled and mixed so closely that most Daavi tribesmen consider their selves as part of kakar tribe. Therefore a large portion of Daavi tribe is part of kakar. The Daavi tribesmen mostly live in Afghanistan, Baluchistan, Kashmir and India. Where there is kakar tribe Daavi will also be there living togather either with name of kakar or Daavi. They also live in Pukhtoonkhwa, especially in Katlang, Dheri, Babozai and Sawal Dher, Mardan. Daavi tribe is usually considered as sub tribe of kakar. Many Nawab families of Hindustan also belong to Daavi tribe. famous senator and writer of Afghanistan, Abdul hadi Daavi also belongs to Daavi tribe. The sardars of Quetta are also from Daavi tribe. Daavi is die hard nationalist and famous for bravery and hospitality. Daavi tribesmen never subjugated to British rule and never paid taxes imposed by British government.

Afghanistan and Pashtun nationalists did not exploit Pakistan's vulnerability during the nation's 1965 and 1971 wars with India, and even backed Pakistan against a largely Hindu India. Further, had Pakistan been destabilised by India, nationalists would have had to fight against a much bigger country than Pakistan for their independence.

In the 1970s, the roles of Pakistan and Afghanistan reversed, despite the fresh crackdown on Baloch and Pashtun nationalists by the government of Zulfikar Ali Bhutto. The Pakistan government decided to retaliate against the Afghan government's Pashtunistan policy by supporting Islamist opponents of the Afghan government including future Mujahidin leaders Gulbuddin Hekmatyar and Ahmad Shah Massoud. This operation was remarkably successful, and by 1977 the Afghan government of Mohammed Daoud Khan was willing to settle all outstanding issues in exchange for a lifting of the ban on the National Awami Party and a commitment towards provincial autonomy for Pashtuns, which was already guaranteed by Pakistan's Constitution, but stripped by the Bhutto government when the One Unit scheme was introduced.

The Pashtunistan issue is rarely mentioned anymore as a point of disagreement between Afghan and Pakistan officials - a far cry from the 1950s and 1960s when the issue was considered contentious. There are several arguments from the governments of Afghanistan and Pakistan regarding the Pashtunistan issue. These arguments sometimes overlap but can be distinctively defined. The British influence in the region of Afghanistan and Pakistan was most prominent during the late 19th century and early portion of the 20th century, when the British sought to reestablish efforts at colonization during Britain's imperial century. This British experiment was known as The Great Game, and was a subversive attempt at establishing Afghanistan as a buffer zone between British-India and the Tsardom of Russia. By seeking to accord certain terrain international legitimacy based upon British failures to assert control over the fiercely independent Pashtuns and tribes in the region, the establishment of a border that would separate British interests from tribal interests was extremely important to British foreign policy.

The British demarcation established as a result by the Durand Line was a deliberate strategy designed to divide the Pashtun territory along the border region of Afghanistan and Pakistan. The overall effect of the division was to alienate the Pashtun tribes from their neighbors as part of the British divide and conquer strategy, or divide and rule. This strategy had the ultimate effect of fostering anti-colonialist sentiment in the tribal regions, and Pashtuns as a result had a deep desire for independence and freedom from British rule.

Pashtuns in Pakistan make up a minority ethnic group with about 15% of the population, totalling 29 million. This number also includes the Hindkowans and Pathans. In addition, there are 1.7 million Afghan refugees of whom majority are Pashtuns. These refugees, however, are expected to leave Pakistan and settle in Afghanistan in the coming years. Three Pakistani presidents belonged to the Pashtun ethnic group. Pashtuns continue to occupy some important places in the military and politics, with the major political party Awami National Party led by Asfandyar Wali. In addition to this, some Pashtun media, music and cultural activities are based out of Pakistan, with AVT Khyber being the only Pashto TV channel in Pakistan. Pashto cinema is based out of the Pakistani city of Peshawar. The Pakistani city of Karachi is believed to host the largest concentration of Pashtuns.

There are more than 12 million Pashtuns in Afghanistan, constituting 42% of the population. Other sources say that up to 60% of Afghanistan's population is made up of ethnic Pashtuns, forming the largest ethnic group in that country. Pashto is the first official language of Afghanistan, the Afghan National Anthem is recited in Pashto language and the Pashtun dress is the national dress of Afghanistan. Since the late 19th century, the traditional Pashtunistan region has gradually expanded to the Amu River in the north. Majority of the key government positions in Afghanistan have always been held by Pashtuns. In addition, many of the non-Pashtun groups in Afghanistan have adopted the Pashtun culture and use Pashto as a second language. For example, nearly all leaders of non-Pashtun ethnic groups in Afghanistan practice Pashtunwali to some degree and are fluent in Pashto language.

Afghanistan makes its claim on the Pashtun areas on the ground that it served as the Pashtun seat of power since 1709 with the rise of the Hotaki dynasty followed by the establishment of the Durrani Afghan Empire. According to historic sources, Afghan tribes did not appear in Peshawar valley until after 800 AD, when the Islamic conquest of this area took place.

Agreements cited by the Afghan government as proof of their claim over the Pashtun tribes include Article 11 of the Anglo-Afghan Treaty of 1921, which states: "The two contracting parties, being mutually satisfied themselves each regarding the goodwill of the other and especially regarding their benevolent intentions towards the tribes residing close to their respective boundaries, hereby undertake to inform each other of any future military operations which may appear necessary for the maintenance of order among the frontier tribes residing within their respective spheres before the commencement of such operations." A supplementary letter to the Anglo-Afghan Treaty of 1921 reads: "As the conditions of the Frontier tribes of the two governments are of interest to the Government of Afghanistan. I inform you that the British government entertains feelings of goodwill towards all the Frontier tribes and has every intention of treating them generously, provided they abstain from outrages against the people of India."

Khyber Pakhtunkhwa

Prominent 20th century proponents of the Pashtunistan cause have included Khan Abdul Wali Khan and Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan. Ghaffar Khan stated in the Pakistan Constituent Assembly in 1948 that he simply wanted "the renaming of his province as Pakhtunistan. Like Sindh, Punjab, etc." Another name mentioned is Afghania where the initial "A" in Choudhary Rahmat Ali Khan's theory stated in the "Now or Never" pamphlet stands for the second letter in "Pakistan". However, this name has failed to capture political support in the province.

There was support, however, to rename North-West Frontier Province (NWFP) as Pakhtunkhwa (which translates as "area of Pashtuns"). Nasim Wali Khan (the wife of Khan Abdul Wali Khan) declared in an interview: "I want an identity.. I want the name to change so that Pathans may be identified on the map of Pakistan..."

On 31 March 2010, Pakistan's Constitutional Reform Committee agreed that the province be named to Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa. This is now the official name for the former NWFP.

Wazir (Pashtun tribe)

The Wazirs or Waziris (Pashto: وزير‎) are a Pashtun tribe found in Pakistan on its border with Afghanistan. The tribe comprises two geographically separate subgroups and are found in the Waziristan region that takes its name from them. The Utmanzai are settled in the North Waziristan Agency and the Ahmadzai are in the South Waziristan Agency. Those subgroups are in turn divided further, for example into Utmanzai tribes such as the Bakka Khel and Jani Khel.

The common ancestor of the Ahmadzai and Utmanzai is believed by them to be the eponymous Wazir, who is also ancestor to the Mehsud tribe that has since taken a distinct and divergent path. Through Wazir, the tribes trace their origins to Karlanri and thence to the founder of the Pashtun lineage, Qais Abdur Rashid. Some western ethnologists consider them to be of Rajput origin, probably being a mix of an Indian race and some non-Indian blood, perhaps of Scythian or Tatar ethnicity.

Although the Utmanzai and Mehsud tribes have a traditional rivalry and live in geographically distinct regions, the Ahamdzai and Mehsud communities co-exist peacefully and many head men are connected by marriage.

Khattak, the Tribe of Manasseh

Khattak or Khatak (Pashto: خټک, Urdu خٹک), is the name of an Afghan tribe belonging to the Karlan branch of the Afghans. The tribe’s history is quite ancient. One of the earliest references about them are found in the 4th century BCE in Median Empire (Media And Arachosia). They were called Sattagudai by Greek and other historians.

However, their origin is much more ancient.

The tribe’s territory is located in the Khyber Pukhtoonkhwa province of modern day Pakistan. Historical records show an earlier eastward migration from Herat, Ghowr and Ghazni.

The tribe is settled along the western bank of the river Indus from as north upwards as Sammah; modern day Lund Khwar & Sher Garh near Malakand District to South through the district of Karak District, a stretch of territory more than 200 miles long. Their historic capitals are Akora Khattak, a town 50 kilometres (31 miles) east of the provincial capital, Peshawar and Teri, Kohat.

Their historical centers include Herat, Ghowr, Ghazni, Zhob, Karak, Tirah and Wana.

For the most part of their history, the Khattak were united under one combined leader, referred to as Malak, which according to Khushal Khan Khattak is a continuation of the Bani Israel title of Malak (king).

However, the combined title of Malak is not used anymore, solely for the reason that there is no combined Malak of all the Northern and Southern clans.

According to Nimatullah’s 1620 work ”History of The Afghans”, Khattaks are amongst the oldest of the Afghan tribes.

Their history has been closely knit with that of the Yusufzai Tribe from their first settlement around the mountains of Ghor and Ghazni to present day East-Central and North-Eastern Pukhtunkhwa Province of Pakistan.

    The Sattagudai and the Gandarioi and the Dadikai and the Aparutai, who were all reckoned together paid 170 talents.

Herodotus, without assigning a name to the satrapy, tells us that Darius’ yth Satrapy was inhabited by four tribes, the Sattagudai, the Gandarioi, the Dadikai, and the Aparutai.

The earliest accounts of the Khattak tribe appear in the writings of Herodotus during the Fifth Century BC where he mentions the four ancient nations comprising the Pactyans he encountered in Pactya as the Gandarn, the Aparytae, the Sattagyddae, and the Dadicae. The first having long since been identified with the ancient inhabitants of that part of the Peshawar valley now known as the Yusufzai and Mohmand country. The second and third are identified with the Afridi, and the Khattak of the present day. The last, or Dadicae, are most probably represented by the nearly extinct tribe of the Dadi, who dwell amongst the Kakar, on the southern border of the ancient Sattagyddae country. It is curious to find these very nations now, after a lapse of more than two thousand years, retaining the identical names and the same positions as those assigned to them by the ancient Greeks author.

The first settlement of the Khattaks was at Shawal, a valley in the Waziri country lying to the west of Bannu, near the Pir Ghal peak. They migrated thence eastwards to the British district of Bannu and settled with the Afghan tribes of Honai and Mangal, who then held it. These tribes were driven out by the Shitaks, a clan allied to the Khattaks, also from Shawal, probably during the 14th century.

The Shitaks gradually drove back the weak Khattak communities previously settled along the left bank of the Kuram. The Khattaks thus pressed from behind gradually spread over the southern portion of the Kohat district. They first took Possession of the Chauntra Bahadar Khel and Teri valleys, and jointly with the Bangashes drove out the tribes previously occupying the north-eastern part of the district, and obtained the Gumbat, Pattiala and Zira tappas as their share Bani Israel – The Ten Lost Tribes

Bani Israel (also Bna’i Israel) literally means, the children of Israel and refers to the Assyrian captivity of Israel and the ten lost tribes that settled in Media (and Arachosia) and never repatriated to the Holy Land. Numerous historians have identified these four tribes with four of the Ten Lost Tribes.


Gandariori (Greek usage) Or the Yusufzai (Pashto usage) have been identified as the Tribe of Joseph (Biblical usage).


Aparutai (Greek usage) or Afridi or Apridi (Pashto usage) have been identified as the Tribe of Ephraim.(Biblical usage)


Dadikai (Greek usage) or Zazi or Jaji (Pashto usage) have been identified as the Tribe of Gad.(Biblical usage)


Sattagudai (Greek usage) or Khattak & Shetak (Pashto usage) have been identified as the Tribe of Manasseh.(Biblical usage)

Khattak – The Tribe of Manasseh

Khattak origin from the Israelites is documented in numerous accounts and none is more convincing than the views of the Khattak themselves, and of their combined leader (of all Northern and Southern sub clans), Khushal Khan Khattak. In his book Dastar Nama, Khushal writes:

    Khushal Khan further contends that Daniyal (Daniel) was from Malak Talut’s (Saul) progeny. Malak Talut (Saul) is from the offsprings of the brother of Prophet Ibrahim (Abraham):
    “The bravery and valour in the Pukhtuns are the effect of the milk of that lioness.”

This is further supported by the fact that Khushal who himself was elected a Malak of the Khattak tribe considered the word Malak, Bani Israel in origin and delcares it: “a continuation of the Bani Israel title of Malak (king).”

Historically it is known that the tribal name Khattak came into usage when a leader of the tribe named Luqman was given the alias Khattak and that before this, the tribe was titled by its original name.

Therefore, the tribal name Khattak replaced an older more ancient tribal name.

It is evident that the Yusufzai, the Afridi and the Jaji (Zazi) still retain their Bani Israel Tribal names, but for the Kattaks, this is derived indirectly from the fact that all of the Ten Lost Tribes can be accounted for in the different Afghan tribes that inhabit this region except Manasseh, since the Khattaks have been mentioned always in history with these three tribes, including by Herodotus.

Always reckoned together apart from all the other neighboring nations and the fact that it was the Tribe of Joseph that gave birth to Ephraim and Manasseh, it is therefore highly probable that the Khattaks are in fact the Tribe of Manasseh.

This is also confirmed by the fact that, wherever in Median Empire|Media and Arachosia (modern day Afghanistan and Pakistan), the Yusufzai have settled, the Khattak have settled beside them (except for a short period in their history when the migrated eastward to their present day abode again besides the Yusufzai in modern day Pakistan. Additionally, a sub tribe within the Khattak, called the Yusufzai-Khattaks (Lund Khwar, Jamal Garhi of District Mardan) are a union between the two tribes and thus share their heritage.

Additionally, The Khattak and the Afridi are grouped together in the Karalni Afghan tribes as being from the same origin.

They are always mentioned together and as being from the same origin.

The Tribe of Joseph also gave rise to the Tribe of Ephraim and the Tribe of Manasseh. Thus, since the Tribe of Ephraim and the Tribe of Manasseh have the same origin from the Tribe of Joseph thus too the Afridi and the Khattak have the same common origin.

Though, an Indian group, the Bnai Manasseh claim to be from The Tribe of Manasseh and ancient migrations may very well support this, however the tribal population sizes:

Requires that the Tribe of Manasseh be proportionate to that of the Afridis (Tribe of Ephraim), and the only group fulfilling this is the Khattak. Population of the Afridi and the Khattak are more or less the same size.

We know that both the Afridi and the Khattak lived in the same geographical area at the beginning of the Muhammaden era.

””at beigninning of mohammadan era khattaks occupied the Suleiman range and the northern part of the plains between these mountains and the Indus….””.

It is thus almost convenient to find that the last mentions of the Tribe of Manasseh in Media and Arachosia (mountains of Ghowr and Ghazni in modern day Afghanistan)...

Also happens to be the very geographical area for the birth of the first mentions of Khattak.

The Tribe of Gad

Some historians consider Khattaks to be the Tribe of Gad:

Gad, the word meaning to separate out or to “stand out”. The Modern day word Khattak the morphed form of the original however means a small hill that “stands out”.

The Tribe of Gad is among theTen Lost Tribes that was taken by Assyrians and settled in the mountains of Ghor and Ghazni.

Gad (Hebrew; to stand out, also Luck and Soldier) > Gadak (of Gad) also Satta+Gaddayee or Sattagudai (Herodotus) > Khadak (Kha in the old dialect of Pukhto (not Pushto) for the G of Hebrew) > Khattak (a hill that stands out).

This is also strongly echoed and verified in the words of Herodotus during the 5th century BC by the fact that of the Nations he mentions were “the Sattagyddae”, the Gaddae being the morphed form of the original Gad.

Numerous historians identify the Khattak with the Sattagudai.

Sir Olaf Caroe, The Pathans 550BC 1957AD:

    Let us now refer to the third passage cited, in which Herodotus, without assigning a name to the satrapy, tells us that Darius’ yth
    Satrapy was inhabited by four tribes, the Sattagudai, the Gandarioi, the Dadikai, and the Aparutai.

    Bellew has gone further and identified the Sattagudai with the famous Khatak tribe, and the Dadikai with an obscure branch of Kakars whom he calls Dadi.”


Khattak origins are first noted in the mountains of Ghazni  &  Ghowr where they arrived from Herat. Over the following centuries they gradually migrated eastward to modern day Pakistan and Eastern Afganistan. In their migration they founded new cities and towns and established for themselves a wide stretch of territory. Some of the cities they founded or passed through have Bani Israelite names. These include:

Zhob, Tirah, Kerak, Dasht e Yahoodi and Qilla Yahoodi, Ghowr.


Some of the Afghan tribes are therefore the Ten Lost Tribes, these include:

Yusufzai – Tribe of Joseph, Afridi – Tribe of Ephraim, Zazai – Tribe of Gad or Gadoon – Tribe of Gad, Khattak – Tribe of Manasseh, Rabbani – Tribe of Reuben, Levani – Tribe of Levi, Ashuri – Tribe of Asher, Shinwari – Tribe of Simeon

Therefore for the question “Are Khattaks (or the Khattak) Jewish?” e.g. , the answer is, as far as the Khattaks are concerned, it is obvious they are as much Bani Israel or Jewish as the Yusufzai and the Afridis. However, they like all Afghans are NOT Jews. They are Jeiwsh.

There is a difference and it is substantial whether considered from an Afghan or from the Jewish perspective.

All these Afghans do accept and realize their Bani Israelite origins from the Ten Lost Tribes of Israel but they are staunch Muslims and have no intention whatsoever to leave Islam or migrate to the Holy Land.

Pashtun Israelite origins 

Geoff Melnick

For any of you who are still in doubt about Pashtun Israelite origins, here is an academic source.

The islam Encycyclopedia, published by the Turkish Ministry of Education, (with a board of zillions of professors of religion) is considered to be the top most authoritative source here for religious matters. It's available at the Turkish Congress, and at all university libraries.

Volume 4, page 1134-1178 pertains to Efganistan.

Pg: 1136: parag. 8: ... The Durrani and the Galzay tribes originate from the ibrani (dictionary says: the Hebrew people). . . Parag 9: ...And it is asserted that many others of the Afghan composition are originally of the ibrani as well.

Page 1137: parag. 4: ...The name of Pathan was first observed in the XVI century. The etymology of Pathan is not Arabic. One interpretation is that it means keel of a ship; Which leads one to consider whether it could be related to Hazreti Abraham having bestown the name to these people..

Page 1138: parag. 2: ... Bellow puts forward the theory that they are related to the Armenians, a theory that has no solid base to it. Same page, Parag. 3: ... The theory first put forth by Bellow, Yule, Holdich, and to a certain degree by Raverty as well, that the Afghan, and especially the Durrani Afghans, are ibrani, finds solid base and is credible.

End of academic source.

It has already been pointed out on this list that not all Pashtun tribes are of Israelite origin. The Pashtun are not a single ethnic group, contrary to current portrayals in the media. Also it is the non-Israelite tribes who tend to be more forthcoming about their origins

To my knowledge the Israelite tribes are the Durrani and Galzay mentioned above, and the Rabbani, Shinwari, Levani, Deftali, and Jaji from Afghanistan, and the Efridi and Yusufzai from Pakistan. (Some of those listed above may be sub-tribes of some of the others, I don't really know.) Some sources claim that the Ashurai are also an Israelite tribe but I have not seen any confirmation, and other sources suggest they are descendents of ancient Assyrians (the ones who exiled the Israelites in the first place).

The ethnic and etymological origin of the name "Afridi" is obscure. But there are some who connect it with the Persian "Afridan", which means "newly arrived", indicating that they were immigrants in the land where they got this name. Indeed, the names of Pathan/Afghan tribes seem to echo those of the Israelite tribes:Afridi-Ephraim, Rabbani- Reuben, Levani-Levi, Shinwari- Shimeon, Yunim-Judah, Yusufzai-sons of Yusuf (Joseph).

Ephraim has the red color very present in flags, shields, clothes... In the same way Afridi (Efridi) does. Fro example this Efridi flag more than brown looks like a dirty red. There are several interesting things in this flag apart from that. The 4 stars could represent the four corners of the earth in which Israelites were scattered or the position of the Israelites in the four sides of the Tabernacle. The stars look like Stars of David except for the horizontal beams. The lion has crown  above like the Lion of Judah. Finally there's an olive tree, a tree that is common, especially then, in the Mediterranean countries (the Holy Land) but not in Afghanistan.

The House of Israel was symbolized by the olive tree. For speaking of Israel, the prophet Jeremiah recorded, "The Lord called thy name, a green olive tree, fair and of goodly fruit" (Jeremiah 11:16). In a similar fashion, the House of Judah -- some of whose people later became known as Jews -- was symbolized by the fig tree. Both kingdoms repeatedly transgressed the laws that YEHOVAH God had given them for their welfare, and worshipped other pagan gods of the surrounding nations. In the Book of Mormon there's a more detailed identification of the House of Israel with the Olive Tree. Because of this old symbolism that's probably this Pashtun flag has an olive tree.

The word "kand" in the local dialect means "city". Samarkand translates as the city of the Samarians. Samaria was the capital of the Kingdom of Israel. The Pashtun tribe of Afridi, or Efridi, is the corresponding name of the ancient tribe of Ephraim. In the Pakistani region of Sind there's a city called Jacobabad & the meaning is "City of Jacob".

The new age will be heralded only when the descents of these ancient warriors return: Pashtun, British... The Bnei Menassa that are serving in the Israeli army they are one of the first Israelites serving in a Jewish army in 3000 years.

                                                    Area of cultivation of the olive tree.

Kabul is a Palestinian (Israelite) village. Is it a coincidence that there's a Kabul both in the Holy Land & in Afghanistan? I don't think so.

The late Itzhak Ben-Zvi, Israel´s second president and a lost-tribes enthusiast, was particularly interested in the Pathans.

Qais (Kish) Abdur Rashid (Rasheed)


Qais Abdur Rashid (575 – 661) (قيس عبد الراشد’ ) also known as Kesh, Qesh and Imraul Qais is the legendary ancestor of the Afghan (Pashtun race), the first Ethnic Pashtun who travelled to Mecca and Medina in Saudi Arabia during the early days of Islam.

Qais Abdur Rashid was born in Zhob region of modern day Baluchistan, Pakistan.

Upon hearing about the advent of the promised Last Messenger of God (YHWH or Allah) as promised in the Torah, he was sent by his tribe to Medina in Saudi Arabia. He met the Prophet of Islam Muhammad P.B.U.H. and embraced Islam there, and was given the name ‘Abdur Rashid’ by Muhammad P.B.U.H.

In introducing Qais Abdur Rashid, the Messenger of Allah P.B.U.H. mentioned to his companions, here is a prince of the line of the kings of Israel to witch both Qais and the companions attested.

The Prophet also gave him the ominous and truly prophetic title of Batan from which the word Pathan (modern day usage) has descended. It is also important to note here that Pathan is also the name of one of the progenitors of Qais (Kish) and a a grandson of Abraham (Hazrat Ibrahim A.S.) mentioned in the bible.

Qais returned to the region of Afghanistan (Ghazni, Ghour and Zhob) and introduced Islam to his tribe.

The Afghan historians proceed to relate that the Israelites (children of Israel), both in Ghore and in Saudi Arabia, preserved their knowledge of the unity (Monotheism) of Allah (God) and the purity of their religious belief, and that on the appearance of the last and greatest of the prophets Muhammad the Afghans of Ghore listened to the invitation of their brethren in Arabia, the chief of whom was Khalid ibn al-Walid (Khauled or Caled), son of Waleed, so famous for his conquest of Syria, and marched to the aid of the true faith, under the command of Kyse, afterwards surnamed Abdool Resheed.

Qais Abdur Rashid is buried on top of the "Qais Mountain", known locally as ‘Da Kase baba Ghar’, (literally Mount of Qais the father) which is in the Sulaiman Mountains near Zhob.

Pashtuns (Afghans) from Pakistan and Afghanistan visit the place and offer sacrificial animals, charity and offerings at the tomb.

It is said that prayers are accepted and God’s mercy received at the shrine of this Patriarch.

Nearly all of the major Pashtun tribes are linked or associated with Qais Abdur Rashid and his descent from King Saul (Hazrat Talut) through Malik Afghan.

Though Qais Abdur Rashid is not the direct ancestor or progenitor of all Afghans Pashtun/Pukhtuns), he was the grand leader of the Afghans at the time of the Holy Prophet Muhammad P.B.U.H. and the first Muslim Afghan.

Malihabad’s Israeli connection

Here's a juicy bit of information for all those who thought Malihabad is only famous for its delicious mangoes. Dr Tudor Parfitt, a professor of Jewish Studies at the London University has taken up research on the resident Afridis in Malihabad in order to confirm their claims of Jewish descent through DNA tests. 

Barely 25 kms from Lucknow, Malihabad enjoys a distinguished place on the national map for its delicious mangoes, but it is the presence of Afridi Pathans that grants an aura of mystery to it. It is said that the Afridis trace their descent to a lost Israelite tribe of Ephraim, forced into exile and oblivion in 722 BC by the Assyrians. Amishav (a Jerusalem based organisation, solely dedicated to the task of finding the lost tribes of Israel) wants the Afridis to migrate to Israel. Another Israeli organisation-'Beit Zur' too has welcomed them. Parfitt aims to fully confirm any doubts on the matter. 

A lost tribes enthusiast as he was, Yitzhak Ben Zvi (Israel's 2nd president and a prominent historian) interviewed Afghan-Jewish immigrants in Israel and drew information about a number of Jewish customs practised by the Pathans, and found many similarities between the Pathan code of honor-Pathanwali/ Pakhtunwali/Pashtunwali and the Jewish law-Mishna. 

Afridi is a tribe that emigrated to the hill country from the eastern spurs of the Safad Koh (Afghanistan) to the borders of the Peshawar district inPakistan. A sprinkling of them settled in India in Malihabad and Qaimganj in 1761 when they came with Ahmad Shah Abdali to fight the Marathas at Panipat. 

The origin of the Afridi is uncertain, but they themselves believe to be one of the lost tribes of Israel and call themselves "Ben-i-Israel". 

The Afridi claim of Jewish origin is supported by Jochanan Shareth of Amishav, headed by Rabbi Eliyahu Avichail. Shareth believes that Ephrain migrated to "Charah" or "Harah" (present day Herat in Afghanistan) in 336 AD, and were eventually converted to Islam by the invading Arabs in the eleventh of twelfth century. 

The ethnic and etymological origin of the name "Afridi" is obscure. But there are some who connect it with the Persian "Afridan", which means "newly arrived", indicating that they were immigrants in the land where they got this name. 

Indeed, the names of Pathan/Afghan tribes seem to echo those of the Israelite tribes:Afridi-Ephraim, Rabbani- Reuben, Levani-Levi, Shinwari- Shimeon, Yunim-Judah, Yusufzai-sons of Yusuf (Joseph). Old graves with Hebrew inscriptions have been discovered in Ehcharan, near Herat in Afghanistan. The graves date back to the 11th and the 13th century. There are a number of rock engravings in the ancient Hebrew script near the town of Netchaset in Afghanistan-Dar-al- Aman museum of Kabul, possesses a black stone with Hebrew inscriptions found in Kandahar.

It is all these links and more that have prompted Parfitt's arrival in Malihabad. Using tools of modern science he attempts to rely on DNA sampling to finally ofrge as fact or bust the belief of the Afridis descent, once and for all.


  The common misconception about Qais Abdur Rashid (Kish) is that he is the blood father of all modern day Afghan (Pashtun) people and that all tribes are descended from him.

In fact, he was only a leader (Chieftain) of the group of seven Tribal elders (Tribal leaders) sent along with a group of 76 Afghans (Pashtuns) to meet the Prophet Muhammad in Medina.

In the year 622, with the appearance of Islam, Muhammad sent Khalid ibn Waleed to the ‘sons of Ishrail’ to spread the word of Islam among the Afghanistan tribes. He succeeded in his mission, returned to Muhammad with seven representatives of the residents of Afghanistan and with 76 supporters. The leader of these people was ‘Kish’ (or Kesh or Qais). According to the tradition, the emissaries succeeded in their assignment and Muhammad praised them for this. He (the Prophet) gave the name Abdur Rashid to Kesh, announced that Kesh was from the Royal line of the House of Israel and that through his seed God will strengthen his religion. The Lost Tribes in AssyrIt is to be noted that Qais Abdur Rashid is not the direct blood father of all modern day Afghan Tribes. In truth he was only the head of the delegation the Afghans sent to meet the Prophet at Medinah and Makkah. This delegation comprised of 76 members and representatives from all the Afghan tribes which also represented all the Ten Lost Tribes Of Israel. However, Qais was selected because he was among them the direct descendant of King Saul (Hazrat Talut A.S.) and therefore represented the purest blood of the line of the Kings of Israel.

Kashmir & Kashmiris

The history of the Kashmir is shrouded in mystery, as is the history of other people in Kashmir. Many researchers are of the opinion that many inhabitants of Kashmir are descendants of the Lost Tribes who were exiled in 722 BC. They wandered along the Silk Road into the countries of the East, Persia and Afghanistan until they reached the Kashmir valley and settled there.

Others say the wanderings began approximately 300 years later. The wanderers settled in Kashmir, kept their traditions until they slowly started idol worship and gradually got converted to Hinduism & ultimately they got converted to Islam when the word of Allah (Islam) reached the valley and thus once again started worshiping the one GOD “ALLAH”.

There are 5 to 7 million people here. Generally speaking, they have clearer complexions and are different from the other citizens of India.

The priest Monstrat said that in the time of Vasco da Gama in the 15th century, "all the inhabitants of this area who have been living here since ancient times can trace their ancestry, according to their race and customs, to the ancient Israelites.

South Asian Muslim groups of Pathans, Kashmiris, Qidwais, and Bani Israil

The South Asian Muslim groups of Pathans, Kashmiris, Qidwais, and Bani Israil, in spite of being antagonistic towards Jews, Israel, and Zionism, claim Israelite descent. Their antagonism towards Jews stems from the negative interpretations of Quranic references to Jews and also from the Arab-Israel conflict. The religious Jews who take their claims seriously are those who perceive themselves as Jews as part of a larger group of Israelites, which also includes people who according to them have descended from the Lost Tribes of Israel. Unlike the B'nei Menashe from northeast India, these Muslim groups have no desire to migrate to Israel. However, many religious Jewish organizations are keen on penetrating into their world and persuading them to do so. The involvement of religious Jewish organizations wirh these Muslim claimants of Israelite descent in South Asia can have some interesting ramifications for Jewish-Muslim relations and the world at large.

A warlike people, divided into sixty tribes and four hundred clans, inhabiting eastern Afghanistan and the Federally Administered Tribal Areas of the North West Frontier Province of Pakistan. There are also a few Pathan settlements in India. Pathans, Pashtuns, Pakhtuns, and Afghans are names which are often used interchangeably. They are presented in genealogical legend as descended from a common ancestor, a foundling named Karlanri or Karlan, who had two sons, Koday and Kakay. The northerners who speak the hard variety of Pakhto are the descendants of Koday and the southerners who speak the soft variety of Pashto are the descendants of Kakay. Karlan or Karlanri is believed to have been adopted by a grandson of Sarbanr, one of the three sons of Qais or Kais.

Ethnicity is not “natural” but constructed and as individuals move among different spaces, the ways in which ethnicity is expressed is ever changing. While such constructions are often implicit, that is not always the case. At times ethnicity/ identity/home seems to be a resource that is deployed in response to specific circumstances. But if that is so, the question arises why the other Muslim communities in South Asia and the non-Arab Muslims in other parts of the world did not do the same, that is, to claim descent from Abraham, the founder of Semitic monotheism?

A number of European adventurers and Christian missionaries took the Lost Tribes of Israel as a historical fact and sought to prove the Israelite origin of Pathans.11 The belief that the Pathans had descended from the supposed Lost Tribes of Israel had become so widely accepted that by 1926 Jacques Faitlovitch, the activist for the Ethiopian Jews, made an unsuccessful attempt to persuade the American Pro-Falasha Committee to send a mission to Afghanistan to explore the Israelite presence there.12 Finally in 1975 an exploratory team was sent by the Israeli organization Amishav to Afghanistan and in 1983 to Pakistan, on British passports. The explorers, on the basis of certain similarities between Pathan and Jewish customs, reported in favor of the notion of their Israelite descent. Rabbi Eliyahu Avichail, the founder and President of Amichav, an organization which strives to gather all the groups supposed to be related to Israel, says, [t]here are among the Pathans here and there signs of Judaism. It seems to me that, with today’s Islamic fundamentalism and openness to the modern world, these are diminishing. Rabbi Avichail returned very excited from a recent trip to London, where he met two Afridi families, lost Ephramites in his eyes, settled there since the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, eager to embrace Judaism. Now he intends to visit the Afridi Pathan settlement of Malihahad in Lucknow district in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh, to extend the Afridi Pathans there an invitation to “return to the faith of their ancestors” and make aliyah, but is facing problems in getting a visa.14 This would not be his first expedition to a Muslim group in India if he is able to make it. Rabbi Avichail visited the Kashmiris in 1982. The people of the region called Kashmir (a part of which is under Pakistani control), traditionally believe that they have descended from the Tribes of Israel. The Pathan villagers of Gutlibagh near Gandarbal, about twenty kilometres north of Srinagar, trace their descent from Judah, the progenitor of one of the twelve tribes of Israel. Among the Gujars in Kashmir there are some who claim to be of Israelite descent. They neither plough their fields nor milk their cows on Saturdays. The inhabitants of Yusmarg valley call themselves Bani Israil. The Kashmiri population is estimated to be 4,611,000.

Khwaja Nazir Ahmad, in his book Jesus in Heaven on Earth (1952) listed some 405 names in Afghanistan, Kashmir and parts of Pakistan and India to show similarities and common origin with Biblical names. Great stress is laid by the proponents of the theory of the Israelite descent of Kashmiris, on the fact that Kashmir is locally known as Kashir and a Kashmiri is called Koshur, pronounced almost the same as the Hebrew kosher. They also think that the way Kashmiris adjust the difference of days between the lunar and solar calendars on their festival of Pasca is exactly the same as the Jews do. It is also claimed by them that in the ancient times only Jews were allowed entry in the valley. To them many Kashmiri practices look Jewish in nature. For instance, women observe a forty-day purification ritual; Kashmiris avoid animal fat while cooking and their graves are placed on an east-west alignment.

The belief that Kashmiris are Israelite by descent and that Jesus survived crucifixion and settled in Kashmir, are interlinked. Efforts are made to prove Jesus visited Kashmir two millennia ago to proselytize among the Lost Tribes of Israel settled in the region in order to support the claim of the Israelite descent of Kashmiris, while the presence of the Lost Tribes of Israel in Kashmir is given as the reason for Jesus’ visit to Kashmir.

There is a valley in Kashmir called Yusu Marg or Yus Marg (“the Path of Jesus”), inhabitants of which consider themselves Israelite by descent. The valley is located on the bridle route followed by merchants coming generally on foot, from Kaghan and Afghanistan.

According to the Ahmadia sect of Muslims, the tomb of the sufi saint Yuz Asaf at the shrine of Rozabal in Srinagar, Kashmir is actually the tomb of Jesus. The present structure was perhaps built over the grave during the reign of the Mughal emperor Shah Jahan (1628–58 CE). The actual tomb of Yuz Asaf is believed to be beneath the existing tombstone, which is said to be in the East-West alignment in the Jewish fashion. Yuz Asaf or Yura Asaf is believed by Ahmadis to be the name adopted by Jesus after he allegedly survived the crucifixion and subsequently settled in Kashmir. They believe that he came to Kashmir to proselytize among the Israelites resident there. This belief of Ahmadis is based on the theory set out by the founder of the sect Mirza Ghulam Ahmad in his Urdu treatise Masih Hindustan Mein in 1899. The belief is shared by the New Age movement and readers of Talmud Jmmanuel.

Among many other things in support of his theory, Ahmad writes, is the fact that in the gospel of Barnabas, which must be available in the British Museum, it is stated that Jesus was not crucified, nor did he die on the cross. He also writes, [H]undreds of thousands of people have, with their physical eyes, seen that the tomb of Jesus (on whom be peace) exists in Srinagar, in Kashmir. . . . The object of his journey [to Kashmir] was that he should meet the Israelites. . .

Ahmad’s effort to prove that Jesus survived the crucifixion, went to Kashmir, and died a natural death at the age of 120 years in Srinagar is driven by his desire to counter as effectively as possible the activity of the Christian missionaries in nineteenth-century India. Christian missionaries used the Islamic tradition that Jesus was raised alive to heaven after an attempt to kill him was foiled by God as an argument to demonstrate to the Muslims the superiority of the living Jesus to the deceased Muhammad. According to Ahmad “inni mutawaffika” in Sura 3:55 means that God caused Jesus to die in the natural way. He translates the verse in the following words: “I cause you to die and raise you to Myself.” It is, according to Ahmad, a clear indication that Jesus’ ascension to heaven took place after his death.

After years of effort, a Kashmiri village of self-professed Israelites was successful in emigrating to Israel under the Law of Return. However, soon after their arrival in Israel, they disappeared. In the district of Barabanki in Uttar Pradesh lives a Sunni Muslim community called Qidwai/Kidwai, with individuals scattered all over the world. It consists of a line of direct lineal descendants of the sufi saint Qazi Qidwatuddin (né Moizuddin), or as he his popularly known, Qazi (Qadi or Kadi in Arabic) Qidwa,27 and the four branches of his followers28 which also include the descendants of his ten military commanders, who accompanied him to India. It is said that the progenitor of Qidwais/Kidwais, Qazi Qidwa, from whom the name Qidwai is derived, was Israelite by descent. According to Riaz-ur-Rahman Kidwai, author of the only book on the community, the available genealogies trace Qazi Qidwa’s lineage either from the Biblical character Jacob’s son Yahuda ( Judah) or another son Lava (perhaps Levi). Most of the Qidwais are familiar with the origin of their community’s name, which comes from the Arabic word qidwa (“elevated”). The word qidwa, with the sound of the vowel “i” suffixed to it, was adopted as the name of their clan by the descendants of Qazi Moizuddin and his ten military commanders, from his title Qidwatuddin. According to the tradition, Qazi Qidwa (born in AH 530/1133 CE) was the elder son of Malik Ghazi or Malik Shah or Merak Shah of Rum (modern Turkey). Of the three dynasties that ruled in Rum, the Seljuks, the Eldiguzids and the Danishmends, it is only in the Danishmend dynasty that one comes across a king of the name Malik Ghazi or Malik Shah or Merak Shah in the period mentioned. Therefore, Riaz-ur-Rehman Kidwai is of the view that Qazi Qidwa was most probably a scion of the the Danishmend dynasty; though he also writes that the names of the ancestors of Malik Ghazi or Malik Shah or Merak Shah do not match with the names of Qazi Qidwa’s ancestors, as given in the genealogical tables. It is surprising that Kidwai does not pay any attention to the fact that two of the four sons of Seljuk, the founder of the dynasty named after him, had Jewish names, Musa and Israil. Dunlop is of the view that Seljuk, together with some of his courtiers, may well have followed the Khazars, whose army was commanded by his father Tuquq, also known as Timuryalik, in embracing Judaism.

As the tradition goes, Malik Ghazi was succeeded by his younger son Nusratuddin (also known as Nuzratuddin), while the elder son Moizuddin alias Qidwa was made the Qazi-uz-Qazzat (Chief Justice with extensive powers) of the kingdom, as was the custom of the dynasty.

This practice of making the elder son Qazi-uz-Qazzat was aimed at consolidating the base of Islam among the masses, as the religion was still new to the region; and the pre-Islamic pagan influences still lingered. It was the duty of the head Qazi of the kingdom to see that the subjects adhered to the Islamic code of law and way of life.

The dual authority of the two brothers could not last long, and conflicts arose in just a few years’ time. Disillusioned after his futile attempts to check King Nusratuddin’s heavy drinking and debauchery, Qazi Qidwa renounced the comforts of royalty and embraced the simple Sufi way of life. Travelling through Syria, Iraq and Iran, Qazi Qidwa reached India in AH 588/1191 CE, with an entourage of about twelve hundred people, which included his wife Sabiha, his son Izzudin and about a thousand cavalry led by ten military commanders—Afrid, Farrukh, Suheab, Akhtar, Fahim, Askar, Sayeda, Sayeedan, Urdesher, and Jamshed. After substituting in Ajmer, Rajasthan, for the sufi Khwaja Moinuddin Chishti, who was then on a pilgrimage to Mecca, he proceeded to Delhi in AH 590/ 1193 CE, where he declined the post of Qazi-uz-Qazzat of the Delhi Sultanate offered to him. He then led in several military expeditions in Barabanki and conquered fifty-two villages.

Entrusting the control of these villages to his son Qazi Izzudin, he left for Ayodhya (District Faizabad) in AH 662/ 1205 CE, where he stayed till his death in AH 605/AD 1208.

The other theory of the Israelite origin of Qidwais is that propounded by Maulana Abdul Hai in his Malfuzat Firangi Mahal. According to it, Qazi Qidwa’s wife was a Bani Israil. Their descendants are the ones now known as Qidwais/Kidwais. There is a Sunni Muslim clan called Bani Israil in Sambhal (District Moradabad) and Aligarh in Uttar Pradesh, members of which consider themselves to be descendants of a Jewish sahaabi (companion of the prophet Muhammad) Hazrat Abdullah Ibn-i-Salaam. They claim that their ancestors settled in India a millennium ago to propagate Islam. Members of this clan generally use Israili as their last name. They reside, in both Sambhal and Aligarh, in a locality, each called Bani Israil Mohalla or Mohalla Bani Israilaan. Many from this clan migrated to Pakistan after its creation in 1947. The clan can boast of a number of luminaries in the field of Islamic theology, like Maulana Sirajuddin Israili, an eighteenth century scholar after whom is named a madrasa (Islamic seminary), Siraj-i-Uloom, established in circa 1892 in Sambhal; Maulana Hudoodullah Israili, who had the great Islamic theologian Maulana Shibli as his student; Maulana Khaleel Ahmad Israili, who was a professor at Aligarh Muslim University; Maulana Asad Israili; and the present District Qazi of Aligarh, Muhammad Ajmal. Joshua M. Benjamin, the author of The Mystery of Israel’s Ten Lost Tribes and the Legend of Jesus in India (2001), met an Aligarh Muslim University professor with the Hebrew sounding name Shimoni Israili, a member of this clan.

Some sections of religious Jewry tend to take great interest in the above mentioned groups, particularly the Pathans and the Kashmiris. They see themselves, the 14 million Jews, as part of a larger group of Israelites, the majority being of the people who have descended from the lost tribes of Israel, whom they identify as the 45 million Pathans in the modern world. Their outlook finds expression in an article by a New York-born writer, based in Israel, on a South Asian website, in which he writes: For over two millennia, Jews have more or less considered themselves the only remaining Children of Israel, figuring that the other tribes had been lost to history. We have taken a term from the Bible “shearit”—remnant—and applied it to ourselves. Thus, you see the name of many synagogues in the Western world—“Shearit Yisrael,” Remnant of Israel. Apparently, this may be a misperception. In addition to all the forced converts away from the religion who are now coming back to the faith, like the descendants of the Spanish and Portuguese “anusim,” we Jews now have to come to grips with the fact that we are only a small portion of a larger people. According to Rabbi Dr. Yehuda Bohrer, one group of Israelites from the general area of Bokhrara claim to be descended from the tribe of Reuven. They never lost their laws or traditions and have retained the links with Jews and are now considered as Jews. Unlike the members of the tribe of Reuven, the Pakhtun appear to have lost much of the ties to our people. Nevertheless they have been claiming to be the Children of Israel for over a thousand years; they claim that the original king Afghana, the first king of the royal line of Afghanistan, was a descendant of Sha’ul, of the tribe of Benyamin. Jewish merchants who lived in Kabul always could travel without fear to the Pakhtun lands, where they were recognized by the Pakhtuns as fellow Children of Israel. Today, the Pakhtun, who live in places who that have media hostile to the State of Israel, like India, Pakistan and Afghanistan, look upon us Jews as brothers from the wrong side of the tracks. . . . We Jews have the interesting task of “recognizing Joseph” (Ephraim was a son of Joseph). And the Pakhtun are going to have to get to know their brothers, the Jews.

Religious Jewish perception of Pathans is further reflected in a letter to the present author from a religious Jew. He writes: I consulted with Rabbi Chaim Wasserman, my Rav and teacher for over 23 years and he is of the opinion that the situation of the Pathans and other descendants of the “ Ten Tribes” is comparable to that of the Anusim, those who were forcibly converted to Christianity by the Spaniards and the Portuguese in the 1300s, 1400s and early 1500s. The Rabbinim were favorably disposed towards extending a hand to bring them back. The difference is that your [Pathans’] separation from the body of the Jewish People was more than 1000 years before the Spanish Expulsion.

Avichail explains that only God can orchestrate the messianic ingathering of the exiles. Yet drawing on mystical texts, which teach that everything we human beings do here on earth is metaphysically linked to God’s actions, he insists that our work toward bringing the Messiah will hasten God’s intervention in the matter. Thus, he claims that it is each Jew’s responsibility to search for the lost tribes and to help them return to the Holy Land.

I thought that this is our task, to bring small groups (not the whole people) and to prepare them to be teachers, then send them back to their people. What is important is that the giyyur, the conversion process, be authentic, that they will be good Jews.

Unlike the B’nei Menashe from north-east India, the above mentioned Muslim groups have no desire to migrate to Israel. However, some religious Jewish organizations are keen on penetrating into their world and persuading them to migrate to Israel. These organizations have strong sympathizers among the religious Jews, who tend to take every word of the Torah literally. They are of the view that the legitimacy of the existence of the modern Jewish state of Israel at its present geographical location rests on the belief that the land of Israel was granted to their patriarch Abraham and his progeny. The claims of Israelite descent made by these groups and the involvement of religious Jewish organizations with them can have interesting ramifications for
Jewish-Muslim relations and the world at large.

Laghman Province

Laghman (Pashto/Persian: لغمان) is one of the 34 provinces of Afghanistan, located in the eastern part of the country. It has a population of about 631,600, which is multi-ethnic and mostly a rural society. The city of Mihtarlam serves as the capital of the province. In some historical texts the name is written as Lamghan or as Lamghanat.

                                                  A village in Laghman, Afghanistan

A The same village in Laghman, Afghanistan

Located currently at the Kabul Museum are Aramaic inscriptions that were found in Laghman.  Aramaic was the bureaucratic script language of the Achaemenids whose influence had extended toward Laghman.

Inscriptions in Aramaic dating from the Mauryan Dynasty were found in Laghman which discussed the conversion of Ashoka to Buddhism.

The total population of the province is about 424,100, which is multi-ethnic and mostly a rural society. According to the Naval Postgraduate School, the ethnic groups of the province are as follows: 51% Pashtun, 21% Tajik, 27% Pashai and Nuristani (Kata. Do Katas have any relation to the Hata Japanese or Khata Palestinians?). The people of Laghman are overwhelmingly Sunni Muslim.

Bani Israelite Traditions & customs of the Afghans (Pashtuns/Pukhtuns)

References will be continuously added for all the information provided in due time. Information provided is from different eras, therefore for the information of the reader, some of these custom are now extinct

Deuteronomy 29:27 ‘And the Lord uprooted them from upon their land, with fury, anger and great wrath, and He cast them to another land, as it is this day.’ ” Just as a day passes and it will never return, so too, they will be exiled never to return.”

Rabbi Akiva says, “The ten tribes will not return, as the verse (Deuteronomy 29:27) says

Rabbi Eliezer says, “Just like a day is followed by darkness, and the light later returns, so too, although it will become ‘dark’ for the ten tribes, Gd will ultimately take them out of their darkness.”

According to the tradition, the emissaries succeeded in their assignment and Muhammad praised them for this. He (the Prophet) gave the name Abdur Rashid to Kesh, announced that Kesh was from the Royal line of the House of Israel and that through his seed God will strengthen his religion. Many Pukhtun village elders claim this as well.

They are ‘the seed of Israel,’ descended, they say, from Pithon of the tribe of Benjamin. Pithon, a great-grandson of King Saul, is mentioned among a list of hundreds of names chronicling the descendants of the Twelve Tribes.

[Chronicles I 8:35] [10. Chronicles I, 8:35] [Book of Samuel][Hebrew Bible and Old Testament]

Other names of Afghani tribes resemble those of some of the Ten Lost Tribes of Israel:  such as Rebbani/ Rabbani (Reuben); Levoni/ Levani (Levi); Ephriti/ Afridi (Ephraim); Yusuf Zai means Sons of Yusef (Joseph). The Ghaghi tribesmen claim their name is from Gad. Jewish names such as ‘Israel,’ are not used among the Muslims of any country except the Pashtuns. Jewish names have been seen on tombstones in far-flung graveyards around the country.

The great Torah Sage ‘Tiferet Yisrael’ wrote regarding the Ten Tribes: “Many of the remaining became assimilated amongst the non-Jews.’

Regarding them is also the dispute between the Talmudic Sages Rabbi Akiva and Rabbi Eliezar, whether in the future those who remain but are assimilated will eventually be brought back to Judaism. For, although their identity as ‘Israel’ is forgotten, and the few Hebraic practices they have, are merely traditions handed down from their fathers, they themselves and many geographers consider them to be forgotten Jews.

A legend of the Pukhtuns, as recounted to Weil when she did field research among them in the 1980s along the Pakistani border, tells of “Jeremiah,” son of King Saul– not the more familiar Jeremiah of the Old Testament — who sired a child named “Afghana,” and whose descendants along with the Assyrian Exile of Israel that never repatriated, the legend maintains, made their way to Media and to Arachosia (Khurasan) which is modern day Pakistan and Afghanistan, that still bears that name.

Many Pashtuns, Mashal pointed out, believe themselves to be descended from a legendary figure named Kesh (Hebrew Kish or Cush) or Qais (Arabized), a descendant of the Royal line of Judah and exiled into Ancient Khurasan, present day Afghanistan and Pakistan.

The legend states that this exile truly is descended from Pithon, a tribal descendant mentioned in First Chronicles, 8:35.

Almost every contemporary, academic or journalistic work, including — Sir Olef Caroe’s The Pushtuns (or Pukhtuns), to the most recent histories of Afghanistan— mentions this oral tradition.

British colonial official Mountstuart Elphinstone, writing in the early 19th century, compared Pashto to Hebrew in his book, The Kingdom of Caubul (also Kabul). Israel’s second president, Yitzhak Ben-Zvi, believed in the Jewish lineage of the Pashtuns, as did Zahir Shah, the last king of Afghanistan. Once, when asked about his ancestors, Shah claimed that the royal family descended from the Tribe of Benjamin.

According to Ilene R. Prusher: Jews I spoke with who had grown up in Afghanistan also immediately identified with Pashtun-Jewish links. Their parents or grandparents, they would tell me, had always said, that of all the peoples living in current day Afghanistan, they could expect Pashtuns to treat them well on account of their shared Israelite heritage.

Most  of  the  researchers  are  therefore of  the  opinion  that  the origin of  the Pathans  is  indeed  Israelite. The aliyah to Israel of Afghanistan Jews and the volume of evidence heard from them on this subject about the customs of the Pathans corroborate this idea.

Culture and Tradition

Accounts from Afghan Jews now living in Israel and researched done in this regard show considerable evidence. The evidence  doesn’t relate to all the Pathans or to all  the tribes and places.  However, it does prove the existence of Jewish customs among the Pathans. The research on this subject still requires significant work, both quantitative and qualitative.

Most of these customs have been forgotten, not practiced anymore and among the Afghans of Afghanistan & Pakistan only a handful remain and even then most of the Afghans remain un aware as to their origins. Some of the customs discussed include: side lock, circumcision  within  eight  days,  a Tallit (prayer shawl) and four fringes (Tzitzit), a Jewish wedding (Hupah and ring), women’s  customs (immersion in a river or spring), levirate marriage (Yibum), honoring  the  father,  forbidden foods  (horse and camel food), refraining from cooking meat and milk, a tradition of clean and unclean poultry, the Shabbat (preparation of 12 Hallah loaves, refraining from work), lighting  a  candle in honor of the Shabbat, the Day of Atonement (Yom Kippur) prayer (some of them pray turned in the direction of Jerusalem), blood on the threshold and on the two  Mezzuzot  (in  times  of  plague or trouble), a scapegoat, curing the ill with  the help of the Book of Psalms (placing the Book  under the patient’s head), a Hebrew amulet (Kamia), Hebrew names (also. for neighborhoods and villages), Holy Books (they especially honor ‘the Law of Sharif’ which is the Law of Moses),  and  rising when the name of Moshe is mentioned.

Lifting the bride and the groom by their friends at their wedding ceremonies is still practiced among the Khattaks, Yusufzai and Afridis of Pakistan, even to this day. A custom which among the Jews is practiced by Hasidim.

Family tree Scrolls

Besides the oral tradition related by the elders of the tribe, there are also interesting testimonies of keeping of scrolls of genealogy among the tribes, reaching back to the Fathers of the Jewish nation and ancient Judah.

There is interesting evidence about the preservation among the tribes of family trees on their origin, and on their relationship to the fathers of the Israelite people. These family trees are well preserved. Some of them are penned in golden lettering on deerskin. The names of the tribes speak for themselves: the tribe of Harabni (in the Afghan tongue) is the tribe of Reuben, the Shinwaree is Shimeon, the Levani – Levi, Daftani – Naphtali, Jaji – Gad, Ashuri – Asher, Yusuf Su, sons of Josef, Afridi – Ephraim, and so on.

These scrolls, now almost extinct from the ravages of decades long wars, were well preserved and some are written in gold on the skins of a doe. No less interesting and significant are the names of the tribes which bear close resemblance to the Tribes of Israel. The Rabbani Tribe is really Reuben, the Shinwaree Tribe; Shimon, the Levani; Levi, the Daftani; Naphtali, the Jaji; Gad, the Ashuri; Asher, The Yusefzai;  Joseph, and the Afridi Tribe; Ephraim. These are the names of the Ten Lost Tribes of Israel.

The Pukhtuns themselves point out the differences between the original names of the tribes and their present names are because of the different dialects of the languages so that, for instance, Jaji was actually called Gaji for the tribe of Gad and so on.

A family tree scroll found in Lund Khwar is particularly interesting. This is an area which was referred to by the Mughals as the Dasht e Yahoodi (The Jewish Waste/ moor or desert). This area has always remained a great center of the Afghans ever since their exile into Arachosia. Lund Khwar has been home to the three main Pakistan Afghan Tribes of Israelite origin, the Yusufzai, the Khattak and the Afridis. Scrolls belonging to the Yusufzai and the Khattak noble families of the area show their lineage from a grand ancestor even going as far into the past as Kish (Cush or) Qais Abdur Rashid (or Rasheed) during the lifetime of the Holy Prophet Muhammad P.B.U.H..

Sadly, like all of their other Bani Israelite heritage, these scrolls too are now a forgotten and do not exist anymore sans rarely.

Sabbath & votive candles

(relates information from a the 1980s, which is bound to have changed much since then)

Among the peoples and tribes living in the ancient Khurasan and parts of Pakistan and Iran, only the Pukhtuns have the custom of the Sabbath. Although changed and almost forgotten over the millennia of exile, some portents of the original still remain. The Sabbath is still considered a day of rest and they do not labor, cook or bake. Some Pushtuns still prepare a resemblance to the 12 Hallot (traditional Jewish bread, Leviticus 24:5) in honor of the Sabbath as was done in the ancient temple. One of the significant indicators proving the Israeli origins of the Pushtuns is the lighting of votive candles to honor the beginning of theSabbath, usually on Friday and mostly by rural folk. After lighting, the candle is covered usually by a large basket; this was the natural way to conceal their true origins from the strangers and nations among whom they live to this day. The candle is usually lit by the grandmother of the homestead or some other elderly lady.

This custom is common practice even today, both among the Eastern Pushtuns (Khattaks, Yusufzai, Afridis and others) and also the western Pushtuns (Ghilzai, Durrani/ Abdali etc.). However, as the region they inhabited came under the influence of Islam, this custom changed slowly over time, the true origins lost, and has now more or less transformed into the Muslim custom of lighting candles on the graves of saints and martyrs. However, there are still peculiarities that differ from the Islamic custom, for example, being lit only by the elderly women past their menopause, on Friday evenings and later being covered to conceal them.

Yom Kippur

(For the reader, some of these custom are now extinct)

Pukhtuns until very recent times had the custom of Yom Kippur. There are accounts of some of the members of the Levani Tribe who came to the Jewish synagogue on Yom Kippur each year in Afghanistan. They would stay there until sundown without uttering even one word. On being inquired about the origins of this, they spoke of the tradition of the Temple on this day and of the high priest and his work there.

Honor one’s parent

The commandment to honor one’s parent is kept in exemplary manner in these tribes. The son must obey the parents in all matters. When the father enters the room, all stand and bow their heads in his honor. This was an Israeli tradition as well.

Tallit (also called Saader or Kafan) and other cloths

The Pushtuns (or Pukhtuns) have a sort of small Tallit called Kafan, Saadar or chaadar in some parts and accents.

This is a 4 cornered garment which they tie strings similar to the fringes (Jews call them Tzitzit and Pushtuns call them Zundee or Zoondee) and is one of the oldest Jewish traditions going back to the Torah; a sign of their Israeli origin.

They also have a bigger Tallit which they call Saader or Ja’ iy-Nemaz. It is a garment 2-3 meters sq., and it is made to cover the head and part of the shoulders, and is used for prayer by spreading on the ground in the Muslim fashion. It usually has no fringes.

These can be regarded as the prayer shawlssimilar to those of their Jewish counterparts in the West

Notice the similarity even to this day in the form of this article of clothing and its usage not to mention the fact that both the words Tzit Tzit and Tzunday sound similar.

Some of these cloths, in the olden days, in parts of Afghanistan and among the Yusufzai and Khattaks of Pakistan, were decorated with a symbolthat closely resembled the lamps lit by Jews at Hanukkah.

Circumcision on the 8th day

(For the reader, some of these custom are now extinct)

The Pushtuns (or Pukhtuns) have the custom of circumcision on the 8th day. This is a known Jewish custom, and is the oldest Jewish tradition. Muslims have the custom of circumcision as well but it is not required to be necessarily on the 8th day.

Kosher Meat

(For the reader, some of these custom are now extinct)

Pushtuns (or Pukhtuns) have the custom of Kosher, dietary laws same as Jews, similar to the Halaal of Muslims but there are as usual, peculiarities. Pushtuns (or Pukhtuns) do not eat horse or camel meat, which is most common in their area, and common among the Uzbek, Tajik, Kazakh and other Mongol descended tribes, but of course forbidden to Jews.

Meat & Milk

(For the reader, some of these custom are now extinct)

There is some evidence to their not eating meat and milk together, which is also an ancient Israeli tradition. Various accounts of these are present, for example, among the Yusufzai and Khattaks of Mardan (part of Pakistan) and among others.

Pure & Impure birds

(For the reader, some of these custom are now extinct)

Pushtuns have a tradition regarding, differentiating between pure and impure birds which means permitted and not permitted birds similar to the Torah.


The Pushtuns (or Pukhtuns) have custom of scapegoat. In ancient Israel there was the custom to put sins of the nation onto a goat or heifer and send the goat away to desert or out in the wilderness. This custom of scapegoat was done to atone the sins of the nation (Leviticus chapter 16). Similar custom is found even today among the Pushtuns (or Pukhtuns), e.g.:  Among the eastern tribes (Yusufzai, Khattaks & others), western tribes (Ghilzai, Durrani & others) as well as, the Southern Tribes ( Kaakar, Sherani & others).

Periodical distribution of Land by Lot

There still exists among the Pushtuns, the tradition of the Periodical distribution of land by lot. This, in addition to other customs is present in the Book of Leviticus as heritage of the Bani Israel, and modern Muslim historians like Dr. Azmat Hayat Khan accept them as indicators, if not proof of their Israelite heritage. They are the only tribes in the area to practice all of these customs, as the ancient Bani Israel did 2,300 years ago.

Tefillin (phylactery) & Pushto Torah

(For the reader, this para is related to the Afghans during the 19th century, though a similar article called the Taaweez is still used today)

Some, still wear a small box known to Jews and rabbis as the Tefillin (phylactery), containing a verse of the Holy Book. This is an ancient custom of Israel.

The original ancient Jewish box had the verse of Shema Israel, that is: “Hear, O Israel: The Lord our God, the Lord is one!”[(Deuteronomy 6:4)]

This custom of Tefillin came from a verse of the Scriptures,

“You shall bind them as a sign on your hand, and they shall be as frontlets between your eyes”[(Deuteronomy 6:8)]

However, today, except for a few far flung rural communities in Northern Afghanistan (Taloqan etc.), this tradition is more or less extinct.

However with the advent of Islam, a modified form of this tradition exists in the form of apparels called Taaweez. These are small metallic boxes that contain verses of Unity and Glory of Allah (Arabic name for YHWH). Interestingly, many of these Taaweez both in Afghanistan and Pakistan bear the symbol of the Star of David.

Many accounts and documents still exist relating to the Pushto version of the Torah, written by ancient Pushtun rabbis and religious scholars.

In particular, the Yusufzai and Khattaks of Mardan, Sawabi and Swat are mentioned in several scholarly works of possessing such ancient manuscripts. Pushto Torah

Family names of the Lost Tribes

It is interesting to note that the Pushtuns (or Pukhtuns) retain family names of the Lost Tribes such as Asher, Gad, Naphtali, Reuben, Manasseh and Ephraim. Among them there are people who are called by these names, which are of the Ten Lost Tribes of Israel. However, the original names or accounts regarding some of these tribes such as the Khattaks has been lost forever.

No less interesting and significant are the names of the tribes which bear close resemblance to the original Tribes of ancient Israel. Some tribes with visible similarities with Hebrew names are:

Yousuf Zai – Sons of Joseph

Khattak – Manasseh. Khattak is a the name of the Tribal chief before whose time the tribe came into being by the assimilation of various local indigenous clans into the tribe of Manasseh. Before this time, some of the tribe of Manasseh migrated eastward into India.

Gadoon – Gad (also Jaji – Gad),Rabbani – Reuben, Abdali or Naftali – Naphtali (also Daftani – Naphtali), Shinwari – Simeon or Shimon, Zamand – Zebulun, Levani – Levi, Afridi – Ephraim, Ashuri – Asher

Pathan – Pithon

The Pushtuns (or Pukhtuns) themselves point out that the differences between the original names of the tribes and their present are because of the differences in dialect, accents and local languages, so that, for instance, Jaji was actually called Gaji for the tribe of Gad and so on.

Yusuf means Joseph and Yusufzai means children of Joseph. They also call themselves Bani-Israel meaning children of Israel. Their tradition is that they were carried away from their ancient homeland, and through the ages eventually settled into what is now Pakistan, Afghanistan and some other countries.

Similarly many Hebrew inspired names of people, tribes and places are commonly found among the Pashtuns and Pashtun areas of Pakistan/Afghanistan.

Peculiarities and paradoxes

It is a known fact among the Pushtuns and most historians that, of the all Pushtun Tribes, the ones with known descent from the four sons of Kesh are the actual descendants of Kesh (Kish) or Qais, and therefore descendants from the line of the kings of ancient united Israel. Kesh (Kish) was from Judah and later exiled into ancient Assyria, Persia (ancient Khurasan) and later into current day Afghanistan and Pakistan.

However, it is also a known fact that, whereas, some of these tribes retain their original names more or less, others do not. For example, the youngest son of Kesh had seven sons, and his descendants are as follows:

Karlani (The "Germanic name Karl might have the same Israelite origin" or Karlanri  > Mehsud, Wazir (or Waziri), Khattak, Afridi, Orakzai, Daawar, Bangash.

As we can see, the Afridis share the same descent with the Mehsuds, Wazirs, Kattaks and the rest. Of these, the closest in descent to one another are the Afridis and the Khattaks. However, whereas the Afridis claim to be descended from the Ephraim, the original ancient tribe name for the Khattaks has been lost forever. This could most probably be because the Khattaks represent a new tribe that took shape from the Afridis and the Yusufzai. From The ancient home of the Khattaks after their eastward migration from ancient Afghanistan into present day Pakistan is a city named Kerak, surprisingly similar sounding to the ancient Kerak. Though many Khattaks reside today as far north east as Mardan, Sawabi and Peshawar but the occurrence of this Hebrew name with no other plausible origin is interesting in its own right.


Though many Afghans consider Qais (Kish) as their unified grand father or progenitor, the reality of the matter is that, Kish was only the selected leader of the Afghan delegation which traveled to Medinah to meet the Prophet Muhammad. He was therefore their chieftain at the time. This delegation is said to have comprised of 76 people representing all Afghan tribes.

The reason for his representation of the Afghan delegation was that he represented the continuous unbroken line of the Royal House of Israel from King Saul through Jeremia and Malak Afghana.

For this reason he was the un crowned king of all of the Yusufzai, Khattak, Afridi and other tribes at the time in Ghor.

During his life time all Afghan Tribal elders from all the tribes (Yusufzai, Khattak, Afridi etc.) were considered as part of an assembly under the Royal house of Ghor.

This Royal house of Ghor was established when Malak Afghana first settled in Afghanistan.

Qais Abdur Rashid (Kish) through his lineage from Malak Afghana represented the unbroken line of King Saul of Israel.

In modern times however, this house does not exist in its original purity but Qais (Kish) through his four sons (some consider only three, i.e. Sarban, Gurgusht and Karlan) spread his house among all the different Afghan tribes. This was originally done to spread the message of Islam which Qais (Kish) had converted to. Eventually all the tribes began tracing their ancestry to Qais (Kish). Though these tribes (not all Afghan Tribes but only the ones with Bani Israelite lineage, this includes, Yousuf Zai, Khattak, Gadoon, Jaji, Rabbani, Abdali, Shinwari, Zamand, Levani, Afridi and Ashuri) in their originality were the Ten Tribes of Israel exiled into Assyria and Media, they now trace their lineage from Qais (Kish).

This is correct in the fact that Qais (Kish) mingled his blood (through his four sons) in all these tribes but incorrect in the fact that these tribes existed even before Qais (Kish). Qais (Kish) was not their progenitor but a historical figure during the time of the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH).

In conclusion both Qais (Kish) and these tribes are Bani Israelite in origin but after Qais (Kish), the Afghan tribes trace their lineage from Qais (Kish) in honor of his Royal blood from King Saul.

Some scholars suggest that, of these, the Waziris, are actually the Naaziri of ancient Israel, since among other things, both have the custom of letting long hair.

Israelite Tradition in Afghan Royal Family

The Afghan Royal Family has a well known tradition placing its origin in ancient Israel, they came from the Tribe of Benjamin.

First of all, many Afghani people claim this to be so. Rabbi Avraham Hacohen, president of the Jewish community in the Afghan city of Harath, testified that he heard former Afghani king Habib Allah Han proclaim, “I am from the tribe of Benjamin.” In similar testimony, an immigrant to Israel recalls his childhood memory of King Habib Allah’s horseback tour of Harath (Herat): “The Jewish dignitaries of the city gathered, among them my father. My father coerced me to join in greeting the king. The King asked the Jews, ‘What tribe are you from?’ ‘We have no tradition regarding that, so we don’t know, O King,’ answered the head of the delegation. ‘Well, we do know,’ said the king. ‘We, the Mahmad Zei family, are all descendants of the tribe of Benjamin from the seed of King Saul, from the sons of Yonatan Afghan and Pithon.’”

The  former  monarchy  in  Afghanistan  has  a  widely-spread tradition according  to which  their origin was  from  the  tribe of Benjamin  and  the  family  of  King  Saul.  According to this tradition, Saul had a son called Jeremiah and he in turn had a son called Afghana.  Jeremiah  died  at  about  the  same  time  as Saul  and  the  son  Afghana  was  raised  by  King  David  and remained in the royal palace during the reign of Solomon too. About 400 years later, in the days of Nebuchadnezzar, the Afghana family fled to the Gur region (Jat in our times). This is in  central  Afghanistan  and  here  the  family  settled  down  and traded with  the people of  the area.  In  the year 622, with  the appearance  of  Islam, Muhammad  sent  Khalid  ibn Waleed  to the  ‘sons  of  Ishrail’  to  spread  the  word  of  Islam  among  the Afghanistan  tribes.  He  succeeded  in  his mission,  returned  to Muhammad  with  seven  representatives  of  the  residents  of Afghanistan  and  with  76  supporters.  The leader of these people was ‘Kish’ (or Kesh or Qais). According to the tradition, the emissaries succeeded in their assignment and Muhammad praised them for this. He (the Prophet) gave the name Abdur Rashid to Kesh, announced that Kesh was from the Royal line of the House of Israel and that through his seed God will strengthen his religion.

Hebrew personal names

The occurrence of pure Hebrew names among the Pushtuns is common place, even though; such names being those of the ancient prophets of Israel, and common to both Jews and Muslims are nowhere to be found among other Muslims. Of these, the specifically Pushtun kept include, Israel, Zabul (from Zebulon or Zabulon), Afghan (Afghana), Amran etc.

Similarly, whereas other Muslims usually prefer names of the Prophet Muhammad and his companions, the usage of more Hebrew prophets is predominant among the Pushtuns. Hebrew names that are thus commonly used both by the Pushtuns and other Muslims include: Salman (Persian version of Shlomo or Solomon), Musa (Moses), Ibraheem (Avraham), Aazar, Yaqoob (Jacob), Yusef (Joseph), Shoaib (Jethro) etc.. One name, exclusively Pushtun is Natha; as in Natha paired with Khan, which may have its origins in the same root from which Nathan is derived.

Hebrew place names

There are also many Pushtun areas & locations, neighborhoods and villages, with names reminiscent of ancient Israel, the Torah and Hebrew origins. Infact, these are so common place and in all the regions of the Pushtuns (a great region spread over many countries and thousands of square miles) that their occurrence only in the Pushtun homeland and in all its entirety is more than pure coincidence.

The mountains the Pathan’s have been living in after the exile, are called by them, the Suleiman (Solomon) mountains.

The popular places that trace their origin in Hebrew include:

Koh-e-Suleiman – Solomon Mountains
Takht-e-Suleiman – Throne of Solomon (the highest peak in the Solomon mountains)
Afghanistan – Afghana (the grandson of King Saul)
Kohat – or Kohath, a city in NWFP, Pakistan, means assembly in Hebrew and it is also the name of the second son of Levi and the father of Amram or Amran.
Zabul – A province in present day Afghanistan and in the days of Mahmood Ghaznavi the whole region of Afghanistan was known as Zabulistan – Zebulon was one of the sons of Prophet Jacob (AS).
Khyber – a place near the Pakistan/Afghanistan border. In the time of Prophet Muhammad PBUH, Khyber was an ancient Jewish Citadel city near Yathrab (present day Medina).
Peshawar – The Capital of NWFP province of Pakistan – PESH means the Pass and HAWAR means City i.e. The City after the Pass. Peshawar is a short drive from Khyber Pass. A Place named Habor or Havor is mentioned in Torah as the place of the exile of the tribes. The city of Havor is, they say, peh-Shauor (Pash- Havor’) which means  ‘Over Havor’.
Biblical Origins of the name

According to the Bible

[Kings 02:17:06, Kings 02:18:11, Chronicles 01:05:26]

The ten tribes were exiled to Halah and Havor and the river Gozan and to the cities of Maday.  According  to  the tradition  of  the  Jews  of  Afghanistan and old Afghan historical texts, the river Amu in entirety was called Gozan. Therefore Historian Saadia Gaon states:

“ River Gozan ” is the river north of the city of Balach in the north of Afghanistan. The river is known today as the “ Amu Darya ”, and is the border between Afghanistan and Russia. Afghanistan tradition states that the whole river was once known as the Gozen River.

“Habor” is located in the pass between Afghanistan and Pakistan , and is called Pesh-Habor in Afghani (Pesh means Pass) after the city of the pass. The city is known today as Peshawar.

“Hara” is the city of Harat near the Persian border. It is the third largest city in Afghanistan . The prophecy of Isaiah states that the exile will bring the tribes to the land of Sinim”:

“Behold , these shall come from far, and , lo, these from the north and from the west, and these from the land of Sinim “( Isaiah 49:12).

Rabbi Benjamin of Tudela

Young Eldad Hadani

In the year 1165, about 300 years after the travels of Eldad Hadani, Benjamin ben Jonah departs from Tudela on a journey in search of Jewish communities. In 1171 he returns to Spain and writes his memoirs, the famous “Journeys of Benjamin of Tudela.”

Regarding the tribes of Dan, Zevulun, Asher and Naftali he writes: “…And it is said that in the Nasbor cities there are four tribes of Israel, Dan, Zevulun, Asher and Naftali… and the distance of their land is twenty days, and they have provinces and cities. On the one side they are surrounded by the river Gozan, and the yoke of the non-Jews is not upon them, and among them are scholars, and they sow and reap and go to war in the Land of Cush through the deserts.”

The area describes by Rabbi Bejamin, as the home of the Ten Tribes, is a mountainous area, divided by steep valleys. The cities of Nisbor are found in northeastern Iran, close to the border with Afghanistan.The and of Cush meaning Kish or Zhob where Kish (Qais abdur Rashid) lived and died.

Rabbi Saadia Gaon in the 9th century and Moshe ben Ezra in the 11th century mention Afghanistan – then known as Khorasan – as the home of the Ten Tribes.


The historical name of Amu River in Afghanistan, hence the Torah says: “The God of Israel stirred up the spirit of Pul King of Assyria, and the spirit of Tilgath Pilnesser King of Assyria, and he carried them away, even the Ruebenites, and the Gadites, and half the tribe of Manasseh, and brought them to Halah, and Habor, and Hara and to the river of Gozan to this day.” (Kings II, 17 and 18; Chronicles 1:5:26).


A City in Jordan and another in NWFP, Pakistan, the ancient home of the Khattak tribe.


A province in Afghanistan and a localized form of a famous Jewish family name.


in Hebrew Cab means dirty and Bul means city hence a dirty city, whereas others suggest, it means Cain and Abel.


The pearl of Khurasan – a city in Afghanistan, Hara is one of the places of the exile along with Habor and Gozan.

Kash/Kish or Kesh

Name of numerous personalities in Chronicles of Hebrew Bible – and a Dasht-e-Kash north of Helmand, a City of Kash mentioned in map of Afghanistan 1912 of the Library of Congress. There is also a Kash Rod in Nimroz Province of Afghanistan.


– or the Jewish Plain – a famous place in Mardan district of NWFP, Pakistan.

Killa Yahoodi

– or Jewish Fort – a place on Afghanistan Pakistan border.

Archeological finds

The region has several archeological sites pointing to a Hebrew origin.

Some of these include:

Gardez: which has ruins of an ancient fortress built by a famed Israelite warrior named Gabur.

Ghazni Province: where Pashtuns make pilgrimages to the tomb of an ancient “Hebrew (Ancient Afghan) saint” called Zikria (Zakarya?);

Balkh Province: an ancestral area with many ancient ruins and which once boasted a large Jewish population mentioned in several contemporary Arabic Historical Chronicles.

The Pushtuns (or Pukhtuns) usually pray in mosques. However there are many old synagogues scattered throughout Afghanistan. Abandoned today, these were well respected and adored till modern times. They contained scrolls of the Torah, some of which existed till the late 1940s.

Apart  from synagogues, Sifrei Torah, Hebrew place names and tribal  family  trees,  there  also  exists  evidence  on  important archeological  finds:  near  the  town  of Herat  in Tchcharan, old graves were  found on which the writing was  in Persian and  in the Hebrew  language.  The graves date from the 11th to the 13th centuries. In an opposite fashion, so it seems, there are a number of inscriptions engraved on rocks in ancient Hebrew script near the town of Netchaset and Mardan (Pakistan).  In  the  ‘Dar  el  Amman’  museum  in  Kabul,  the  capital  of Afghanistan,  there  is  a  black  stone  found  in  Kandahar,  on which is written in Hebrew with a similar one found in Mardan (Pakistan).

Mr.  Chiya  Zorov  of  Tel  Aviv  notes: When the Bolsheviks rose to power in Russia, they divided the large area  of  the  southern  part  of  central  Russia  into  smaller districts such as Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Kazakhstan, etc. In Tajikistan, is located the city of Dushanbe. It started to develop and grow during the period when Stalin gained power and many Jews then began to stream into Tajikistan.  They found that the tribes there once in contact with the Bukharan Jews light candles on Friday evening and eat a dish made of meat stuffed with rice called Pacha, which is characteristic of the Bukharan Jews and is eaten on Friday night. It is known widely that the Bukharan Jews migrated from what is current day Afghanistan.

Rabbi Saadia Gaon discussed at length with the Hacham Hivay Habalchi and in the opinion of the speaker, in that period (10th century) the Jews were inclined to assimilate into Islam and it was about this that they were arguing.  The scholar Ibn Sina, born in Bukhara, also lived at the time. The  teacher Tajiki said  that he,  too, belongs  to  the Jews who converted into  Islam  and  are  called Tchale. As recounted, the meaning of his name is Even Sina – son of Sina (and up to this day in many languages, and also in Hebrew, the words are similarly pronounced – Sinai, Sin Sina) and perhaps  this  is why he  called himself Ben Sinai,  in other words, son of the Torah which came forth from Sinai.

Nawab Hoti of Mardan

The  Nawab Hoti of  Mardan  (near Peshawar) was  a  scholar  who  completed  his studies  at  the University  of  London. He also visited a Jewish man called Carmeli, who contributed with Mr. Hiya Zorov in scholarly work. The Nawab Hoti, a researcher on the Origins of Pushtuns from the Israelites was of the opinion that Pushtuns of Pakistan and Afghanistan were once Jews. The Nawab also published a book on this subject called “The Israeli descent of the Afghans”. In the book, the Nawab cites from the Yusufzai, Khattak and other Pushtun tribe elders of their ancient tradition that they  are among  the  people  of  the  First  Temple  from  the  Ten Tribes,  who of Assyrian exiles settled first in current day Afghanistan and Pakistan. Afterwards they were joined by the Jewish exiles from the Second Temple Exile.

Stones on Graves

There is a Pushtun customary tradition of placing stones on the graves of one’s loved ones. Even today, one may find stones scattered on nearly every grave in the Pushtun cemeteries in both Pakistan and Afghanistan. This is a peculiar Pashtun way of marking a visit to the deceased. This custom however, is not found among any other of the nations in Pakistan or Afghanistan. Travelling through the region, one may not come across any other people but these who prefer pebbles over flowers on a loved one’s grave.


Racial features vary among the Pushtuns, since, throughout time, the original Pushtun cast has mixed and mingled with the different Nations and Armies passing through. Therefore, among the Pushtuns, one may find both true Semitic or Arabian features, as well as Aryan features. The majority of the Pushtuns possess features which may be likened to a Middle Eastern or Iranian origin, for example the Yusufzai, Khattak, Durrani etc. There are among them tribes for example Nooristanis, Afridis, Niazis etc. with racial features more likened to Aryans, Punjabis and other peoples.

Some accounts related to this subject are as follows:

Dr. Joseph Wolff says: I was wonderfully struck with the resemblance of the Yusufzai (sons of Joseph) and the Khyberi (Afridis, Shinwaris and Khattaks) to the Jews”.

Moorcroft also says of Khyberis (Afridis, Shinwaris and Khattaks):

They are tall, and of singularly Jewish cast of features… they have been named by themselves Bani Israel, children of Israel from time immemorial.

Missions and travelers to Afghanistan in the British colonial era have stated how they resembled the Jews of the area and to some extent their language. The British missions to Afghanistan used to call them Jews, and that, when not wearing their traditional clothing Pushtuns (or Pukhtuns) are indistinguishable from other Jews of the area. Among the 21 nations of Afghanistan only the Pushtuns (or Pukhtuns) and the Jews have Semitic features, their faces are longer and lighter, and some even have blue eyes.

Colonel G. Malleson of the British Army did not believe that the Afghans were Bani Israel, but commented on the issue of physical features: This no doubt has its weight.

“Even when he leaves his native heath behind he takes his manner with him. He will come down, a stalwart manly looking ruffian with frank and open manners, rather Jewish feature… He is certain to be filthy and he may be ragged, but he will saunter into a viceregal durbar (Royal court) as proud as Lucifer and with the air and manner a diplomatist might envy. Not in the least like any Indian subject.”

Pakhtun Physical features: The Historians opinion

                                                       Dardic Kalasha woman

Racially, there is a considerable difference between the various Afghan tribes. The Pathans of Bajaur are closely related to the Kalashes of Citral, probably because they are to a large extent Afghanized Dards. On the other hand the broad-headed Pathans of Balochistan resemble their Baluch neighbors. In the plains of Peshawar there is some admixture of Indian blood, and among the Ghilzai tribe of Afghanistan there are traces of Turkish influence. But in general it may be said that the Afghans belong to the Irano-Afghan branch of the dolichocephalic Mediterranean race. The skull index is 72-75, and the average height 170 cm. (Hill tribe Pathans), and 163 cm. (Afghans of Afghanistan). The nose is prominent, frequently convex, of the “Semitic” type. Similar noses are found also among Balochis and Kashmiris. “The Afghans are usually brunets (black haired), but at the same time show a persistent minority of blondism, which may reflect some Nordic admixture (Nordics are Israelites too after all).

They are heavy-bearded”.

A recent book by Dr. Azmat Hayat Khan sums up the physical characteristics:

The Pathans of the hills are usually tall, fair skinned and have ivory complexions

Kashmir was under direct control of the Durrani Afghan Empire in the 1800s, and the majority of the population there were the Yousufzai Pakhtuns who had moved eastward from Peshawar. They were living in Kashmir in great numbers, about 600,000 families who were later forcibly subdued for about 40 years by the Sikhs.

Dr. Bernier, A French traveler in the frontier villages of Kashmir around the 1880’s remarked on the striking physical similarity of the locals with Jews. He noted that their expressions and manners were distinguishable from the other people in this land. He finally adds that:

You are not to ascribe what I say to mere fancy, the Jewish appearance of these villagers having been remarked by our Father, the

Jesuit, and some other Europeans long before I visited Kashmir”.

The Jesuit Dr. Bernier points to is Dr. Joseph Wolff who says:

“I was wonderfully struck with the resemblance of the Youssoufszye (sons of Joseph) and the Khyberi, two of their tribes, to the Jews”. Moorcroft also says of Khyberis “They are tall, and of singularly Jewish cast of features… they have been named by themselves Beni Israel, children of Israel from time immemorial.”

Bernier was also referring to George Forster who wrote in 1808: “On first seeing the Kashmirians in their own country I imagined from their garb, the cast of their countenance which was long and of a grave aspect, and the forms of their beard, that I had come among a nation of Jews”.

Colonel G. Malleson of the British Army did not believe that the Afghans were Beni Israel, but commented on the issue of physical features: “This no doubt has its weight”.

Pakhtun Physical features: Oral Tradition

By their own historical tradition, the Pakhtun tribes are descended from the Israelite tribe of Benyamin, specifically from King Saul’s children. This will explain their unnatural tall height which is uncharacteristic of Jews in the middle-east. King Saul is known in the Quran as “T alut”, which means “T all” in Arabic. In the T orah, specifically in the Book of 1 Samuel, Saul is described as an unusually tall and handsome man. In this context, the Pakhtun tribes are amongst the tallest people in the area and were known to Mahatma Gandhi’s India as the “mountain giants”. Lord Curzon, the British viceroy to India commented about them:

“I know these men. They are brave as lions, wild as cats, docile as children…It is with a sense of pride that one receives the honest homage of these magnificent Samsons, gigantic, bearded, instinct with loyalty, often stained with crime”.

Pakhtun (Pathan) features are well shaped and good looks are common, as can be compared to their alleged progenitor, King Saul of Israel.

Pakhtun Emotional Characteristics: Israelite history

Saul’s entire reign as the first King of the Beni Israel was marked by a religious tilt, and Israeli historians comment on his strict observance of religious obligations, as for instance in the case of Jonathan and the altar-stone of Aijalon, and in depicting him as possessed from time to time by the spirit of Jahweh.

On his campaigns he took with him a priest who was expert in the use of the ephod, and did not fail to consult him. An entirely probable tradition relates that he prohibited those who consulted the dead and familiar spirits. If he condemned these practices, it must not be supposed that he considered them fraudulent; on the contrary, it was because he regarded the spirits of the dead and the spirits of the elohim as rivals of Jahweh, the sole God of Israel.

Saul’s intensely religious character is reflected in the Pakhtun tribes, which spawned the Taliban, the former regime of Afghanistan widely condemned for their ‘extreme’ interpretation of Islam.

Many historians have reconfirmed that the Pakhtuns are in no way a united people. They have many sub clans and are constantly feuding with each other. Nothing except the danger of a common enemy can unite them.

This is a direct reference to the Beni Israel tribes which united under King Saul only to fight the common Philistine enemy. Israeli Jews today write in their own words: “Israelis have long joked that the surest way to destroy the country is for the Arabs to give it peace. Then the tensions within Israeli society would pull it apart”.

Side Locks (Peot)

Like the Jews of the area, Pushtuns (or Pukhtuns) grow beards and in old times, side locks which further served to make them indistinguishable from Jews. However, today, though the beards are still common among them, the side locks are no more to be found.

The Pathans are quite strict about not shaving their sidelocks (peot), which is in accordance with the Torah command, ‘Don’t shave the sides of your head’ (Leviticus 19).

Amulets or Taweez

Amulets written in Hebrew. Some contain the phrase “Shema Israel” and it is secretly written by the head of the tribe and it is forbidden to open it.

However, these days, it has been replaced by Taweez. These usually contain the Ayat ul Kursi which is a verse about the Glory and Power of Allah (Arabic for YHWH).

Interestingly, many of these have the Star of David which is also the symbol of the seal of Solomon etched or imbued on them.

Symbols; Star of David (The Shield)

And the symbol of Shield of David (Star of David) is found in almost every Pathan house. The wealthy make it out of expensive metals and the poor out of simple wood. It can be seen in towers, in schools and also in tools, bracelets, and jewelry. I saw it at least 20 times in a variety of places. In Minerajan, the center of Afghanistan, there are even schools that have the Shield of David on the door or in the stone above the door.

the Star of David symbol is prevalent in almost every Pathani home! The great Torah Sage ‘Tiferet Yisrael’ wrote regarding the Ten Tribes: ‘Many of the remaining became assimilated amongst the non-Jews*.’

Symbols; Menorah and Nars

Less than an hour later, we passed through a typically poor village on the road back toward Kabul. Paint markings on some of the buildings caught my eye. They resembled five-branch menorahs. I asked Mashal what they were.

“Oh, we call it nars,” he replied. “People in the countryside put this up to mark a celebration, such as a birth or wedding.”

“Do all the peoples in Afghanistan do that, or just the Pashtuns?” Iasked.

“This is only for the Pashtuns,” he said.

It seemed uncanny. Menorah…nars. They sounded as if they shared the same root. And unlike the Star of David, which did not originate with the Jews, the menorah symbol had never belonged to another people.

Other Symbols

(Some of these remain though usually not used in a Hebrew sense, whereas others are now extinct)

Likewise, if anyone travels in the local bus transport of the Pakistani Pashtun areas, he or she would see fascinating art works in their buses but strikingly all these art works have Israelite origin, these peculiar diagrams include:

1. Peacocks (Torah was written with peacock feathers)
2. The Symbolic ark
3. The Mogen David or the Star of the David – also found in the Israeli flag
4. Tree of Life of Kaballah
5. Fish of the Sabbat/Shabbos
6. The heart shape lamp of the Sabbat
7. Number of Leaf petals signifying Kaballah practices.


Pashtu surprisingly has many Hebrew words.

Self  Name

The Pushtuns (or Pukhtuns) are also called Afghans, or sons of the Pashtu which is their language, were mostly called “Bani-Israel” meaning children of Israel even though they live today as devout Muslims.

Pushtunwali (Pushtuns (or Pukhtuns)’ Law) Resembles the Torah

The legal system which is known as Pashtunwali, the law of the Pashtu, is very similar to the Torah, which is the holiest Jewish book and the book of ancient Jewish way of life. There are pages and even complete books among the Pushtuns (or Pukhtuns) and they honor greatly what is called Tavrad El Sharif (the Torah of Moses), and they rise at the mention of the name of Moses even though it is not important in Islam.


They are warriors and carry arms from a young age, they are hardworking, wise, truthful and extremely loyal and they also have a worldwide reputation for exemplary hospitality.


Even today in the marriage ceremonies of the Afghan tribes Yusufzai, Khattak, Muhmand and Afridi among others, especially in Mardan, the groom and the bride while in the marriage bed are lifted by the male friends of the groom and by family several times in a repetitive up and down motion. This is a custom similar to the wedding custom of some Ashkenazi and Hassidic Jews. This is peculiar in that this customdoes not exist among any other peoples in the region around the Afghans, like Punjabis, Sindhis, Baluchis, Tajik, Uzbek or Hazara.

Their wedding is like Jewish. Wedding ceremony with the Pushtuns (or Pukhtuns) includes a marriage canopy and rings similar to the Jewish custom. There are wedding customs: Some Afghans marry under a cloth that is similar to the chuppa.

Levirate marriage

Pushtuns (or Pukhtuns) have custom of levirate marriage, which is the custom when a husband dies without children, his brother marries the widow to keep the name of the house. This custom no longer exists today, but was an ancient Israeli custom mentioned in the Bible. [(Deuteronomy 25:5-6).]

At the time of plague the Pushtuns (or Pukhtuns) slaughter a sheep and sprinkle its blood on the doorpost of their homes. This is what the Israelites did in ancient Egypt during the plagues that occurred there.


Women of the Pushtuns (or Pukhtuns) keep laws similar to the Jewish laws regarding menstruation. During this time and for 7 days after, no contact is allowed with the husband. After this period, the woman immerses in a river or spring or in a bathhouse if a natural spring is not available. This is exactly the same as the Israeli tradition going back to the days of the Bible.

In plague outbreaks

“Passover Practice” of sacrificing an animal and smearing the doorway to avert death and calamity
2. Placing the sins of the people upon a heifer or goat which is driven out in the wilderness in the manner of the biblical scapegoat
3. Stoning to death of blasphemers
4. Periodical distribution of land by lot

In Illness

An interesting testimony relates to the placing of a wrapped book of Psalms of the Bible under the pillow of the ill in order to heal that person.

Conversion to Islam

This tradition was first published in 1635 in a book called Mahsan-I-Afghani and has often been mentioned in the research literature. According to this tradition, King Saul had a son called Jeremiah who had a son called Afghana. Jeremiah died at about the time of King Saul’s death and Afghana was raised by King David and remained in the royal court during King Solomon’s reign.

About 400 years later in the time of disorder of Israel, the Afghana family fled to a land called Gur which is in central Afghanistan. They settled and traded with the people of the area and in the year 662, with the arrival of Islam, the sons of Israel in Gur converted to the prophet with 7 representatives of the Afghan. The leader of the sons of Israel was Kish like the name of Saul’s father.

According to this tradition Muhammed rewarded them and Kish’s Hebrew name was changed to Arab-A-Rashid by Muhammad and was given the task of spreading Islam among his people. This is the roots of Afghan Royal Family.

So Afghan Royal Family has the tradition of ancient Israel – Benjamin Tribe of the Southern Kingdom of Judah.

Another book, Taaqati-Nasiri, states that in the 7th century, a people called Bani Israel settled in Ghor, southeast of Herat. According to Taaqati-Nasiri as well as Pashtun legend, the Bani Israel soon accepted Islam, after their leader, Qais, met with the Muslim Prophet Mohammed.

Israel and the Lost Tribes

Interestingly, the word “Zionist” is created from the mountains of Jerusalem which are called “Zion”. Similarly the language of the Pathan tribesmen is called Pashtu, and its speakers call themselves Pashtun, from the Persian word “Pasht” which means “back of the mountain” so in reality Pashtun is a person who lives in the mountains. The mountains the Pathan’s have been living in after exile are called the Suleiman (Solomon) mountains. The Jews/Bani Israel from Russia also claim to be Mountain Jews and are said to be from the same exile.

























































Chowdhury is a surname and title originating in the Indian subcontinent. It is also alternatively spelled as Chaudhry, Chawdhury, Chowdary, Chaudhury, Choudhury, Choudhry, Chaudhuri, Choudhuri, Chaudhary, Chaudry, Chaudri or Choudhary. A historic female variant is Chowdhurani.

Meaning and significance

According to one theory, the name is an ancient Sanskrit title denoting the head of a community or caste. It is the amalgamation of the terms "Chow" (four-way) and "Dhuriya" (burden of responsibility). Chowdhurys were the heads of villages and landed estates. The Rajput kings and later some Mughal emperors conferred the title to local chiefs and officers of eminence, including zamindars and jagirdars. Women were conferred the title "Chowdhurani" (Lady Chowdhury). In India & Pakistan land owner castes like Ahirs,  Gujjars and Jats were granted this title.

Similar lordships existed in other parts of the Eastern world, including in the Ottoman Empire (Malik) and Persia (Arbab).

At the time of the British Raj, Chowdhury families included Muslims, Hindus, Buddhists and Christians. They were concentrated in the Bengal Presidency, Punjab Province, the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh and Hyderabad State. The surname is found across the South Asian countries, Nepal, Fiji and the United Kingdom.


The Qidwai or Kidwai (Urdu: قدوای ) are a community of Muslims in Pakistan and India. They are mostly settled in the state of Uttar Pradesh in India. They are also settled in the city of Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan, also they are settled in areas of the Middle East. The Qidwai, together with the Milki, Malik and Chaudhary are one of the four sub-group of a community who collectively form the Mian Muslim.

History and origin

The Qidwai were native Muslims of Uttar Pradesh. Sufi saints are claimed to have gone to the Awadh region to spread Islam, where he is said to have won over fifty villages to Islam. These fifty villages were later awarded to him, and the region became known as Qidwara. According to another tradition, Qazi Qidwa is said have defeated a local ruler in the Awadh region by the name of Raja Jagdeopur. This Raja was said to have belonged to the aboriginal Bhar community. The original settlement of the tribe was Juggaur in Lucknow district, from where they spread to Barabanki District. The taluqdar families have historically intermarried with the Awadhi Bhatti, a neighbouring Muslim Rajput community, with whom they share many cultural traits.

Present circumstances

The abolishment of the zamindar system by the newly independent India in 1947 had a major impact on the Qidwai community. The larger estates were broken, and land given to the farmers who worked on their lands. This led to some emigration of the Qidwais to Pakistan. The Qidwais are still found mainly in the districts of Lucknow, Faizabad and Barabanki in Awadh Sultanpur region of Uttar Pradesh.


There are villages in Iran with the name Mulk, whose name are related to Malik: Malek Qozat & Malek Talesh. Interestingly they are in areas in which Israelites sojourned in the past.

Malik, Melik, Malka, or Melekh (Arabic: ملك; Hebrew: ) is originally an East Semitic (Akkadian/Assyrian/Babylonian, Eblaite) and later a Northwest Semitic (e.g. Assyrian Neo-Aramaic, Syriac, Amorite, Canaanite, Hebrew) and Central Semitic (Arabic) word meaning "king". The general meaning of "Malik" is leader and ruler.

Although the early forms of the name were to be found among the Pre-Arab and Pre-Islamic Semites of the Levant, Canaan, and Mesopotamia, it has since been adopted in various other, mainly but not exclusively Islamized or Arabized non-Semitic Asian languages for their ruling princes and to render kings elsewhere. It is also sometimes used in derived meanings. 'Al-Malik' (literally "The King") is one of the names of God in Islam.

The female version of Malik is Malikah (Arabic: ملكة) (or its various spellings such as Malekeh or Melike), meaning "queen".

The name Malik was originally found among various pre-Arab and non-Muslim Semitic peoples such as the indigenous ethnic Assyrians of Iraq, Amorites, Jews, Arameans, Mandeans, Syriacs, Nabateans and pre-Islamic Arabs. It has since been spread among various predominantly Muslim and non-Semitic peoples in Central Asia, the Middle East, and South Asia.

The last name "Malik" may also of Slavic origin, most predominantly Polish, Czech, Slovakian and Slovenian, as it comes from a Polish word "mały" meaning "small". It's comparable with surnames such as "Malicki", "Maliczek", or "Malikowski".

Malik is also used as a surname by communities following hinduism living in india.


The earliest form of the name Malka was used to denote a prince or chieftain in the East Semitic Akkadian language of the Mesopotamian states of Akkad, Assyria, Babylonia and Chaldea. The Northwest Semitic mlk was the title of the rulers of the primarily Amorite, Sutean, Canaanite, Phoenician and Aramean city-states of the Levant and Canaan from the Late Bronze Age. Eventual derivatives include the Aramaic, Neo-Assyrian, Mandic and Arabic forms: Malik, Malek, Mallick, Malkha, Malka, Malkai and the Hebrew form Melek.

Moloch has been traditionally interpreted the epithet of a god, known as "the king" like Baal was an epithet "the master" and Adon an epithet "the lord", but in the case of Moloch purposely mispronounced as Molek instead of Melek using the vowels of Hebrew bosheth "shame".


Primarily a malik is the ruling monarch of a kingdom, called mamlaka, title used by the former slaves aka Mamluks (مملوك) royal dynasty of Egypt; that term is however also used in a broader sense, like realm, for rulers with another, generally lower titles, as in Sahib al-Mamlaka. Malik is also used for tribal leaders, e.g. among the Pashtuns.

Some Arab kingdoms are presently ruled by a Malik. Countries like Maldives, Georgia & Armenia have used it as well for their royalty.

Afghanistan, Pakistan, Bangladesh, India - The Muslim rulers bestowed the title of Malik on loyal tribal leaders and chieftains in South Asia. The Mughal and colonial India, the princely state of Zainabad, Vanod was ruled by a Malek Shri (Shri is an emphatical honorific without intrinsic meaning).

The title Malik has also been used in languages which adopted Arabic loanwords (mainly, not exclusively, in Muslim cultures), for various princely or lower ranks and functions.

In Pakistan the Tanoli head of Village are called Malik in Villages.


It is also one of the Names of God in the Qur'an, and is then al-Malik (الملك) or The King, Lord of the Worlds in the absolute sense (denoted by the definite article), meaning the King of Kings, above all earthly rulers. Hence, Abdelmelik ("servant of [Allah] the King ") is an Arabic male name.

In Biblical Hebrew, Moloch is either the name of a god or the name of a particular kind of sacrifice associated historically with Phoenician and related cultures in North Africa and the Levant.
Melqart ("king of the city") was a Phoenician and Punic god.

The Melkites (from Syriac malkāyâ, , "imperial") are the members of several Christian churches of the Middle East, originally those who sided with the Byzantine emperor.

Compound and derived titles

Malika is the female derivation, a term of Arabic origin used in Persia as the title for a Queen consort (i.e. not ruling, which no Islamic state's tradition does allow to women). Frequently also used as part of a lady's name, e.g. Malika-i-Jahan 'Queen of the World'.

Sahib us-Sumuw al-Malik (female Sahibat us-Sumuw al-Malik) is an Arabic title for His/Her Royal Highness, notably for Princes in the dynasty of the Malik of Egypt.

The following components are frequently part of titles, notably in Persian (also used elsewhere, e.g. in India's Moghol tradition):

- ul-Mulk (or ul-Molk): - of the kingdom; e.g. Malik Usman Khan, who served the Sultan of Gujarat as Governor of Lahore, received the title of Zubdat ul-Mulk 'best of the kingdom' as a hereditary distinction, which was retained as part of the style of his heirs, the ruling Diwans (only since 1910 promoted to Nawab) of Palanpur.

- ul-Mamaluk (plural of ul-mulk): - of the kingdoms.

In the great Indian Muslim salute state of Hyderabad, a first rank- vassal of the Mughal padshah (emperor) imitating his lofty Persian court protocol, the word Molk became on itself one of the titles used for ennobled Muslim retainers of the ruling Nizam's court, in fact the third in rank, only below Jah (the highest) and Umara, but above Daula, Jang, Nawab, Khan Bahadur and Khan; for the Nizam's Hindu retainers different titles were used, the equivalent of Molk being Vant.

Usage in South Asia

Pashtun usage

The Arabic term came to be adopted as a term for "tribal chieftain" in Afghanistan and the tribal areas of Pakistan, especially among Pashtuns, for a tribal leader or a chieftain. In tribal Pashtun society the Maliks serve as de facto arbiters in local conflicts, interlocutors in state policy-making, tax-collectors, heads of village and town councils and delegates to provincial and national jirgas as well as to Parliament. Malik is a common surname among every Pashtun family leader to solve the problem at the time of conflict with another family. Qais is a Hebrew name and Qais Abdur Rashid was a father of a whole of Pashtuns. Qais' wife name was Sara and she was a Khalid bin Walid daughter and Malik name given to Qais by Muhammad.

Punjabi usage

In the Punjab, "Malik", literally meaning "King" was one of the titles used by local aristocrats, more formally known as Zamindars, under both the Mughals and the British, and to some degree still in present-day Pakistan. Many such Rajput families and clans received the title of Malik from the Mughal Kings after they converted to Islam from Hinduism. The title is given for large amount of ownership of land (landlords). Implying it's alternative meaning of "Chieftain", The Malik clan is also associated with different aspects throughout different generations and periods of history, some believe they originated as a clan of warriors while others believe they were cotton weavers by trade or wealthy landlords.

General Usage

Malik or Malek is a common element in first and family names, usually without any aristocratic meaning, However Malik is a large community and a well known clan of the Awan tribe in Pakistan with Arab heritage.

Some Maliks (Urdu: ملک) are also a clan of Hindu Jatt, Muslim Jatt and a few Sikh Jatt, found primarily in Haryana and Pakistan and parts of Punjab (There also exist Hindu Punjabi Maliks that are part of the Khukhrain or Arora communities but they are entirely different from Jats). The Muslim Malik Jat community is settled all over Pakistan and the Sikh, mainly in the Punjab province. The Malik are also known as the Ghatwala. They are descended from Mann Jats. The Gathwala are now designating themselves as Maliks, which is a title.


Malik, Cambodia
Malik, Croatia, a village near Bosiljevo, Croatia

Malik, Iran, a village in Kerman Province, Iran


The Milki are a Muslim community found in the state of Uttar Pradesh in India. They are found entirely in the Awadh region. A small number of Milki are also found in Karachi in Pakistan. The Milki, together with the Qidwai, Malik and Chaudhary are one of the four sub-group of a community who collectively form the Mian Muslim. The Mian Muslim were once a community of substantial landowners in the Awadh region. They are descendants of Israelites.


The Milki get their name from the fact that their ancestors were a class to whom revenue free grants (milk in Persian) of land were made during the period of the Delhi Sultanate. They were given these grants of land as an incentive to settle the land. In Unnao District, they were substantial landowners, and played an important role in the history of that district.

They were also the scribes, administrators, writers, magistrates, judges. lawyers, chief executive officers and village accountants in the Awadh region. The Milki were also appointed to the position of clerks and official record keepers by the state. As part of their duties, they learnt Turkish and Arabic, economics, administration and taxation. They successfully adapted to the neighboring Muslim community, the Kayatha Muslim, with whom they share many traditions and customs.

Present circumstances

The Milki of Unnao District claim to be Siddiqui Shaikhs, while those of Azamgarh and Ballia claim to be of Turk origin. All the various groups of Milki intermarry, and there are also instances of intermarriage with the Qidwai and Kayastha Muslim communities. The Milki are also found in the districts of Faizabad, Pratapgarh, Barabanki and Allahabad. Some Milk are Sunni, while other are Shia. They speak standard Urdu, although most also have an understanding of the Awadhi dialect of Hindi.

Tajik people

Tajik (Persian: تاجيک‎, Tājīk; Tajik: Тоҷик) is a general designation for a wide range of people with traditional homelands in present-day Tajikistan, Afghanistan and Uzbekistan. Before the 20th century they were often called Sarts.

As a self-designation, the term Tajik, which earlier on had been more or less pejorative, has become acceptable only during the last several decades, particularly as a result of Soviet administration in Central Asia. Alternative names for the Tajiks are Fārsī (Persian), Fārsīwān (Persian-speaker), and Dīhgān (cf. Tajik: Деҳқон, Dehqon, literally "farmer or settled villager", in a wider sense "settled" in contrast to "nomadic").

Afghanistan boasts the largest Tajik population, mostly Sunni Muslims. Tajiks are considered oldest inhabitants of Afghanistan with most of them being settled villagers or farmers (dehqan) living in the cold parts of Central Asia. Tajiks comprise of over one-quarter of the Afghanistan's population and 79% of Tajikistan, they are the second largest group in the country. Dating from the 4th century, historical evidence strongly supports their being one of the most ancient of the surviving Central Asian people groups. Over the Centuries Tajiks had great influence over the language and culture of people residing in Afghanistan and South Asia as well as the architecture of the region. This is still evident today as 80% of Afghanistan's population can understand the Dari or Parsi Language. The Mughals official court language was Persian Dari which shows the influence of Dari or Persian language in the sub-continent. The Dari or Persian engravings can still be seen in the Mosques, Tombs and Palaces in India.

According to Richard Nelson Frye, a leading historian of Iranian and Central Asian history, the Persian migration to Central Asia may be considered the beginning of the modern Tajik nation, and ethnic Persians, along with some elements of East-Iranian Bactrians and Sogdians, as the main ancestors of modern Tajiks. In later works, Frye expands on the complexity of the historical origins of the Tajiks. In a 1996 publication, Frye explains that many "factors must be taken into account in explaining the evolution of the peoples whose remnants are the Tajiks in Central Asia" and that "the peoples of Central Asia, whether Iranian or Turkic speaking, have one culture, one religion, one set of social values and traditions with only language separating them."

                                                               Pamiri children in Tajikistan

The most plausible and generally accepted origin of the word is Middle Persian tāzīk ‘Arab’ (cf. New Persian tāzi), or an Iranian (Sogdian or Parthian) cognate word. The Muslim armies that invaded Transoxiana early in the eighth century, conquering the Sogdian principalities and clashing with the Qarluq Turks (see Bregel, Atlas, Maps 8–10) consisted not only of Arabs, but also of Persian converts from Fārs and the central Zagros region (Bartol’d [Barthold], “Tadžiki,” pp. 455-57).

According to the Encyclopaedia of Islam, however, the oldest known usage of the word Tajik as a reference to Persians in Persian literature can be found in the writings of the Persian poet Jalal ad-Din Rumi. The 15th century Turkic-speaking poet Mīr Alī Šer Navā'ī also used Tajik as a reference to Persians. Persian-speakers in modern Iran who live in the Turkic-speaking areas of the country, as well as in Afghanistan and Tajikistan still call themselves Tajik rather than "Persian". The word "Persian" as an ethnic term does not exist in Farsi, and for this the Persians in Afghanistan and Tajikistan refer to themselves as "Tajiks", as do many Iranians (However many Iranian Persians also simply refer to themselves as just Iranian, and do not focus on ethnicity).

According to the World Factbook, Persians a.k.a. Tajiks make up about 27% of the population in Afghanistan, but the Encyclopædia Britannica explains that they constitute about one-fifth of the population. They are predominant in four of the largest cities in Afghanistan (Kabul, Mazar-e Sharif, Herat, Ghazni) and make up the largest ethnic group in the northern and western provinces of Balkh, Takhar, Badakhshan, Samangan, Parwan, Panjshir, Kapisa, Baghlan, Ghor, Badghis and Herat.

Tajiks comprise around 79.9% of the population of Tajikistan. This number includes speakers of the Pamiri languages, including Wakhi and Shughni, and the Yaghnobi people who in the past were considered by the government of the Soviet Union nationalities separate from the Tajiks. In the 1926 and 1937 Soviet censuses, the Yaghnobis and Pamiri language speakers were counted as separate nationalities. After 1937, these groups were required to register as Tajiks.

                          Silk Road in Samarkand, literally meaning Samaria City in local speech.

In Uzbekistan, the Tajiks are the largest part of the population of the ancient cities of Bukhara and Samarkand, and are found in large numbers in the Surxondaryo Province in the south and along Uzbekistan's eastern border with Tajikistan. According to official statistics (2000), Surxondaryo Province accounts for 20.4% of all Tajiks in Uzbekistan, with another 24.3% in Samarqand and Bukhara provinces. Expert estimates suggest that Tajiks may make up 10% of Uzbekistan's population.

Around 10% of Tajiks are said to have blond hair, more prevalent in the Pamir region, where they are known as Pamiri people. On the whole, Tajiks are a genetically diverse population, displaying a wide range of phenotypes. Around 10% of Tajiks are said to have blond hair, more prevalent in the Pamir region, where they are known as Pamiri people. Some ethnic Tajiks, particularly those from Tajikistan, show clear Mongoloid admixture possibly originating from their Kyrgyz and Uzbek neighbors.

Various scholars have recorded the Zoroastrian, Buddhist, and Aryan pre-Islamic heritage of the Tajik people. Early temples for fire worship have been found in Balkh and Bactria and excavations in present day Tajikistan and Uzbekistan show remnants of Zoroastrian fire temples.

Today, however, the great majority of Tajiks follow Sunni Islam, although small Twelver and Ismaili Shia minorities also exist in scattered pockets. Ismailism is a crypto-Judaic sect, so perhaps that's why some Tajikis joined it. Areas with large numbers of Shias include Herat, Bamyan, Badakhshan provinces in Afghanistan, the Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Province in Tajikistan, and Tashkurgan Tajik Autonomous County in China.

According to a 2009 U.S. State Department release, the population of Tajikistan is 98% Muslim, (approximately 85% Sunni and 5% Shia). In Afghanistan, the great number of Tajiks adhere to Sunni Islam. The smaller number of Tajiks who may follow Twelver Shia Islam are locally called Farsiwan. The community of Bukharian Jews in Central Asia speak a dialect of Persian. The Bukharian Jewish community in Uzbekistan is the largest remaining community of Central Asian Jews and resides primarily in Bukhara and Samarkand, while the Bukharaian Jews of Tajikistan live in Dushanbe and number only a few hundred. From the 1970s to the 1990s the majority of these Tajik-speaking Jews emigrated to the United States and to Israel in accordance with aliyah.

The collapse of the Soviet Union and the civil war in Afghanistan both gave rise to a resurgence in Tajik nationalism across the region. Tajikistan in particular has been a focal point for this movement, and the government there has made a conscious effort to revive the legacy of the Samanid empire, the first Tajik-dominated state in the region after the Arab advance. For instance, the President of Tajikistan, Emomalii Rahmon, dropped the Russian suffix "-ov" from his surname and directed others to adopt Tajik names when registering births. According to a government announcement in October 2009, approximately 4,000 Tajik nationals have dropped "ov" and "ev" from their surnames since the start of the year.

In an interview to Iranian news media in May 2008, Tajikistan's deputy culture minister said that Tajikistan would study the issue of switching its Tajik alphabet from Cyrillic to the Persian script used in Iran and Afghanistan when the government feels that "the Tajik people became familiar with the Persian alphabet". More recently, the Islamic Renaissance Party of Tajikistan seeks to have the nation's language referred to as "Tajiki-Farsi" rather than "Tajik." The proposal has drawn criticism from Russian media since the bill seeks to remove the Russian language as the mode of interethnic communication. In 1989, the original name of the language (Farsi) was added to its official name in brackets. However, Rahmon's government renamed the language to simply 'Tajiki' in 1994. According to an Islamic Renaissance Party official, the Tajiks had referred to their language as "Farsi" before Sovietization. On October 2009, Tajikistan adopted the law that removes Russian as the "language for interethnic communication."


The Bactrian (They were part of the Iranian speaking Israelites) people are primarily the ancestors of modern-day Tajiks as well as Pashtuns. Regarding Tajiks, the Encyclopædia Britannica states:

The Tajiks are the direct descendants of the Iranian peoples whose continuous presence in Central Asia and northern Afghanistan is attested from the middle of the 1st millennium bc. The ancestors of the Tajiks constituted the core of the ancient population of Khwārezm (Khorezm) and Bactria, which formed part of Transoxania (Sogdiana). They were included in the empires of Persia and Alexander the Great, and they intermingled with such later invaders as the Kushāns and Hepthalites in the 1st–6th centuries ad. Over the course of time, the eastern Iranian dialect that was used by the ancient Tajiks eventually gave way to Farsi, a western dialect spoken in Iran and Afghanistan.

"My Blood Brother in Samarkand". Nathaniel Pearson, a scientist who has studied at Stanford University and the University of Chicago, conducted research on genetics as part of the Human Genome Project. He traveled to Eastern Europe, Asia, and the Middle East collecting genetic data using blood samples and cheek swabs. Some of his test subjects were North Caucasians, Turks, and Sino-Tibetans. (However, it needs to be noted that the haplotype Pearson describes has also been found among Moroccan Jews, and thus not only among Jews, Tajiks, Uzbeks, and Indians. So the origin of the haplotype remains mysterious.)

"As population geneticists, Spencer Wells and I were working with Stanford emeritus professor Luca Cavalli-Sforza and others to study DNA variation among different groups... Our expedition eventually took us through the forests, steppes and deserts between the Black Sea and Central Asia's Altai Mountains. We collected hundreds of samples from people whose ancestors included nomads, farmers, sultans and serfs and whose genetic makeup had been shaped for millennia by waves of conquest and trade in this region of the Silk Road... [O]ur expedition rolled into the old oasis city of Samarkand... Back at Stanford, my labmates and I had compared hundreds of DNA samples from men around the world, focusing on about a dozen sites along the Y chromosome... Out of curiosity, I submitted my own sample to the database -- and discovered that I matched with four other donors. One was a Turkic-speaking man in western Uzbekistan, two lived in New Delhi, and one was a Tajik living in Samarkand... Sharif's Tajiks are Persian-speakers who moved east to Samarkand well before the arrival of Islam there about 1,300 years ago and the heyday of overland trade. They mixed with people already there and, later, with Turkic immigrants and others. My recent ancestors were Ashkenazi Jews in Ukraine; that population likely moved by several routes from the Middle East to Eastern Europe over the past couple of thousand years, mixing with Indo-European and Turkic people along the way. The common influence of Indo-European, Semitic and Turkic ancestry is one clue to how we might share a recent ancestor. That both Jews and Tajiks plied the Silk Road about a thousand years ago is another."

Tajiks Have Israelite Origin

People of the Tajik nation are the descendents of Scythians, Bactrians and Sogdians, peoples considered to be Israelites by the Two-Houser web Brit-Am lead by Yair Davidy, even if he doesn't consider Tajiks as Lost Israelites' offspring.

Tajiks are of Israelite origin too. It's remarkable that the Persian spoken by the Bukhraran & other Central Asian Jews is Tajik, making Tajiks even closer to them, not to mention the Tajik tradition of lightning candles on Sabbath eve like the Jews. The crown of the Tajik flag represents the Tajik people, the name itself arguably is derived from tajvar, which means "crowned". Interestingly It's considered that Tajiks have origin in royalty. Do they come from the tribe of Benjamin, like the former neighboring Afghan monarchy, or they come from Judah thru David? In traditional Tajik cultural aspects the number "seven" is a symbol of perfection, the embodiment of happiness and the provider of virtue. Curiously the number 7 is the Divine number of completion in Jewish symbolism. According to a Tajik legend, heaven is composed of seven beautiful orchids, separated by seven mountains each with a glowing star on top. Every seventh year of the Hebrew calendar is a Sabbatical year, it's the number of days of Sukkot & of days of Pesach (in Israel), it's also found in the Seven Laws of Noah & in the menorah in the Temple that has seven lamps.

The results of another were released in 2012, showing no genealogical connection between Pashtuns and Jews, as follows. The haplogroup R1a (Y-DNA) is found at a frequency of 51.02% among the Pashtun people. Paragroup Q-M242 (xMEH2,xM378) (of Haplogroup Q (Y-DNA)) was found at 16.3% in Pashtuns.

According to a 2012 study: “MDS and Barrier analysis have identified a significant affinity between Pashtun, Tajik, North Indian, and West Indian populations, creating an Afghan-Indian population structure that excludes the Hazaras, Uzbeks, and the South Indian Dravidian speakers. In addition, gene flow to Afghanistan from India marked by Indian lineages, L-M20, H-M69, and R2a-M124, also seems to mostly involve Pashtuns and Tajiks. This genetic affinity and gene flow suggests interactions that could have existed since at least the establishment of the region's first civilizations at the Indus Valley and the Bactria-Margiana Archaeological Complex.

                                          Bukharan Jewish Children with their Teacher in Samarkand
The Bukharan Jews are close to the Tajik people (Persian speaking people), with whom they share many costums.

In 1800, a Moroccan Jew called Yosef ben Moshe Mammon was hit by poverty establishing himself in the area, opening schools & he brought teaching books from abroad & became the leader of the Bukharan Jews. He reformed the religious practices, eliminating some of the original rytuals from Zoroaster. Natural growth & the arriving of Jews from other countries, like Afghanistan, Iran or Turkey , increasing the Jewish population of the city of Bukhara.

The Ten Lost Tribes: Afghanistan

The Bible mentions the city of Medes as one of the locations of the Assyrian exile of the Ten Tribes of Israel. Most explain and understand this area to be the region in Northwest Persia called Kurdistan. It is an accepted tradition that the people of this area are from the Assyrian exile.

When one considers the possibility of the people of this exile wandering north and east, then this would apply to the Tribes of Israel living in the Caucasian Mountains between the Caspian Sea and the Black Sea which includes the areas of Armenia, Georgia, Azerbaidzhan, and Daghistan (areas of Khazar in old days). An eastern expansion beyond the Caspian sea includes the areas Uzbekistan, Bukhara, and Turkemistan. From these areas it is very easy to move south to Afghanistan, India, Pakistan as well as to get to China.

If one travels from the area of Medes or Hamadan to farther east, crossing the Khayber Mountains or the Khayber Pass, it comes into the frontier of Afghanistan today. There I personally found an amazing sight. There are so many of a tribe with names that had Yusuf in the name as Yusufzai, Yusufuzi, Yusufzad, etc., who claimed origin from the Lost Tribes and I personally believe it. Khaybar & Khyber are other names for the same locations.

Yusuf means Joseph and Yusufzai means children of Joseph. The tribes of Joseph are the tribes of Ephraim and Manasseh who are a part of the Ten Lost Tribes of Israel. They also call themselves Bani-Israel meaning children of Israel. Their tradition is that they were carried away from their ancient homeland. Formerly they were shepherds in search of pasture but they gave up their nomadic life and settled into village communities.

Afghani Jews

There are, in fact, only two known and identifiable Jews left in Afghanistan, as reported extensively in the Israeli press, the Kuwaiti and PLO media report that ?high ranking Israeli sources quoted a Jewish Rabbi of Pashtun origin [the tribe to which most of the Taliban belong] as saying that large number of the Afghani Jews had converted to Islam and should be returned back to their religion (Judaism ).? Their numbers, according to the Arab press, are estimated by the ? Israeli Ministry of Enrolling Jews in Israel? at 1.5 million people.

The Outsiders 

Tajik writer Mansur Surosh's new novel, "Chala," tackles an oft-neglected subject: Bukharan Jews, many of whom converted to Islam in the 18th century. Scorned as traitors by their former religion and never fully accepted by Islamic people, the so-called "chala" have lived an existence that has become a metaphor for the exclusion of minorities in the region.

In Tajik, the word chala means "neither one thing nor another" and often refers to something incomplete, deficient, or flawed. In common usage in Tajikistan, it also refers to Bukharan Jews who converted to Islam. Both their former and adopted communities doubted their intentions, and they were treated as outcasts by all sides.

In his new novel, Chala, Mansur Surosh – a journalist and writer from Tajikistan's Leninabad Oblast – tackles the sensitive issues of nationality and belonging that surround the Bukharan Jews. His passionate, humanistic approach-writing about people's everyday lives-challenges the prevailing literary wisdom where chala has been discussed only as an abstract concept, if at all.

Bukhara (now in southwest Uzbekistan) became dominated by nomadic Uzbek tribes in the 16th century who readily accepted Islam. During the 18th century many Jews-some under social pressure, others with the hope of a better future-converted to Islam. As Islamic fundamentalism grew in the next century, so did the rate of forced conversions and pogroms. In recent decades, particularly in the years following the Soviet dissolution, about 250,000 Bukharan Jews have migrated from Bukhara, Khojand, Kokand, Samarkand, Shahre Sabz, and Tashkent to Israel and the United States. Only a few thousand remain in Bukhara, while in Dushanbe there are a mere 300.

Surosh's novel spans the beginning of the 19th century to the 1970s, as the Bukharan emirate was being dismantled. The author has a remarkable talent for recreating the minute details of everyday life in Central Asia. Surosh colorfully draws Bukhara's streets and squares, events, and customs at the start of the century. Leafing through the book, we pass grocery stores, roadside vendors, souvenir shops, kebab sellers, and teashops. There is the Sallokhona (butcher house) gate and the entrance to the Jewish quarter. And then, along with Jews in their traditional attire, we return to the alley where the synagogue is located.

Owing to several internal and external factors in the 1800s several hundred Bukharan Jews decided to accept Islam so that they could safeguard their rights and social status under the Bukharan Khanate. As a result, they ended up banished from their own community. Yossef is forbidden to see a young Jewish girl, Burho, by a local rabbi, who "decided to save her from any suffering in the future, since there is no future for her in being friends with an outcast."

Though Surosh uses the term chala to describe that specific group of people, other writers have used the term as a metaphor. Timur Pulatov, a Tajik-speaking writer hailing from Bukhara, says that chala is a phenomenon of forced assimilation that may pose a threat to the language and culture of other communities. "Chala is the experience of specific people, irrespective of their nationality, who-for the sake of their welfare and for the sake of the authorities-are prepared to give up their language, their ancestors' beliefs, and their own people".

Pulatov laments: those "power-hungry people who at the time of the establishment of national states in Central Asia cut the Tajik land into parts as if slashing off the head and chest of a mountain lamb, separating Samarkand and Bukhara from the bleeding body. Since that time, I-and millions of inhabitants of Bukhara and Samarkand-am called Tajik by those in Uzbekistan who wish to 'put us in place,' while in Dushanbe-where the chala spirit haunts people-they call us Uzbeks. The most educated, most civilized successors of [Tajik ruler] Ismail Samani-who, despite every pressure and prohibition are trying to preserve their language, culture, etiquette, and customs-have been and are still being treated as chala." The Tajik population living in present-day Uzbekistan considers itself a victim of forced assimilation. Despite this, many Tajiks feel compelled to identify Uzbek as their mother tongue and register as Uzbeks in order to secure jobs and other social benefits.

Until now, nobody has covered this theme with such detail and passion as Surosh. To many, Bukharan Jews appear to be an issue concerning a very limited audience-a local problem in a small community. But Surosh sees this topic within a broader context as communities are forced to change their identity and views. He attempts to examine the social implications and psychological consequences of the way such people are conceived and accordingly treated by others.

It is quite obvious why Surosh's book has failed to get any reviews in Uzbekistan. During the seven decades of Soviet rule, authorities swept aside the nationality issue in an attempt to portray the USSR as a voluntary union of hundreds of nationalities, all of whom enjoyed equal rights. Any attempt to write about those issues was considered a provocation that might have pitted nationalities against each other. Such attitudes remain deeply ingrained.

In an interview with Transitions Online, Surosh points out that "for a long time, issues such as minority rights were not covered sufficiently other than a passing comment here and there." That is why he decided to "break the taboo and write about a topic that may take modern Tajik fiction to a higher, perhaps global plane, since it sheds light on a far-reaching issue rather than just a local issue." Although he feels it is an untraditional theme, Surosh believes it is an issue that must be brought into the open. "I am always on the side of the sufferers, and [I] like that my readers feel the same way too."

Marina Kovtun, who is writing a doctoral thesis on Surosh's writings at the Russia-Tajikistan Slavic University in Dushanbe, says a lack of awareness about the past may lead to an inability to understand the present, and Surosh's work tries to figure out if and why the chala became victims of circumstance.

Surosh freely admits that he takes the side of "those who become the hostage of intolerance and sanctimony." He says plainly, "under the present sinful times, to find a true Muslim is as difficult as looking for a real Jew." The book is indeed sympathetic toward chala, even to the point of romanticizing them.

Najam Abbas conducted his doctoral research on Central Asia's Russian-language press at universities in Kazakhstan (1994-1997) and Tajikistan (1998). He works for an international project in Dushanbe designing humanities curricula for Central Asian universities.

Transitions articles on Jewish communities and ethnic identity:

Konstanty Gebert's "Poland Contends With Its Vanished Jews" from February 1998, discusses how Poland continues to suffer "phantom pains" from its Jewish losses. In January 1999 edition Johanna Grohova confronted "Czech Disinterest in the Holocaust." She argues that current Czech school textbooks are spreading misinformation about the remaining Jews and ignore their role as a social group. In October 1998 Nadira Artyk discussed the post-Soviet "Exodus of Minorities" from Central Asia. After years of living together-mainly as a result of Soviet forced resettlement policies-many of Uzbekistan's non-indigenous ethnic minorities chose to return to their historic homelands. The process was certainly accelerated (according to the author) by Uzbekistan's increasingly mono-ethnic practices. In November 1999 Felix Corley analyzed the Uzbek government's track record in terms of tolerance of religious groups in light of the decision to release five Christians and one Jehovah's Witness from prison.


Lyuli (Russian: Люли) are a subgroup of the Dom people living in Central Asia, primarily Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan. Lyuli speak a Lyuli dialect of the Domari language.

The Lyuli practice Islam. They have a clan organization (the Lyuli word for clan is tupar, the Jughi word - avlod). Division into sub-clans is also practiced. The Lyuli community is extremely closed towards non-Lyuli (like Gypsies toward gadge or Jews toward Goyim).

Traditional occupations: crafts, including jewelry, cattle trading, mendicancy and music.

There are many names for the Lyuli: Jughi, Multani or Luli. However, they refer to themselves as Mugat or Mughat (Persian: مغان, derives from Old Persian magi‎), which means "fire-worshipper" (attributed to the Gypsies too), as well as Ghurbat (Arabic: غربات), which means "lonely". The term Multani signifies a person who originates from the city of Multan (in modern-day Pakistan), because some of the Lyuli emigrated from Multan around 1380 AD. According to Professor Khol Nazarov, the ancestors of the Lyuli belonged to a caste of singers, musicians and dancers. Faced with hardship in their homeland, they were forced to leave, and dispersed worldwide.

The Lyuli live in the south of Kyrgyzstan, in Osh Province. Their living standard is extremely low due to discrimination. Many children are devoid of education in their mother tongue and many Lyuli have no documents. Lyuli society is working towards improvement of their living standards and preservation of their culture.

In the beginning of the 1990s, Lyuli started migrating into Russian cities, placing especially near railway stations and markets. At first, Russians mistakenly identified them as Tajik refugees, ethnically Tajiks and Uzbeks, due to their dress in traditional Oriental robes. Russian Roma emphasize that the Lyuli are a population distinct from them. However, Russians consider the Lyuli to be Romanies, because of the resemblance with the Roma.

Are the Baluchis Israelites? Part of them seem like they are.

The Baloch have Syrian origin but, since Syrians (Arameans) were neighbors (& relatives of the Israelites) there are probably some important pockets of Israelites among them. These Syrians were probably taken captive by the Assyrians to the area were Baluchis are now just as with the Israelites (Pashtuns...). Many of the names of the Baluchi clans are noticeable like the Kata, a name similar to the Khata Palestinians or the Hata in Japan, both being of Israelite origin. The Baluches, or part of them, may have come partially (some tribes or clans) from the Lost Ten Tribes because (apart from the fact tha they are neighboring the Pashtun Israelites) they are in one of the areas these Israelites sojourned. There's, for example, a Beluchi clan named Gaddi which is Gadite in Hebrew. Are Gadi Baluches living in Punjab Gadites? Gautama Buddha is believed to be Gadite as well & Nepal is not that far away from Kashmir.

In Hebrew "lo yasok" means not to involve oneself in the matters too much. Interestingly there's a village in Nepal with that name. Yasuko is a Japanese given name. Yasuq b. Manoah was a Jewish or Samaritan writer in Aramaic who wrote in 132-135 C.E. Yasuq is also an Aramaic word & a name found among Muslims. It's also a word found among the Amerindians of Sonora, México. Sikkim is the plural of sekh, being the same as the Arabic shauk, "a thorn" (Nu 33:55, "pricks". Sikkim is an Indian state that was independent until 1975. Sikkim is right next to Nepal & Tibet. Is it a coincidence that it has a Hebrew meaning?

KaThmandu, the Nepalese capital has the consonants KT equivalent to GD. I mentioned Nepal as a place with Israelite GaDites. KaThmandu could receive its name from KehaT, one of the priestly clans of Levi, but I'm more inclined to believe that received its name from GaD because there are peoples in the area identified as GaDites & even the very GauTama Buddha is identified as such.

Qais, the Hebrew ancestror of the Pathans was born in Baluchistan.

The Baluchi is a very mixed people, especially certain clans. Judging from their ancestry I reckoned the Rajputs to be Lost Israelites. It's noteworthy that Baluches once were Rajputs, to be exact they were Rajput Balaecha. The baluches are not included in the Afghan (Pashtun) genealogies, although the Afghans consider them as kindred of the same stock. The reason why they're not included in their genealogies is that the Baluches don't follow the Pashtunwali, a Pashtun code of of conduct very similar to the Law of Moses & because they don't speak Pashto. Their feudal form of government is like the Pashtuns'. The main factors that made the two groups different from each other are that ones were more Persianized & the others more Indianized as well as political reasons. The Bahrechi, with the Baluches were once one and the same Rajput tribe. They, Bahrechis, claim pridefully the same Israelite ancestry as the Pathans, speak Pashto & are counted as Pathans. Nevertheless the Baluches scorn the idea of having common ancestry with the Pashtuns.

Here are some Baloch tribes that might be the Israelite pockets within the Baluch nation: Askani, Badini (Rakhshani), Bakhrani, Dagarzai, Barakzai, Baranzai, Barazani, Barija, Barmani, Barr, Bhurgari or Bhurgri, Buledi, Bulfati, Buzdar, Bilwani, Dannarzai, Dareshak, Drakhshan, Durrazai, Esani, Esaani, Essazai, Essazai (Kalmati), Gadi, Gabol, Gadani, Gadhi, Gajani, Gamshadzehi, Gashkori, Ghallu, Gholghola, Ghanbarzehi, Ghazini, Ghazakandi Gorgaij, Goarazai, Gola, Gorgage, Gorshani, Gulfad, Gudaro, Gurgunari, Gurmani, Gyandar, Gudara, Guldani, Gorhani, Hasni, Halazai, Harooni, Heesbani, Jadgal (Jat Tribe), Jakhrani (Jatt tribe), Jalbani, Jamaldini, Jamali, Jarwar, Jatoi, Muslim Jat, Jattak, Jiskani, Kalmati, Kalpar, Kambarzahi, Kanera or Kanera Khel, Karlu, Kashani, Katbal, Khalol, Kharal, Kharani, Khetran, Khurasani, Kizilbash, Korai, Lamba, Lund, Rakshani, Badini, Jamaldini Ramdani, Rodeni, Rodnani Saeedani Shadani Sumalani, Sumrah, Thingani, Dera, Ghazi, Khan, Waddani...

As well as a Middle Eastern origin, the Baluches are considered to have Saka origins like the Pashtuns, Tajiks... being Sistan (ancient Sakistan) their original area. Both theories are easily reconciled beacause the Sakas were Peersian speaking Israelites & therefore from the Middle East, before they were established by the Persians (& taking their language, as well as changing their name from Israel to to Sakas or Sakasunis after Isaac their ancestor) in what became called Sakistan after them.

The preffix bal of the pagan middle eastern Baal might be in the word Baluch.

Baloch are a Semitic tribe. It will be beneficial to research our roots and determine which tribe of Israel did we originate from. Baloch are Partly Jews as a big number of the efream tribe in ancient time moved from Egypt to cannaan, sumer, Iran, sistan and balochistan and now mostly the present tribe of Rakhshani and notani are the Efraem sons who still kept the culture, the Jews names, the character, the biblical stories and a lot more. This is certainly insightful information. In fact, the “Ten Lost Tribes of Israel” are: 1. GAD 2. REUVEN (REUBEN or RUBEN) 3. SIMON (SHIMON) 4. ASHER 5. DAN (found and confirmed, late 1980s) 6. ZEBULON (ZEBULUN, ZEVULON, a.k.a. brother to NAFTALI tribe) 7. ISSACHAR (a.k.a. YITZACHAR) 8. MANASSEH (MENASHE) 9. EFRAIM 10. NAFTALI

And, through additional research, we could prove that the Baloch are descendants of the tribe of Efraim.

The Nuristanis, with their usual light features, may be ethnically related to the Pashtuns & it is believed that the Nuristanis are the offspring of the Sakas. This is believed because the Kambojas are considered to be the royal clan of the Sakas & the Nuristanis are the offspring of Kambojas. The Nuristanis are the neighbors of the Pashtuns.

The Muslim Jews - Chalah in Central Asia

The history of the Bukharan Jews who were converted to Islam (the Chalah) remains almost unknown till today. Although many publications on the history of Bukharan Jews devoted a few lines to Jewish converts to Islam, most of their authors, lacking a sufficient number of reliable sources, only mention the problem and attemptto determine the time frame of the conversions.

There are several works of limited scientific interest on the problem. I. Babakhanov briefly reported about the history of the Chalah on the basis of oral reports and described their rites. The same issues were discussed in greater detail by O. Sukhareva in her monograph on the history of Bukhara, whitch described the methods used in converting Bukharan Jews to Islam and areas in the city of Bukhara where the Chalah lived. M. Zand's article presented evidence about the areas of the Bukhara emirate and its capital Bukhara in which the Chalah had settled, and reported data about their mid-nineteenth-century population. The almost complete absenced of sources on the history of Muslim Jews in Central Asia makes it impossible to form a complete picture of the conversion of Central Asian Jews to Islam and their subse-quent legal status and social circumstances. But, the documents of the Tzarist period discovered by the present author in the Central Archive of Uzbekistan allow us to trace a specific period in the history of the Chalah.

Chala (Jews)

Chala is an Uzbek term meaning "neither this nor that," referring to Bukharan Jews who were allegedly forcibly converted to Islam beginning in the late eighteenth century. In response, these Chala Jews outwardly practiced Islam, but secretly retained their Jewish traditions. These crypto-Jews married among themselves and lived in their own neighborhoods that bordered on existing Jewish neighborhoods. The Chala Jews carry a very similar story to the Marranos of Spain.

Chala Jews were unable to return to their true Jewish faith due to the fatal consequences associated with leaving the Islamic faith. The Islamic rulership during this period imposed a death penalty against those renouncing their Islamic faith. Therefore, it was not until the emergence of Imperial Russia, and Soviet rule that Chala Jews were able to revert to their original faith. Ironically, these crypto-Jews lived in nearby neighborhoods that sat next to existing Jewish neighborhoods, where there were openly practicing Jews living at the same time as the Chala.

By the 19th century, there were Chala communities that emerged in the cities of: Samarkand, Khiva, Kokand, Margilan, and Shahrisabz. Often, it was not until two to three generations that Chala Jews would begin to intermarry with the local Muslim population and shed any remaining Jewish traditions.

The return of the Chala to Judaism began with the Russian conquest of Central Asia in 1867. While the Khiva and Kokand khanates were incorporated into the Turkestan governorate, the Bukhara Khanate remained autonomous and continued to enforce the death penalty against those who abandoned Islam. As a result, many Chala Jews illegally immigrated into Russian controlled areas, to escape the certain threat of death. Although Russian law required that these newcomers to be deported back to Bukhara and face an imminent death, the deportation orders were continuously delayed, and thus many had remained as permanent non-citizens of the Russian Turkestan region. Some Chala Jews also joined merchant guilds in order to prove their economic use to the empire. Because Muslim law was retained in Bukhara for a longer period than in surrounding cities, by the time communist Soviet rule arrived in Bukhara, many members of the local Chala no longer identified themselves as Jewish, and were fully assimilated into the Muslim population.

Following the installation of Soviet rule in 1920, the religious distinction among the population was no longer officially recognized. Nevertheless, ethnic distinctions on passports enabled many Chala Jews to continue being counted as ethnic Uzbeks and Tajiks, rather than Jews.

In 2000, author Mansur Surosh published a novel Chala ("The Outcasts"), which describes the experiences of the chala.

The Jewish ‘New Muslims’ of Meshhed, Iran

In 1839 an unfounded rumor spread among the Shi’ite Muslims of the town of Meshed in northeastern Iran that a Jewish woman had committed an act of disrespect towards Islam.

According to a period account preserved in the Central Zionist Archives in Jerusalem, an angry mob “attacked the Jewish quarter, broke into the Jewish houses, and robbed and looted everything they could lay their hands on. They beat the Jews cruelly, killed 36 Jewish men, and abducted many beautiful Jewish maidens taking them into the houses of Muslims.”

Following this traumatic pogrom, the roughly 400 Jewish families in Meshed were forced to convert to Islam, an event that became known locally as the Allahdad. The word means “God’s gift” in Arabic, but the Jews interpreted it as “God’s punishment.” Thereafter, they were known as the Jadid al-Islam or “new Muslims.”

Outwardly, the Jews of Meshed practised Islam — they prayed in mosques, performed wedding ceremonies and buried their dead in accordance with Muslim rituals, even made the required pilgrimages to Mecca and Medina. Inwardly, however, they remained Jewish. As Raphael Patai writes in his well-researched 1997 book, Jadid Al-Islam: The Jewish “New Muslims” of Meshhed (Wayne State University) nothing could have prevented them “from reciting the Jewish prayers in the privacy of their homes and maintaining the consciousness of being Jews and not Muslims.”

The Jadidim kept a separate cemetery, fasted in secret on Yom Kippur, and kept up many Jewish rituals away from the prying eyes of their Shi’ite neighbours. These crypto-Jews of Meshed thus maintained a complex dual life filled with a parallel assortment of difficulties and perils that the Conversos must have faced in Inquisition-era Spain.

Scholars Gotthard Deutsch and Elkan N. Adler, writing in the Jewish Encyclopedia about a century ago, numbered the colony of secret Jews in Meshed at about 2,000 and noted they had been forcibly converted in the previous century under the cruel reign of “Shah Nur al-Din’s father.” They also noted that some had migrated to “transcaspian territory” and were practising Judaism in Merv, Ashcabad, Bokhara and Samarcand.

It was another 40 years before Patai began his research by conducting extensive interviews with elders of the Meshhed Jadidim community who had arrived in Jerusalem. He wrote some articles at the time, then let his knowledge grow and mature for half a century. His book on the Meshed Jews was one of the prolific scholar’s last. He died in 1996 at the age of 85, leaving this significant work to be published posthumously.

Through a masterful examination of many sources, the book traces the history of Jewish life in Meshhed before, during and after the Allahdad. One chapter describes the “decade of blood libels” that began in 1892; another focuses on the lure of early Zionism which brought many members of the endangered community to Erez Israel; yet another is devoted to the many folktales and legends that sprang up among this singular Jewish subtribe. Patai also discusses birth customs, Jewish names and origins, Hebrew education, marriage and burial customs, and provides a glossary of Judeo-Persian vocabulary.

The book offers a fascinating account of a little-known branch of the Jewish family tree whose roots date back 2,500 years to ancient Persia at the time of the first exile.

Kalash people

One of the key festivals of the Kalash focuses upon the death and rebirth of a “shepherd god”, seen as a savior figure among the People (is this a corruption of the ancient Israelite Messiah, called the Good shepherd in the new Testament?). An European researcher who lived among the Kalash remarked that their creation myths resemble those of the Ancient Greeks or Germanic tribes, more than those of their neighbors.
A typical Kalash dwelling for the tribal elders in the process of being refurbished. These homes often have a simple bathing room within to promote health (just as as prescribed in the Torah & followed by the Jews).

Kalashan is a village in the Azeri (Lost Israelite) area of Iran, the area were the Lost Ten Tribes were first placed. The name of the Kalashas may come from this toponym.

The Kalashas had their own empire. The Kalashas live close to Kashmir in the Kalasha Valleys, Chitral (& Gilgit in a lesser measure), Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.

They are regarded as a caste. Their alledged polytheism (perhaps their 12 gods & goddesses are a deformation of the story of the 12 patriarchs which werer really their ancestors) might be a whole mix of local religions (Hinduism, Buddhism...) with Israelite religion & pagan Middle Eastern religions. The Kalasha religion resembles Greek & Vedic religions. As in Judaism, menstruating girls & women are sent to the village menstrual building called bashaleni) until they regain "purity". There's also a rituaal to restore the woman's purity. These women also give birth in the same building. The truth is that their religion & culture are unique & attract many tourists & anthropologist scholars. They are also called Non-Believer, maybe because in monotheistic Pakistan non-Abrahamic religions are regarded as such. Muslim Kalash are expelled from the Kalash areas, but move close by.

The Kashmiris are linguistic cousins (both speaking Dardic languages) & they are considered as Israelites like the Kashmiris. They number about 4100 people. In another ocasion I suggested that the Dardani were Israelites of the Balcans. Balcan might be "Baal Canaan" meaning "Lord of Canaan". The Dardics live in part in Baltistan & span the Kashmiris that are Israelites. "Dar" is pearl in Hebrew. Another name for Dard is shin, which is a Hebrew letter.
It's interesting that the Pathans of Bajaur are related with the Kalash of Citral. This relation might be due to genetic relation because of  both's Israelite origin since neither belong to the other's religion.

Kal, Kalache, Kalachi  are Jewish surnames. Both are similar to Kalash & Karachi. The Kalash are Lost Israelites from Pakistan. They live near the border with India & Tibet. Karachi is also in Pakistan, but in the south. Karachi is the largest Pakistani city. 

                                                            Sacred Mountain Kailash 

There's a Kailash mountain in neighboring Tibet, & Kailash (Kayla is a Biblical name & one name for which some of the Ethiopian Jews are called), one of the names for which the Kalash were named before as well, so they might have been there some time. Moreover this mountain is considered sacred by Buddhists, Hindus... to the point that there's pilgrimage, although is forbidden 
stepping on the mountain's slopes. The consideration of the mountain as sacred & the prohibition of stepping on the slops might have originated on Israel's memory of their sacred mountains Sinai, Moriah...

In this picture are mounts Meru & Kailash, the triangular shaped lake Manasa (considered to be named after Manasha the Israelite tribe), Kedarnath city & sanctuary the cities of Mohali & Mandi. Of the two lakes Manasa is the one on the left. Kedarnath was named after a local king named Kedar who probably descended from the ancient local Kedarites. They were nearby the Israelites in the Middle East so they might have been taken captive & ended up with them in these areas. Mount Meru could be but a deformation of the original Israelite mount Moriah. The name Mandi is similar to Manda, which another form of Manasha. Mohali is the very name of the Lemba (African Israelites) only God. In all of these names we have to remember that vowels didn't really exist in Semitic languages.
In ancient israel there was a city known as Laish or Lasha & Lhasa is Tibet 's capital, which is not extremely far from thw previous locations.

The neighboring Nuristanis once practiced the Kalash religion. They probably were once the same people, to the point that some  of the Nuristanis are called Kalasha too, although their languages are not closely related. Apparently Nuristan was once called Kafiristan & Kalasha even before.

The neighborly ethnicity, Balti (from which the district if Baltistan receives name), has some Dardic admixture, predominating the Tibetan ethnicity though. These Baltis (speakers of the Tibeto-Burman language Balti) might be the link between Kashmiri & Tibeto-Burman speaking Israelites (Chinkukis, Chiangs, Karens...).

Baltistan, in Kashmir, means, country of Balti. Balti is a Tibetan language. The name might have the same origin as Baltic & both might have come from the Middle Eastern pagan god Baal (meaning lord) worshipped by the Israelites. The suffix "ti" in some African (Hebraized ones like Ashanti, Fanti...) languages means "race of", "men of",  "children of", "people of "... If Ashanti is "People of Ashan" (located in Biblical Israel) & Fanti is "People of Fan", then I suggest the Balti people to be Baalti or "People of  Baal".

Toponyms of Kashmir usually overseen are: Ghanche (Guanche, old inhabitant of the Canaries.), Astore (Asteroth, a pagan Israelite god), Gilgit (Golgotha or Gilgal), Shaksgam (Ishak or Isaac with added suffix), Shigar (Ishakar), Skardu (Isakar), Galtari (Galdar, in the Canaries, Celt, Caledonia & Galut, diaspora in Hebrew).

The three main festivals (khawsáṅgaw) of the Kalash are the Joshi festival in late May, the Uchau in autumn, and the Caumus in midwinter. The pastoral god Sorizan protects the herds in Fall and Winter and is thanked at the winter festival, while Goshidai does so until the Pul festival (pũ. from *pūrṇa, full moon in Sept.) and is thanked at the Joshi (joṣi, žōši) festival in spring. Joshi is celebrated at the end of May each year. The first day of Joshi is "Milk Day", on which the Kalash offer libations of milk that have been saved for ten days prior to the festival.

The ornamental flowers of their dresses often have 12 petals (for the 12 tribes maybe) & 6 (Star of David maybe).

The most important Kalash festival is the Chawmos (cawmōs, ghona chawmos yat, Khowar "chitrimas" from *cāturmāsya, CDIAL 4742), which is celebrated for two weeks at winter solstice (c. Dec. 7-22), at the beginning of the month chawmos mastruk. It marks the end of the year's fieldwork and harvest. It involves much music, dancing, and the sacrifice of many goats. It is dedicated to the god Balimain (Baal like ancint Israel) who is believed to visit from the mythical homeland of the Kalash, Tsyam (Tsiyam, tsíam), for the duration of the feast. Food sacrifices are offered at the clans' Jeshtak shrines, dedicated to the ancestors.

At Chaumos, impure and uninitiated persons are not admitted; they must be purified by a waving a fire brand over women and children and by a special fire ritual for men, involving a shaman waving juniper brands over the men. The 'old rules' of the gods (Devalog, dewalōk) are no longer in force, as is typical for year-end and carnival-like rituals. The main Chaumos ritual takes place at a Tok tree, a place called Indra's place, "indrunkot", or "indréyin". Indrunkot is sometimes believed to belong to Balumain's brother, In(dr), lord of cattle. Ancestors, impersonated by young boys (ōnjeṣṭa 'pure') are worshipped and offered bread; they hold on to each other and form a chain (cf. the Vedic anvārambhaṇa) and snake through the village (one of the worst sins committed by the Israelites & condemned by the Lord was the sexual sin, remarkably sodomy, promiscuity, adultery...that were bracketed in a higher level of sinning seriousness: abomination. Israel's sins finished in deportation & loss of identity as Israelites, unlike Judah, the Jews. This might be why these people ha promiscuity until recent times, although Hinduism had a promiscuous past.).

This includes the Festival of the Budulak (buḍáḷak, the 'shepherd king'. The Messiah is a Shepherd King & king David as well.).

During the winter the Kalash play an inter-village tournament of Chikik Gal (ball game) in which villages compete against each other to hit a ball up and down the valley in deep snow.

Altars of Sajigor are of stone and are under old juniper, oak and cedar trees (Israel worshipped in groves too.). Horses, cows, goats and sheep were sacrificed. Wine is a sacred drink of Indr, who owns a vineyard- (Indruakun in the Kafiristani wama valley contained both sacred vineyard and shrine (Idol and altar below a great juniper tree) along with 4 large vates carved out of rocks).

Recently, the Kalash have been able to stop their demographic and cultural spiral towards extinction and have, for the past 30 years, been on the rebound. Increased international awareness, a more tolerant government, and monetary assistance has allowed them to continue their way of life. Their numbers remain stable at around 3,000. Although many convert to Islam, the high birth rate replaces them, and with medical facilities (previously there were none) they live longer.

Allegations of "immorality" connected with their practices have led to the forcible conversion to Islam of several villages in the 1950s, which has led to heightened antagonism between the Kalash and the surrounding Muslims. Since the 1970s, schools and roads were built in some valleys. Ali and Rehman (2001) report that pressure of radical Muslim organizations is on the increase:

Ardent Muslims on self-imposed missions to eradicate idolatry regularly attack those engaged in traditional Kalash religious rituals, smashing their idols. The local Mullahs and the visiting Tableghi Jammaites remain determined to 'purify' the Kafirs.

Being a very small minority in a Muslim region, the Kalash are under increasing danger from proselytising Muslim militants from just across the border in Afghanistan and their hardline interpretation of Islam.

Genetic analysis of Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) by Quintana-Murci et al. (2004) stated that "the western Eurasian presence in the Kalash population reaches a frequency of 100%" with the most prevalent mtDNA Haplogroups being U4 (34%), R0 (23%), U2e (16%), and J2 (9%). The study asserted that no East or South Asian lineages were detected and that the Kalash population is composed of western Eurasian lineages (as the associated lineages are rare or absent in the surrounding populations). The authors concluded that a western Eurasian origin for the Kalash is likely, in view of their maternal lineages.

A study by Hellenthal et al. (2014) on the DNA of the Kalash people showed evidence of input from Europe or the Middle East (the researchers could not pin down a precise geographic location) between 990 and 210 BC, a period that overlaps with that of Alexander the Great.

Historically a goat herding and subsistence farming people, the Kalash are moving towards a cash-based economy whereas previously wealth was measured in livestock and crops. Tourism now makes up a large portion of the economic activities of the Kalash. To cater to these new visitors, small stores and guest houses have been erected, providing new luxury for visitors of the valleys. People attempting to enter the valleys have to pay a toll to the Pakistani government, which is used to preserve and care for the Kalash people and their culture.

The Kalash are briefly visited in the first episode of the 2004 BBC television series Himalaya with Michael Palin. The program featured some cultural background and current customs, highlighting the claim to be descendants of Alexander the Great as well as some of the stunning scenery of the Kalash homeland.

Zarah, his son Darda & the Dardic people: Kashmiris, Kalash, Baltis

Baltis are only Dardic genetically in part because their language is Tibetan.

An examination of some of the historical clues reveals that Darda (from Darda would come the Dardani ancestors of the Albanians, the Baltis & the mentioned Dardic speakers of Himalaya: Kalash & Kashmiris), “the Egyptian”, (son of Zarah) was “Dardanus”, the Egyptian founder of Troy: “Hecataeus, therefore, tells us that the Egyptians, formerly, being troubled by calamities, in order that the divine wrath might be averted, expelled all the aliens gathered together in Egypt. Of these, some, under their leaders Danus and Cadmus, migrated to Greece.” (Fragmenta Historicorum by Muller; vol, pg 385) – copies from the works of Hecataeus of Abdera, a fourth century B.C. Greek historian).

The “calamities” referred to were obviously the plagues which G-d brought down on the Egyptians, and the “aliens” were the Israelites, some of whom migrated to Greece with Danus and Cadmus, while others, under the leadership of Moses, made their exodus to the Wilderness of Sinai.

Diodorus gives us another version of the same story: “Now the Egyptians say that also after these events a great number of colonies were spread from Egypt all over the inhabited world…They say also that those who set forth with Danaus, likewise from Egypt, settled what is practically the oldest city of Greece, Argos, and that the nations of the Colchi in Pontus and that of the Jews (remnant of Judah), which lies between Arabia and Syria, were founded as colonies by certain emigrants from their country; and this is the reason why it is a long-established institution among these peoples to circumcise their male children the custom having been brought from Egypt. Even the Athenians, they say, are from Sais in Egypt,’.

The descendants of Darda ruled ancient Troy from some hundreds of years, until the city was destroyed in the famous “siege of Troy”. Aeneas, the last of the royal blood (Zarah-Judah), collected the remnants of his nation and traveled with them to Italy. There he married the daughter of Latinus, king of the Latins and subsequently founded the great Roman Empire.

Aeneas’s son (or grandson) Brutus, with a large party of the Trojans, migrated to Malta, and there was advised to re-establish his people in “the Great White Island” (an early name for Britain due to its chalk cliffs). This advice is recorded in an archaic Greek form on the Temple of Diana in Caer Troia (New Troy). An historic stone still stands in the town of Totnes, on the shores of Torbay, commemorating his coming (circa 1103 B.C.) Brutus then made contact with his kindred blood in Britain and built for himself a new capital city to which he gave the name “Caer Troia”, or New Troy. The Romans later called it “Londinium”, now known as London.”

Stranger than fiction, the story of the Lost Ten Tribes of the House of Israel, were becoming so numerous that they did not even know their legitimate brothers of the House of Jacob. So, we have the Lost Israelite, Alexander the Great, the Argive (Argead) Danite from the House of Dan, was fighting his own tribal brothers above the Black Sea that included the Sakya (sons of Isaac), the Massagetai (house of Manasseh) and the Pasargadae (house of Gad) yet, they broke the spirit of the Macedonian warriors that they revolted in India and forced, Alexander the Great, one of the greatest generals in history to retreat.

Yet below the Black Sea, the Argive son of the Aegeans hundreds of years earlier, the descendants of Zarah, the son of Judah who were living near the Strait of Dardanelles, one of history’s most famous citadel wars, the Aegean ten-year siege against the Citadel of Troy gave history its most famous Israelite warrior, Alexander the Great. Is there any doubt that the G-d of Israel knew the future when He spoke through the pen of Jeremiah the Prophet:

Jeremiah 51:20-21 – “You are My battle-ax and weapons of war: for with you I will break the nation in pieces; with you I will destroy kingdoms; with you I will break in pieces the horse and its rider; with you I will break in pieces the chariot and its rider.”

And we doubt that the G-d of Israel is capable of controlling the affairs of the nations today, until the great day of redemption is upon us; called the “Era of the Messiah?”


Pashtunwali (Pashto: پښتونوالی‎) or Pakhtunwali is a non-written (like the Oral Law) ethical code and traditional lifestyle which the indigenous Pashtun people follow. It could be said that it is simply a system of law and governance from the prehistoric times when humanity was completely illiterate or unable to use written instruments such as books, and is preserved and used up until modern times but mostly in the rural tribal areas. Some in the Indian subcontinent refer to it as "Pathanwali". Its meaning may also be interpreted as "the way of the Pashtuns" or "the code of life". Pashtunwali dates back to ancient pre-Islamic times and is widely practiced among Pashtuns, especially among the non-urbanized Pashtuns in the countryside. In addition to being practiced by members of the Pashtun diaspora, it has been adopted by some non-Pashtun Afghans and Pakistanis that live in the Pashtun regions or close to the Pashtuns, who have gradually become Pashtunized over time. During the Pashtun-dominated Taliban regime, Pashtunwali was practiced throughout the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan in conjunction with the Taliban's interpretation of Deobandi Islam.

The native Pashtun tribes, often described as fiercely independent people, have inhabited the Pashtunistan region (Afghanistan) since at least the 1st millennium BC. During that period, much of their mountainous territory has remained outside government rule or control. This is perhaps the main reason why indigenous Pashtuns still follow Pashtunwali, which is a basic common law of the land or "code of life".

"Although it pre-dates Islam the two have become inseparable for many Pashtuns, even though in practice Pashtunwali codes often contradict the Qur’an. Such is the case with the Pashtun practice of dividing inheritances equally among sons, even though the Qur’an clearly states that women are to receive an equal share."

Pashtunwali rules are accepted in Afghanistan and Pakistan (mainly in and around the Pashtunistan region), and also in some Pashtun communities around the world. Some non-Pashtun Afghans and others have also adopted its ideology or practices for their own benefit. Conversely, many urbanized Pashtuns tend to ignore the rules of Pashtunwali. Passed on from generation to generation, Pashtunwali guides both individual and communal conduct. Practiced by the majority of Pashtuns, it helps to promote Pashtunization.

Ideal Pukhtun behaviour approximates the features Pukhtunwali, the code of the Pukhtuns, which includes the following traditional features: courage (tora), revenge (badal), hospitality (melmestia), generosity to a defeated...—Maliha Zulfacar, 1999

Pashtuns embrace an ancient traditional, spiritual, and communal identity tied to a set of moral codes and rules of behaviour, as well as to a record of history spanning some seventeen hundred years.

Pashtunwali promotes self-respect, independence, justice, hospitality, love, forgiveness, revenge and tolerance toward all (especially to strangers or guests). It is considered[by whom?] to be the personal responsibility of every Pashtun to discover and rediscover Pashtunwali's essence and meaning.

It is the way of the Pathans. We have melmestia, being a good host, nanawatai, giving asylum, and badal, vengeance. Pashtuns live by these things.—Abdur, A character in Morgen's War

The Pathan tribes are always engaged in private or public war. Every man is a warrior, a politician and a theologian. Every large house is a real feudal fortress....Every family cultivates its vendetta; every clan, its feud.... Nothing is ever forgotten and very few debts are left unpaid. Winston Churchill (My Early Life - Chapter 11: The Mahmund Valley)

Although not exclusive, the following ten principles (like the number of commandments) form the major components of Pashtunwali. They are headed with the words of the Pashto language that signify individual or collective Pashtun tribal functions.

Melmastia (hospitality) - Showing hospitality and profound respect to all visitors, regardless of race, religion, national affiliation or economic status and doing so without any hope of remuneration or favour. Pashtuns will go to great lengths to show their hospitality.

Nanawatai (asylum) - Derived from the verb meaning to go in, this refers to the protection given to a person against his or her enemies. People are protected at all costs (similar to the Levitic cities of refuge); even those running from the law must be given refuge until the situation can be clarified. Nanawatai can also be used when the vanquished party in a dispute is prepared to go in to the house of the victors and ask for their forgiveness. (It is a peculiar form of "chivalrous" surrender, in which an enemy seeks "sanctuary" at his enemy's house). A notable example is that of Navy Petty Officer First Class Marcus Luttrell, the sole survivor of a US Navy SEAL team ambushed by Taliban fighters. Wounded, he evaded the enemy and was aided by members of the Sabray tribe who took him to their village. The tribal chief protected him, fending off attacking tribes until word was sent to nearby US forces.

Badal (justice) - To seek justice or take revenge against the wrongdoer. No time limit restricts the period in which revenge can be taken. Justice in Pashtun lore needs elaborating: even a mere taunt (or "Paighor") counts as an insult which usually can only be redressed by shedding the taunter's blood. If he is out of reach, his closest male relation must suffer the penalty instead. Badal may lead to blood feuds that can last generations and involve whole tribes with the loss of hundreds of lives. Normally blood feuds in this male-dominated society are settled in a number of ways.

Turah (bravery) - A Pashtun must defend his land, property, family and women from incursions. He should always stand bravely against tyranny and be able to defend the honour of his name. Death can follow if anyone offends this principle.

Sabat (loyalty) - Pashtuns owe loyalty to their family, friends and tribe members. Pashtuns can never become disloyal as this would be a matter of shame for their families and themselves.

Imandari (righteousness) - A Pashtun must always strive for good in thought, word and deed. Pashtuns must behave respectfully to people, to animals and to the environment around them. Pollution of the environment or its destruction is against the Pashtunwali.

Isteqamat - Trust in God (known as "Allah" in Arabic and "Khudai" in Pashto). The notion of trusting in one Creator generally comports to the Islamic idea of belief in only one God (tawheed).

Ghayrat (respect, honour and courage) - Pashtuns must demonstrate courage. Their honor, or pride, has great importance in Pashtun society and must be preserved. They must respect themselves and others in order to be able to do so, especially those they do not know. Respect begins at home, among family members and relatives. If one does not have "Ghayrat" they are not classed as a Pashtun.

Naamus (protection of women) - A Pashtun must defend the honour of women at all costs and must protect them from vocal and physical harm.

Nang (honor) - a Pashtun must defend the weak around him.

7 comentarios:

  1. That is a lot of text let me put it simple there is genetic test that show we are not jews sorry

  2. You cancer white losers are a plague, no South Asians are related to you, the Kalash are genetically isolated tribes in the Himalayas, they speak an Indo Aryan language similar to most north Indians, they just don't have as much australoid admixture, the Kashmiris have 22%, and the Pashtuns in Afghanistan have 18%, you're a pathetic phaggot who will never be related to these people, its a habit of white people to claim people in south asia as their own, if you tell my friends from Peshawar that they're even slightly related to you British phags, they would cut your throat off.

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  4. No, Kashmiris speak a dard language which is a branch of Indo Aryan, they have haplogroup L and R1a1 which is typical Pakistani haplogroups, the Kalash are also Rig veda Aryan people who are the original hindus, they never adopted Hinduism, they're the original thats why some of the worship is older than the ganges hindu versions, the area use to be Kaffiristan meaning the land of the infidels, the Afridis are mostly Pashtunized people of dard like every Karlani people, thats why their names are mentioned in Panini text, the Pashtun language is eastern iranic and is most likely related to Scythian, the Sarabani Pashtuns are however Huns, the word Guzara is from the Gujjar tribes in those areas. Everybody is R1a1 M17 throughout the area.

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  7. What utter nonsense. I have never read such unsubstantiated speculation ever before! :) A number of global DNA /genome projects have proven time and again that the Pashtuns are of Indo-European stock, with over 90% genes related to Indo-Iranian and similar peoples. Ignorant people should not be commenting on topics they nothing about.